Key Pest (key + pest)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Development of a biological control-based Integrated Pest Management method for Bemisia tabaci for protected sweet pepper crops

F. J. Calvo
Abstract The tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest in commercial sweet pepper crops in southeast Spain. Its biological control is currently based on augmentative introductions of the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), which need to be occasionally supplemented with pesticide applications. These pesticides can be harmful for the biological control agents. Therefore, it is important to improve the current strategy by reducing dependency on pesticides. Two potential solutions are conceivable: addition of another effective biocontrol agent or application of pesticide prior to the release of biocontrol agents. The mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae) and the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are promising candidates as additional biocontrol agents. The aim of the present study was to test these possible solutions in two subsequent trials, i.e., a ,selection' and an ,improvement' experiment. In the selection experiment, four treatments were compared: E. mundus, N. tenuis + E. mundus, A. swirskii + E. mundus, and A. swirskii + N. tenuis + E. mundus. Amblyseius swirskii appeared able to significantly increase effectiveness against the pest, in contrast to N. tenuis, which did not contribute to whitefly control. The best strategy was the combination of E. mundus and A. swirskii. In the improvement experiment, three treatments were compared: E. mundus, A. swirskii + E. mundus, and A. swirskii + E. mundus + pesticides. Amblyseius swirskii again proved capable of significantly reducing whitefly populations, and the implementation of pesticides before the release of the biocontrol agents was shown to increase the effectiveness against the pest even more. [source]

Cold hardiness of diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana

Stefanos S. Andreadis
Abstract Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of grapes in Europe. It overwinters as a pupa in the bark crevices of the plant. Supercooling point (SCP) and low temperature survival was investigated in the laboratory and was determined using a cool bath and a 1 °C min,1 cooling rate. Freezing was fatal both to diapausing and non-diapausing pupae. SCP was significantly lower in diapausing male (,24.8 °C) and female (,24.5 °C) pupae than in non-diapausing ones (,22.7 and ,22.5 °C, respectively). Sex had no influence on SCP both for diapausing and non-diapausing pupae. Supercooling was also not affected by acclimation. However, acclimation did improve survival of diapausing pupae at temperatures above the SCP. Survival increased as acclimation period increased and the influence was more profound at the lower temperatures examined. Diapausing pupae could withstand lower temperatures than non-diapausing ones and lethal temperature was significantly lower than for non-diapausing pupae. Freezing injury above the SCP has been well documented for both physiological stages of L. botrana pupae. Our findings suggest a diapause-related cold hardiness for L. botrana and given its cold hardiness ability, winter mortality due to low temperatures is not expected to occur, especially in southern Europe. [source]

Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

M. J. B. Vreysen
Abstract The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) is a key pest of pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in most temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide sprays, which has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance, and the disruption of the control of secondary pests. In addition, the frequent reliance and use of these insecticides are a constant threat to the environment and human health. Consequently, there have been increased demands from the growers for the development of codling moth control tactics that are not only effective but also friendly to the environment. In that respect, the sterile insect technique (SIT) and its derivative, inherited sterility (IS), are, together with mating disruption and granulosis virus, among the options that offer great potential as cost-effective additions to available control tactics for integration in area-wide integrated pest-management approaches. In support of the further development of the SIT/IS for codling moth control, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture implemented a 5-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled ,Improvement of codling moth SIT to facilitate expansion of field application'. Research focussed on sterile codling moth quality and management (e.g. mobility and life-history traits in relation to rearing strategy, dispersal, flight ability, radiosensitivity and mating compatibility) and a better understanding of the basic genetics of codling moth to assist the development of genetic sexing strains (e.g. cytogenetics, the development of dominant conditional lethal mutations, molecular characterization of the sex chromosomes, sex identification in embryos and cytogenetic markers). The results of the CRP are presented in this special issue. [source]

Nest-to-nest dispersal of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hym., Megachilidae)

Y.-L. Park
Abstract A cleptoparasitic mite, the Krombein's hairy-footed mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) became a key pest that affects the maintenance and propagation of Osmia spp. (Hym., Megachilidae), thus disrupting orchard pollination in the United States. Although hypopi, the dispersal stages of C. krombeini, are known to disperse from nest to nest by hitchhiking on Osmia cornifrons adults, we observed that they might disperse in other ways too in commercial orchards. This study was conducted to elucidate the nest-to-nest dispersal mechanisms of C. krombeini hypopi. We tested three potential dispersal mechanisms of C. krombeini other than phoresy by O. cornifrons: (1) dispersal by walking from nest to entrances of nearby nests, (2) dispersal by walking from nest to nest through emergence holes made by parasitic wasps on nests, and (3) dispersal by being unloaded and uptaken to and from flowers by O. cornifrons. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini hypopi could disperse from a nest to nearby nests by walking through nest entrances and holes made by parasitic wasps of O. cornifrons. Although 0.06% of C. krombeini hypopi on blueberry flowers were picked up by O. cornifrons, they were not able to be unloaded to flowers from O. cornifrons and no hypopi could inhabit or survive on blueberry flowers. This indicated no or very low chance of C. krombeini hypopi dispersal via blueberry flowers. Based on our findings of C. krombeini dispersal ecology, development of C. krombeini control strategies are discussed in this article. [source]

