Key Messages (key + message)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Developing Responsive Preventative Practices: Key Messages from Children's and Families' Experiences of the Children's Fund

CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 2 2008
Katherine Pinnock
As part of the prevention and social inclusion agenda, the Children's Fund, set up in 2000, has developed preventative services for children at risk of social exclusion. Drawing on a large qualitative dataset of interviews conducted in 2004/05 with children, young people and their parents/carers who accessed Children Fund services, this article analyses key practices and approaches valued by children and parents. These included: specialist support tailored to individual support needs, family-oriented approaches, trusting relationships with service providers, multi-agency approaches and sustainability of services. Finally, the article draws out key lessons for the future development of preventative services. [source]

Nurse leadership within primary care: the perceptions of community nurses, GPs, policy makers and members of the public

AdvDipEd, DipN (Lond), FRCS, Hugh McKenna BSc(Hons)
Aim, The aim of this section of a wider study was to seek the views of community nurses, general practitioners, members of the public and policy makers on nursing leadership in primary care. The wider study aimed to review the role and function of primary care services and community nursing with reference to developments in practice, education, research and policy. Background, Key messages, challenges and opportunities for leaders within nursing have been highlighted in the literature and in turn emphasis placed on the positive effect this would have on improved quality of services [Department of Health and Social Services (1998) Valuing Diversity.. A Way Forward. Department of Health and Social Service, Belfast]. In order to grasp these opportunities, nursing has to invest in the development of leaders. Methods, A two round Delphi technique was employed using a focus group approach in round one and a postal questionnaire in round two. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with senior policy makers. Results, Findings show that there was agreement that strong leadership was needed for the development of community nursing but that at present there is confusion and disagreement over whether it exists currently. Other findings focus on problems inherent in identifying future nurse leaders. Conclusion, The traditional subservient culture of community nursing is blamed for the perceived inability to nurture strong leaders. Recommendations are made for the development of nurse leaders. [source]

Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings

ALLERGY, Issue 4 2010
S. Quirce
To cite this article: Quirce S, Lemière C, de Blay F, del Pozo V, Gerth Van Wijk R, Maestrelli P, Pauli G, Pignatti P, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Sastre J, Storaas T, Moscato G. Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings. Allergy 2010; 65: 445,458. Abstract The present document is a consensus statement reached by a panel of experts on noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation of occupational respiratory diseases, such as occupational rhinitis, occupational asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Both the upper and the lower airway inflammation have been reviewed and appraised reinforcing the concept of ,united airway disease' in the occupational settings. The most widely used noninvasive methods to assess bronchial inflammation are covered: induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration, and exhaled breath condensate. Nasal inflammation may be assessed by noninvasive approaches such as nasal cytology and nasal lavage, which provide information on different aspects of inflammatory processes (cellular vs mediators). Key messages and suggestions on the use of noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation and diagnosis of occupational airway diseases are issued. [source]

Prevalence and morbidity associated with non-malignant, life-threatening conditions in childhood

S Lenton
Summary Objective To determine the prevalence of non-malignant life-threatening illness in childhood and associated morbidity in the affected child and their family members. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Bath Clinical Area (total population 411 800). Subjects Children aged 0,19 years. Results One hundred and twenty-three children were identified, giving a prevalence of 1.2/1000 children. Morbidity assessed in 93 children showed 60% in pain or discomfort, 35% unable to walk and 25% with severe cognitive impairment. Mental health problems were found in 54% of mothers and 30% of fathers, and significant emotional and behavioural problems in 24% of healthy siblings. Conclusions Non-malignant life-threatening illness is more prevalent than reported in previous studies. Considerable morbidity is experienced by the child and their family. An individual and family approach is required. Key messages (1) The prevalence of non-malignant life-threatening illness is four times greater than previous estimates. (2) This group of conditions have significant implications for all family members. (3) Early comprehensive assessment and access to effective interventions may pre-empt later problems. [source]

An evaluation of a heroin overdose prevention and education campaign

Abstract Introduction and Aims. Following detection of an upward trend in the frequency of fatal heroin overdoses in Victoria between 2001 and 2003, Victoria's Department of Human Services planned a campaign aimed at increasing injecting drug users' (IDU) awareness of overdose risks and prevention strategies. Stickers, wallet cards and posters featuring five key messages were distributed via needle and syringe programs (NSP) and other drug and alcohol services between November 2005 and April 2006. An evaluation of the campaign was commissioned to be conducted in late 2006. Design and Methods. The evaluation consisted of analysis of three independent data sets,,quantitative data collected from IDU during the campaign period (n = 855 at baseline; and a range of 146,656 at follow up); qualitative interviews with IDU who were NSP clients during the campaign period (n = 16) and qualitative interviews with NSP staff and other key stakeholders (n = 9). Results. While key experts felt that the campaign messages had engendered lasting impact for at least some IDU, these positive impressions were not borne out by the NSP client data, with less than one quarter of all campaign messages being mentioned by a significantly higher proportion of clients during the post-campaign period compared with baseline. Key experts perceived the greatest weakness of the campaign to be the delay between issue identification and the introduction of campaign materials. Discussion and Conclusions. While IDU are generally responsive to health promotion campaigns, future initiatives in this domain should be designed and implemented rapidly and in ways that are sufficiently flexible to cope with shifts in drug markets which could influence the reception of key messages.[Horyniak D, Higgs P, Lewis J, Winter R, Dietze P, Aitken C. An evaluation of a heroin overdose prevention and education campaign. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

