Key Position (key + position)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Food process engineering and dairy technology at the Technical University of Munich

Ulrich Kulozik
The Chair for Food Process Engineering and Dairy Technology at the Technical University of Munich in Freising-Weihenstephan has been installed since 1992 in a new building hosting modern and well-equipped laboratories and pilot-plant facilities. Its objectives in terms of research are to participate in the development of the scientific understanding of complex food systems and their constitutive components, and the way they interact with the process during manufacturing. The aim is to allow the production of food products with desired properties, improved quality and optimal safety, while ensuring an efficient use of raw materials and of the energy required for industrial production. The methodology used involves the fractionation of complex systems and the systematic study of their constitutive components taken in isolation as well as in various combinations. Milk, as a naturally complex raw material, receives particular attention, but research activities increasingly extend to other functional food substrates such as eggs. The research activities are organized into three working groups that reflect the core competencies developed at the chair throughout the years: Bio-Processes and Aseptic Processing, Formation of Structures in Food Systems, and Protein Technology. Its key position within the ,Centre of Life and Food Science' of the Technical University of Munich fosters interdisciplinary interactions with many specialized scientists, and therefore provides a broad perspective regarding the comprehension of the complex implications of modern food and pharmaceutical product manufacturing. [source]

Protection of Migrants' Human Rights: Principles and Practice

Heikki S. Mattila
In principle, migrants enjoy the protection of international law. Key human rights instruments oblige the States Parties to extend their protection to all human beings. Such important treaties as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights have been ratified by more than 140 states, but many political, social or economic obstacles seem to stand in the way of offering those rights to migrants. In an attempt to bridge this protection gap, the more specifically targeted International Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families was created and adopted by the United Nations in 1990. This treaty is not yet in force, but the number of States Parties is increasing towards the required 20. In the past few years the human rights machinery of the United Nations has increased its attention towards migrants' human rights, appointing in 1999 the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants. Governments, as the acceding parties to international human rights instruments, remain the principal actors as guardians of the human rights of all individuals residing in their territories. Receiving countries are in a key position in the protection of the migrants that they host. However, active defence of migrants' rights is politically difficult in many countries where anti-immigrant factions are influential. Trafficking in migrants is one example of the complexity faced by states in formulating their migration policies. On the one hand, trafficking has made governments increasingly act together and combine both enforcement and protection. On the other, trafficking, with its easily acceptable human rights concerns, is often separated from the more migration-related human smuggling. The latter is a more contentious issue, related also to unofficial interests in utilizing cheap undocumented immigrant labour. [source]

Mental Health and Academic Achievement: Role of School Nurses

Kathryn Rose Puskar
PURPOSE.,This article discusses how school nurses promote mental health and subsequent academic achievement by screening and referral for children demonstrating mental health problems. Nursing interventions are discussed at the individual, systems, and community levels. CONCLUSION.,Mental health problems can affect school performance and academic achievement. When mental health problems are not recognized, students may be unable to reach their academic potential. School nurses are in a key position to provide interventions to address mental health and academic achievement. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,The role of school nurses and examples of mental health collaborative activities are provided. [source]

Early recognition of delirium: review of the literature

Marieke J. Schuurmans PhD
,,This review focuses on delirium and early recognition of symptoms by nurses. ,,Delirium is a transient organic mental syndrome characterized by disturbances in consciousness, thinking and memory. The incidence in older hospitalized patients is about 25%. ,,The causes of delirium are multi-factorial; risk factors include high age, cognitive impairment and severity of illness. ,,The consequences of delirium include high morbidity and mortality, lengthened hospital stay and nursing home placement. ,,Delirium develops in a short period and symptoms fluctuate, therefore nurses are in a key position to recognize symptoms. ,,Delirium is often overlooked or misdiagnosed due to lack of knowledge and awareness in nurses and doctors. To improve early recognition of delirium, emphasis should be given to terminology, vision and knowledge regarding health in ageing and delirium as a potential medical emergency, and to instruments for systematic screening of symptoms. [source]

Patient centred leadership in practice

Aim, To explore patient centred leadership at every level in an organisation and provide practical examples of how this was demonstrated in an acute tertiary NHS Trust. Background, There is a direct relationship between leadership and quality of care. With increasing expansion of their role nurses are in a key position to influence and lead colleagues to improve patient care. Evaluation, The Leadership Qualities Framework (NHS Institute of Innovation and Improvement 2006) is used to illustrate the various qualities used by clinical leaders in examples of leadership in practice. Key issue, Leadership development with the emphasis on the patient drives improvements in service delivery and patient safety. Conclusion, Patient centred leadership is demonstrated when there is support at the top of the organisation. Politically aware nurses make effective patient centred leaders. Leadership development programmes provide staff with opportunities to acquire essential skills and qualities in order to contribute to the vision of the organisation. Implications for nursing management, Managers should support staff and take risks in order to empower nurses to implement initiatives which improve patient care. A process of communication using a variety of tools can have a impact on a range of staff. Patient centred leaders are role models for tomorrow's leaders, their impact has lasting effect and wider implications within an organisation and beyond. [source]

Are stigma experiences among persons with mental illness, related to perceptions of self-esteem, empowerment and sense of coherence?