Ability of stress-related volatiles to attract and induce attacks by Xylosandrus germanus and other ambrosia beetles

Christopher M. Ranger
1Xylosandrus germanus typically colonizes physiologically-stressed deciduous hosts but it is increasingly being recognized as a key pest of ornamental nursery stock. We tested the attractiveness of common plant stress-related volatiles to ambrosia beetles occupying the nursery agroecosystem, as well as their ability to induce attacks on selected trees. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, U.S.A. 2Stress volatile attractiveness was first assessed by positioning traps baited with acetaldehyde, acetone, ethanol and methanol in ornamental nurseries. Cumulative trap counts confirmed that ethanol was the most attractive stress-related volatile to X. germanus. Methanol-baited traps were slightly attractive to X. germanus, whereas traps baited with acetaldehyde and acetone were not attractive to any ambrosia beetle. 3A series of tree injection experiments were also conducted to determine the ability of these volatiles to induce attacks by ambrosia beetles under field conditions. Injection of ethanol into Magnolia virginiana induced the largest number of attacks, whereas injection of acetaldehyde induced more attacks than methanol or acetone. Xylosandrus germanus was the most predominant species emerging from M. virginiana injected with each of the stress-related volatiles. No attacks by wood-boring beetles were observed on water injected or uninjected control trees. 4Solid-phase microextraction,gas chromatography,mass spectrometry confirmed the emission of acetaldehyde, acetone, ethanol and methanol after their injection into M. virginiana. 5Xylosandrus germanus has an efficient olfactory-based mechanism for differentiating among host volatile cues. Injecting select trees with stress-related volatiles, particularly ethanol, shows promise as a trap tree strategy for X. germanus and other ambrosia beetles. [source]

Infestation of coconut fruits by Aceria guerreronis enhances the pest status of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella

S.W.J. De Santana
Abstract The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and the coconut moth, Atheloca subrufella (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), exploit the same habitat,meristematic region underneath the coconut fruit perianth. The coconut fruit perianth, however, is a tight structure allowing free colonisation of the meristematic region of the fruit only by small arthropods such as the eriophyid and tarsonemid mites. Fruits infested by the mites develop different levels of necrosis around the perianth providing access to colonising larvae of the coconut moth, which bore the fruit under the perianth resulting in fruit abortion. Based on field observations, we hypothesise that A. subrufella will colonise coconut fruits only if they exhibit damage on the perianth such as the necrosis caused by the coconut mite. Fruits with and without necrosis were collected from different production areas located in three different states along the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inspected for infestation with coconut moth larvae. In the laboratory, coconut fruits with and without necrosis were offered to moths for oviposition preference and tested for colonisation by neonate and third instar larvae. The results showed that the moths showed no preference for fruits with or without necrosis for oviposition and, hence, neonate larvae have to go under the perianth bract to reach the meristematic region of the fruit. However, neonate larvae were unable to colonise fruits without necrosis (0%) compared to 23% and 60% of fruit colonisation success when exhibiting mite necrosis or mechanical damage, respectively. Similar results were found with respect to older coconut moth larvae. Thus, the data support the hypothesis that the indirect interaction through previous fruit colonisation and necrosis caused by the coconut mite allows the larvae of A. subrufella to be a key pest of coconut fruits. [source]

Assessment of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) pupae killed by heat or cold as hosts for rearing Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

J. Tormos
In this work, we study the suitability of using dead medfly Ceratitis capitata pupae, killed by heat- or cold-shock, for the mass rearing of Spalangia cameroni, a pupal parasitoid of key pests. 100% mortality of medfly pupae could be accomplished with cold-shock at ,20°C for 60 min or with heat-shock at 55°C for 30 min. Neither parasitism percentage nor sex ratio of the offspring differed significantly among heat-shocked, cold-shocked and untreated pupae. In addition, there was no significant difference in the percentage of parasitoids that aborted (,, or ,,) among pupal treatments. Some of the pupae were covered with peat because the third larval instar of the medfly buries itself before pupation. However, the buried pupae were not parasitised at a greater or lesser rate than those not covered with peat. The percentage of parasitism was also unaffected by whether the pupae had been killed recently or had been stored at between 4°C and 6°C over 15 or 30 days. The use of dead hosts and later storage permitted the following: (a) the use of hosts over long periods of time; (b) a rapid increase in parasitoid numbers and (c) the availability of pupae killed at the most suitable postpupation times for the production of parasitoids. Furthermore, in biological control projects, the use of dead parasitised pupae in the field avoids the risk of enhancing the pest and allows an increase in parasitism in the field through the use of pupae treated with cold- or heat-shock. [source]