The age-21 minimum legal drinking age: a case study linking past and current debates

ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
Traci L. Toomey
ABSTRACT Background The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) in the United States (U.S.) has raised debate over the past several decades. During the 1970s many states lowered their MLDAs from age 21 to 18, 19, or 20. However, as a result of studies showing that these lower MLDAs were associated with increases in traffic crashes, state-level movements began in the later1970s to return MLDAs to age 21. A new movement has arisen to again lower the MLDA in the U.S. Aim The aim is to discuss this current MLDA debate within the context of the long history of the U.S. MLDA. Methods A search of research articles, websites, and newspaper articles was conducted to identify key messages and influences related to the MLDA movements. Results The complexity of state movements to change their MLDAs is illustrated by the Michigan experience, where strong political forces on both sides of the issue were involved, resulting in the MLDA returning to 21. Because the 21st Constitutional amendment prevents the federal government from mandating a MLDA for all states, a federal policy was proposed to provide incentives for all states to implement age-21 MLDAs. Due largely to strong research evidence, the National Minimum Legal Drinking Age Act was enacted in 1984, stipulating that states set their MLDA to 21 or face loss of federal highway funds. By 1988, all states had an age-21 MLDA. Conclusion Any current debate about the MLDA should be informed by the historical context of this policy and the available research. [source]

The face and voice of volunteering: a suitable case for branding?

Philippa Hankinson
Volunteers make a substantial contribution to UK society but the level of volunteering has peaked and may, in part, be due to the poor ,image' of volunteering. Through qualitative research, this study explores the need to re-shape perceptions of volunteering and the extent to which this may be achieved through branding. Key findings suggest that although there is much consistency in perceptions about generic volunteering, perceptions of the different strands of volunteering, such as governance and campaigning, are different and may require individual development as sub-brands. It is argued that Volunteering England is best placed to lead a brand development programme, supported by managers of national and local bodies as well as volunteers to create a new visual identity and, importantly, key messages that will resonate with current and potential volunteers across different areas of activity. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention: respiratory guideline implementation for nurse trainers

A. Bheekie d.pharm
Aim:, This paper describes the design, facilitation and preliminary assessment of a 1-week cascade training programme for nurse trainers in preparation for implementation of the Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention, tested within the context of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in the Free State province. PALSA combines evidence-based syndromic guidelines on the management of respiratory disease in adults with group educational outreach to nurse practitioners. Background:, Evidence-based strategies to facilitate the implementation of primary care guidelines in low- to middle-income countries are limited. In South Africa, where the burden of respiratory diseases is high and growing, documentation and evaluation of training programmes in chronic conditions for health professionals is limited. Method:, The PALSA training design aimed for coherence between the content of the guidelines and the facilitation process that underpins adult learning. Content facilitation involved the use of key management principles (key messages) highlighted in nurse-centred guidelines manual and supplemented by illustrated material and reminders. Process facilitation entailed reflective and experiential learning, role-playing and non-judgemental feedback. Discussion and results:, Preliminary feedback showed an increase in trainers' self-awareness and self-confidence. Process and content facilitators agreed that the integrated training approach was balanced. All participants found that the training was motivational, minimally prescriptive, highly nurse-centred and offered personal growth. Conclusion:, In addition to tailored guideline recommendations, training programmes should consider individual learning styles and adult learning processes. [source]

China's "Soft" Naval Power in the Indian Ocean

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2010
Toshi Yoshihara
For the past several years, Beijing has been attempting to "shape" the diplomatic and strategic environment in maritime Asia, projecting an image of itself as an innately trustworthy great power. As a part of this public relations campaign, Chinese leaders have retailed the story of Zheng He, the Ming Dynasty eunuch admiral who voyaged to destinations throughout the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean six centuries ago. They have touted the feats of Zheng He, who sojourned in maritime Asia without attempting military conquest, as a metaphor for China's current peaceful ascent in the maritime domain. In doing so, Beijing hopes to convince key audiences in Southeast Asia and South Asia that it remains pacific in outlook , and thus can be counted on not to abuse the sea power it is amassing. An attractive vision of China, they hope, will avert the tendency of regional states to band together to balance Chinese power. Until now, Chinese diplomats have had the luxury of telling their story how they wanted to, as deployments of China's naval forces beyond East Asia remained abstract. Beijing neither saw the need nor boasted the capacity to maintain strong forces far from Chinese shores. However, the headline-grabbing dispatch of two destroyers and a combat logistics ship to the Gulf of Aden on counter-piracy duty in late 2008 has put China squarely in the spotlight. By depicting itself as an inherently defensive power, China has set a high standard for its behavior at sea. Fellow Asian powers will hold Beijing to this lofty benchmark , measuring its actions against the storyline Chinese leaders have developed around Zheng He's voyages. Beijing's anti-piracy mission thus offers an ideal opportunity to empirically test the efficacy of Chinese soft power at sea. To this end, this paper explores the motives behind the Zheng He narrative and assesses the key messages that Chinese leaders are attempting to convey to Asian capitals. This study then examines the extent to which China's unprecedented naval presence in the Indian Ocean has dovetailed with the Zheng He storyline and with the larger strategy of easing regional misgivings about Chinese maritime power. Finally, the paper analyzes how India, a target audience, is responding to China's narrative, drawing several preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness and the prospects of Chinese soft power in the Indian Ocean. [source]