B. LUNDBERG rn rnt
Accessible summary ,,The findings from the present study revealed that people with mental illness are often exposed to social rejection from friends and the public. The most common experiences concerned is to be treated differently, or as less competent, after being a patient in mental health care. ,,The main finding of this study was that more rejection experiences were associated with lower level of sense of coherence and, to a lesser extent, with lower level of empowerment and self-esteem. ,,The weak association, between enacted stigma and self-esteem, as well as empowerment and sense of coherence, seems encouraging. However, further research and interventions may also pay attention to felt or anticipated stigma among mentally ill persons. Abstract The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between stigmatizing rejection experiences and self-related variables. Our hypothesis was that rejection experiences would be negatively associated with perceptions of self-esteem, empowerment and sense of coherence. A cross-sectional study assessing rejection experiences, empowerment, sense of coherence and self-esteem was performed, including 200 persons in current or earlier contact with mental health services. The results showed that experiences of rejection were negatively associated with sense of coherence, empowerment and self-esteem. This exploratory investigation suggests that experiences of rejection might be a target for coping interventions. Mental health nurses are in a key position to identify patients' experiences of stigma and by that to understand what consequences of devaluation/discrimination can have for the afflicted. [source]

Refilling, ageing and water quality management of Brucher Reservoir

Wilfried Scharf
Abstract Refilling of the formerly oligo-mesotrophic, softwater Brucher Reservoir commenced in April 1993 and took 11 months to completely fill. A severe ,trophic upsurge' in the sense of nutrient enrichment (phosphorus, dissolved organic material) as a result of the decomposition of the inundated vegetation occurred. However, algal crop and phosphorus utilization efficiency, expressed as chlorophyll concentrations per unit of total phosphorus, remained very low. In the absence of any fish stock, a single species, Daphnia galeata, monopolized the resources. Sustained by the detritus food chain, daphnids exerted a severe,,top-down' control upon phytoplankton, thereby preventing any net algal growth. In 1994, artificial mixing prevented the occurrence of anoxic water conditions and internal nutrient enrichment of the lake. Although the decay of the inundated vegetation was still of importance, phosphorus concentrations in the water column approached equilibrium with the external input while dissolved organic material concentrations clearly declined. That year, the reservoir became stocked with minnows, sun bleak (Leucaspius delineatus) and trout. As food limitation, as a result of reduced heterotrophic production, became more severe in the face of an increasing predation pressure, the daphnid population density declined, resulting in a decreasing but still adequate community filtering rate providing pronounced ,clear-water phases' of up to 10 m that were features of the period 1995,1997. Although D. galeata defended its key position in the food web, its life-history traits (e.g. body size) changed. Submerged macrophytes, which since 1995 gradually colonized suitable areas of the reservoir, provided a favourable refuge for minnows from trout predation that resulted in reduced predation pressure upon pelagic daphnids. However, in 1998, ungrazeable algae became prominent, adversely affecting transparency. That year, the significant inverse relationship between chlorophyll : total phosphorus ratios and daphnids became uncoupled during the summer (July,August) by indigestible chlorococcalean algae. Nevertheless, the fishery management that was implemented was successful in sustaining not only the lowest yield of algae at the given nutrient concentration but also the most favourable species composition with respect to water quality. [source]

Quality assessment in general practice trainers

M J F J Vernooij-Dassen
Introduction General practice trainers hold a key position in general practice training, especially through their provision of a role model. Their own competence in general practice care is important in this regard. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether a quality assessment programme could identify the strengths and weaknesses of GP trainers in four main domains of general practice care. Methods The quality assessment programme comprised validated tests on four domains of general practice: general medical knowledge, knowledge of medical-technical skills, consultation skills and practice management. The criterion for the identification of relative strengths and weaknesses of GP trainers was a variation in the scores of trainers indicating higher and lower scores (strengths and weaknesses) within each domain. Results GP trainers (n=105) were invited to participate in the study and 90% (n=94) did so. The variation in scores allowed the indication of strengths and weaknesses. Main strengths were: general medical knowledge of the digestive system; knowledge of medical skills relating to the skin; consultation skills concerning empathy; practice management with regard to accessibility. Main weaknesses were: general medical knowledge of the neurological system; knowledge of the medical/technical skills relating to the endocrine metabolic and nutritional system; consultation skills regarding shared decision making; practice management involving cooperation with staff and other care providers. Discussion This first systematic evaluation of GP trainers identified their strengths and weaknesses. The weaknesses identified will be used in the improvement process as topics for collective improvement in the GP trainers' general curriculum and in individual learning plans. [source]

