Key Locations (key + locations)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interannual changes in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) recruitment in relation to oceanographic conditions within the California Current System

Abstract Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) supports substantial fisheries in both the eastern and western Pacific Oceans. Juvenile recruitment along the west coast of the continental United States has been highly variable over the past three decades. Using a generalized additive model, we demonstrate that physical oceanographic variables within the California Current System have significant effects on sablefish recruitment. Significant relationships were found between juvenile recruitment and northward Ekman transport, eastward Ekman transport, and sea level during key times and at key locations within the habitat of this species. The model explains nearly 70% of the variability in sablefish recruitment between the years 1974 and 2000. The predictive power of the model was demonstrated by refitting without the last 5 yr of data and subsequent prediction of those years. Bootstrap assessments of bias associated with parameter estimates and jackknife-after-bootstrap assessments of the influence of individual data on parameter estimates are presented and discussed. Using this model, it is possible to draw preliminary conclusions concerning year-class strength of cohorts not yet available to the survey gear as well as historic year-class strengths. We discuss changes in zooplankton abundance and shifts in species of copepods associated with fluctuations in the physical variables that appear to have a major influence on sablefish recruitment. [source]

The Swedish Deep Drilling Program: the quest for the Earth's inner secrets

GEOLOGY TODAY, Issue 6 2009
Henning Lorenz
The Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) has been initiated to study fundamental problems of the dynamic Earth system, its natural history and evolution. Many key scientific questions can be addressed through in situ investigations only, requiring deep continental drilling. Some are unique to Scandinavia, most are of international interest and significance. At present, five core projects (Fig. 1) with international teams are integrating scientific problems with societal and industrial applications. If SDDP succeeds to attract the funding required, Sweden will have a number of world-class boreholes at key locations by 2020. Figure 1. Locations of SDDP drilling project proposals. PFDP,Postglacial Fault Drilling Project; PaMVAS,Palaeoproterozoic mineralized volcanic arc systems: the Skellefte District; COSC,Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides; DRL,The Dellen Impact Crater, a geoscientific deep rock laboratory; SELHO,Svecofennian accretion, an example of the early structural evolution in a large hot orogen; CISP,Concentric Impact Structures in the Palaeozoic: the Lockne and Siljan craters. Background and inset image from Blue Marble Next Generation data set (NASA Earth Observatory, [source]

Foraging behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera first instar larvae on crop plants of different developmental stages

M.-L. Johnson
Abstract:, Understanding how insect pests forage on their food plants can help optimize management strategies. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lep., Noctuidae) is a major polyphagous pest of agricultural crops worldwide. The immature stages feed and forage on crops at all stages of plant development, damaging fruiting and non-fruiting structures, yet very little is known about the influence of host type or stage on the location and behaviour of larvae. Through semi-continuous observation, we evaluated the foraging (movement and feeding) behaviours of H. armigera first instar larvae as well as the proportion of time spent at key locations on mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh] of differing developmental stages: seedling- and mature (flowering/pod fill)-stage plants. Both host type and age affected the behaviour of larvae. Larvae spent more time in the upper parts of mature plants than on seedlings and tended to stay at the top of mature plants if they moved there. This difference was greater in pigeon pea than in mungbean. The proportion of time allocated to feeding on different parts of a plant differed with host and age. More feeding occurred in the top of mature pigeon pea plants but did not differ between mature and seedling mungbean plants. The duration of key behaviours did not differ between plant ages in either crop type and was similar between hosts although resting bouts were substantially longer on mungbeans. Thus a polyphagous species such as H. armigera does not forage in equivalent ways on different hosts in the first instar stage. [source]


Brian S. Caruso
ABSTRACT: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP5) was used to model the transport and sediment/water interactions of metals under low flow, steady state conditions in Tenmile Creek, a mountain stream supplying drinking water to the City of Helena, Montana, impacted by numerous abandoned hard rock mines. The model was calibrated for base flow using data collected by USEPA and validated using data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for higher flows. It was used to assess metals loadings and losses, exceedances of Montana State water quality standards, metals interactions in stream water and bed sediment, uncertainty in fate and transport processes and model parameters, and effectiveness of remedial alternatives that include leaving contaminated sediment in the stream. Results indicated that during base flow, adits and point sources contribute significant metals loadings to the stream, but that shallow ground water and bed sediment also contribute metals in some key locations. Losses from the water column occur in some areas, primarily due to adsorption and precipitation onto bed sediments. Some uncertainty exists in the metal partition coefficients associated with sediment, significance of precipitation reactions, and in the specific locations of unidentified sources and losses of metals. Standards exceedances are widespread throughout the stream, but the model showed that remediation of point sources and mine waste near water courses can help improve water quality. Model results also indicate, however, that alteration of the water supply scheme and increasing base flow will probably be required to meet all water quality standards. [source]

Improving public information about large hydroelectric dams: Case studies in France and West Africa

Armelle Faure
It is becoming more common for public authorities in charge of dam construction and management to inform the population living in the area soon to be submerged by a proposed dam. However, populations living further downstream along a river to be dammed, have often been left to find out by chance, despite the fact that the changes to the river flow regime will have an important impact on their lives, sometimes serious negative impacts. This article makes a comparison between two dams, one at Bort-les-Orgues across the upper Dordogne River in southern France, the other the Bagré Dam over the Nakambé (or White Volta) River in south-eastern Burkina Faso. The article discusses dam construction and operation from the point of view of the concerned populations living in the reservoir and downstream areas. In 2000, a study was carried out in the Dordogne Valley to ascertain downstream impacts of dam operations and information needs of the population. Suggestions from local river users related mostly to improving public information about predicted and actual flow rates and actual flow in real time along the 300 km course of the Dordogne between the dams and the estuary. Such information should be disseminated as widely as possible through available media, including the Internet, and also displayed visibly in key locations along the length of the river. [source]