Strategic Integration and Devolvement of Human Resource Management in the UK Manufacturing Sector

Pawan S. Budhwar
This paper analyses the practices of ,integration' of HRM into the corporate strategy and ,devolvement' of responsibility for HRM to line managers in six British manufacturing industries. The findings are based on a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews and cognitive mapping methodologies. The results show that over 50% of the firms under study practise a high level of strategic integration. On the other hand, over 61% of the sample firms practise a low level of devolvement practices. Interestingly, both the practices of integration of HRM into the corporate strategy and devolvement of HRM to line managers are more determined by a number of organizational policies than traditional contingent variables. The adoption of the mixed methodology has been useful. The findings contribute to strategic HRM literature, and also have some key messages for policy-makers in the field. The cognitive maps developed in the paper could be used to give feedback and training to managers. [source]

Modeling and Measuring Productivity in the Agri-Food Sector: Trends, Causes and Effects

Catherine J. Morrison Paul
This article overviews recent trends in modeling and measuring productivity patterns, and in distinguishing their determinants and implications, for the agri-food sector. Theoretical methodologies as well as empirical implementation and results are discussed, with a view toward identifying those with potential for facilitating understanding of productivity measures, and ultimately using them for policy guidance. Productivity growth evidence for the food systems of the U.S., Canada and the U.K. is summarized, and recent studies distinguishing underlying causes of production structure patterns and linking them with market-structure patterns are reviewed, as a basis for assessing the key messages from and trends in this literature. L'auteurfait un survol de révolution récente dans les domaines de la modélisation et de la mesure des courbes de productivité ainsi que de la caractérisation de leurs determinants et de leurs significations pour le secteur agroalimentaire. Il passe en revue les méthodes théoriques aussi bien que les applications empiriques et leurs résultats afin d'en dégager ceux qui pourraient faciliter la comprehension des mesures de la productivité et qui, éventuellement, pourraient servir de guide awe décideurs. L'auteur analyse les signes de croissance de la productivité des filières agroalimentaires observés aux Etats-Unis, au Canada et au Royaume-Uni. Enfln il examine les études récentes sur les causes sous-jacentes des évolutions des structures de production et sur leurs liens avec l'évolution des structures de marché, dans le but d'en dégager les messages et les tendances dés. [source]

The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature

Richard Reading
The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature HoltS., BuckleyH. & WhelanS. ( 2008 ) Child Abuse & Neglect , 32 , 797 , 810 . Objective This article reviews the literature concerning the impact of exposure to domestic violence on the health and developmental well-being of children and young people. Impact is explored across four separate yet interrelated domains (domestic violence exposure and child abuse, impact on parental capacity, impact on child and adolescent development and exposure to additional adversities), with potential outcomes and key messages concerning best practice responses to children's needs highlighted. Method A comprehensive search of identified databases was conducted within an 11-year framework (1995,2006). This yielded a vast literature that was selectively organized and analysed according to the four domains identified above. Results This review finds that children and adolescents living with domestic violence are at increased risk of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual abuse, of developing emotional and behavioural problems and of increased exposure to the presence of other adversities in their lives. It also highlights a range of protective factors that can mitigate against this impact, in particular a strong relationship with and attachment to a caring adult, usually the mother. Conclusion Children and young people may be significantly affected by living with domestic violence, and impact can endure even after measures have been taken to secure their safety. It also concludes that there is rarely a direct causal pathway leading to a particular outcome and that children are active in constructing their own social world. Implications for interventions suggest that timely, appropriate and individually tailored responses need to build on the resilient blocks in the child's life. Practice implications This study illustrate the links between exposure to domestic violence, various forms of child abuse and other related adversities, concluding that such exposure may have a differential yet potentially deleterious impact for children and young people. From a resilient perspective this review also highlights range of protective factors that influence the extent of the impact of exposure and the subsequent outcomes for the child. This review advocates for a holistic and child-centred approach to service delivery, derived from an informed assessment, designed to capture a picture of the individual child's experience and responsive to their individual needs. [source]