Decreased GAD65 mRNA levels in select subpopulations of neurons in the cerebellar dentate nuclei in autism: an in situ hybridization study

Jane Yip
Abstract The laterally positioned dentate nuclei lie in a key position in the cerebellum to receive input from Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellar hemisphere participating in both motor and cognitive functions. Although neuropathology of the four cerebellar nuclei using Nissl staining has been qualitatively reported in children and adults with autism, surprisingly the dentate nuclei appeared less affected despite reported reductions in Purkinje cells in the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere. To determine any underlying abnormalities in the critically important GABAergic system, the rate-limiting GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) type 65 was measured via in situ hybridization histochemistry in dentate somata. GAD65 mRNA labeling revealed two distinct subpopulations of neurons in adult control and autism postmortem brains: small-sized cells (about 10,12,µm in diameter, presumed interneurons) and larger-sized neurons (about 18,20,µm in diameter, likely feedback to inferior olivary neurons). A mean 51% reduction in GAD65 mRNA levels was found in the larger labeled cells in the autistic group compared with the control group (P=0.009; independent t -test) but not in the smaller cell subpopulation. This suggests a disturbance in the intrinsic cerebellar circuitry in the autism group potentially interfering with the synchronous firing of inferior olivary neurons, and the timing of Purkinje cell firing and inputs to the dentate nuclei. Disturbances in critical neural substrates within these key circuits could disrupt afferents to motor and/or cognitive cerebral association areas in the autistic brain likely contributing to the marked behavioral consequences characteristic of autism. [source]

Facilitating Leiden's Cold: The International Association of Refrigeration and the Internationalisation of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's Cryogenic Laboratory

CENTAURUS, Issue 3 2007
Dirk VanDelft
The International Association of Refrigeration (Association Internationale du Froid) was founded in January 1909. Right from the start, the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853,1926) played a major role in the new association, which brought together the science of low temperatures; the refrigeration industry; applications of cold to foodstuffs, trade, and transport; and relevant legislation. In July 1908, Kamerlingh Onnes became the first person to liquefy helium, making his Leiden cryogenic laboratory the coldest spot on earth. Because of this success, he was one of the big stars of the First International Congress of Refrigeration, held in October 1908, in Paris. As vice president of the association and chairman of the ,first committee', which dealt with the science of low temperatures, Kamerlingh Onnes was able to strengthen Leiden's position as the leading international centre for cryogenic research. His presentation at the Paris congress unleashed a stream of guest researchers to Leiden, where they enjoyed Kamerlingh Onnes's hospitality and were allowed to extend their research to much lower temperatures then could be reached in their own laboratories. The Association provided grants for young physicists to perform research ,relevant to cold technology' in Leiden's cryogenic laboratory. In practice, however, the Leiden program dealt only with basic research. In 1920, in the wake of World War I, the Association was transformed into the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR). Kamerlingh Onnes, monsieur Zéro Absolu, maintained his key position. By stressing that the science of refrigeration had a golden future and that superconductivity, which was demonstrated in Leiden in 1911, would come to the aid of electrical engineers, Kamerlingh Onnes was able to secure the funding of his Leiden laboratory by the IIR. [source]

Automatic generation and evaluation of sparse protein signatures for families of protein structural domains

Matthew J. Blades
Abstract We identified key residues from the structural alignment of families of protein domains from SCOP which we represented in the form of sparse protein signatures. A signature-generating algorithm (SigGen) was developed and used to automatically identify key residues based on several structural and sequence-based criteria. The capacity of the signatures to detect related sequences from the SWISSPROT database was assessed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis and jack-knife testing. Test signatures for families from each of the main SCOP classes are described in relation to the quality of the structural alignments, the SigGen parameters used, and their diagnostic performance. We show that automatically generated signatures are potently diagnostic for their family (ROC50 scores typically >0.8), consistently outperform random signatures, and can identify sequence relationships in the "twilight zone" of protein sequence similarity (<40%). Signatures based on 15%,30% of alignment positions occurred most frequently among the best-performing signatures. When alignment quality is poor, sparser signatures perform better, whereas signatures generated from higher-quality alignments of fewer structures require more positions to be diagnostic. Our validation of signatures from the Globin family shows that when sequences from the structural alignment are removed and new signatures generated, the omitted sequences are still detected. The positions highlighted by the signature often correspond (alignment specificity >0.7) to the key positions in the original (non-jack-knifed) alignment. We discuss potential applications of sparse signatures in sequence annotation and homology modeling. [source]