Key Instrument (key + instrument)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Federal Restructuring in Ethiopia: Renegotiating Identity and Borders along the Oromo,Somali Ethnic Frontiers

Asnake Kefale
ABSTRACT When the Ethiopian state was reorganized as an ethnic federation in the 1990s, both ethnicity and governance experienced the impact of the change. Most importantly, ethnicity became the key instrument regarding entitlement, representation and state organization. For the larger ethnic groups, fitting into the new ethno-federal structure has been relatively straightforward. In contrast, ethnic federalism has necessitated a renegotiation of identity and of statehood among several smaller communities that straddle larger ethnic groups. It has also led to the reconfiguration of centre,periphery relations. This contribution discusses how the federal restructuring of Ethiopia with the aim of matching ethnic and political boundaries led to renegotiation of identity, statehood and centre,periphery relations among several Somali and Oromo clans that share considerable ethno-linguistic affinities. [source]

Incorporating the environment into structural funds regional programmes: evolution, current developments and future prospects

Peter Roberts
During the last two decades the environment has become an important element in a number of areas of member state and European Union policy. A key instrument for the delivery of environmental objectives is the European Union's Structural Funds. These Funds provide support for regional development programmes, which are developed and managed by partnerships representing the European Commission, member state governments and regional stakeholders. A potential model for these environmentally driven regional programmes is provided by the concept of ecological modernization. Environmental concerns have now been absorbed into the regional programmes and it is likely that in future even greater emphasis will be placed on the environmental (and social) dimensions of regional development. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment [source]

Designing Training Interventions: Human or Technical Skills Training?

Eugenia N Petridou
Training is seen as the key instrument in the implementation of Human Resource Management policies and practices in both the private and public sector. The choice of the type of training, focused on human or technical skills, is crucial in designing the training process. This field study investigates the personal and occupational characteristics of 444 public managers, candidates for human and technical skills training. A classification model is proposed which allows the selection and weighting of the candidate trainees' personal and occupational differences in order to participate in one of the two types of training. By means of the stepwise logistic regression method, gender, age, education, attitudes towards training, managerial level and job tenure have been identified as the significant variables associated with type of training. [source]

A survey of the year 2002 literature on applications of isothermal titration calorimetry

Matthew J. Cliff
Abstract Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is becoming widely accepted as a key instrument in any laboratory in which quantification of biomolecular interactions is a requisite. The method has matured with respect to general acceptance and application development over recent years. The number of publications on ITC has grown exponentially over the last 10 years, reflecting the general utility of the method. Here all the published works of the year 2002 in this area have been surveyed. We review the broad range of systems to which ITC is being directed and classify these into general areas highlighting key publications of interest. This provides an overview of what can be achieved using this method and what developments are likely to occur in the near future. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Raman spectra of organic acids obtained using a portable instrument at ,5 C in a mountain area at 2000 m above sea level

J. Jehli
Abstract Well-resolved Raman spectra of organic acids were obtained with 785 nm excitation using a portable Raman instrument (Ahura First Defender XL) under low temperature ,5 C atmospheric conditions at an altitude of 2000 m (Axamer Lizum, Innental, Austria). The portable Raman spectrometer tested in this setting permits fast and unambiguous detection of solid forms of these organic acids (formic, acetic, valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, isophthalic, ascorbic and mellitic) under field conditions. This demonstrates the possibility to use a miniaturized Raman spectrometer as a key instrument for investigating the presence of organic compounds and biomolecules under low temperature conditions. These results are important for future missions focusing not only on Mars, where Raman spectroscopy will be a key non-destructive analytical tool for the in situ identification of organic compounds relevant to life detection on planetary surfaces or near sub-surfaces. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A new type of magnification system in free microvascular tissue transfer: Varioscope M5

MICROSURGERY, Issue 6 2007
Ph.D., Stefano Chiummariello M.D.
Free microvascular tissue transfers have become today a key instrument for the surgical treatment of wide loss of tissue. These procedures can provide definitive treatment in a single operation but they are expensive and require specialized practitioners. The operating microscope traditionally has provided this requirement; our study is focusing on the prospect of using a new visual system,Varioscope M5,in the reconstructive microsurgery field. Varioscope M5 (Life Optics, Vienna, Austria) has been employed in 21 microvascular anastomoses, where different free flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. The necessity to operate in a different department, not provided with an operating microscope, brought along the idea of exploring an alternative procedure to classical visualization systems. Specific advantages such as reduced cost, freedom of movement, autofocus, minimal upkeep, a variable range of magnification from 2 to 9 are some of the reasons that convinced the authors to use this new type of magnification system. Increasing interest in microsurgery magnification highlights the need for further technical development in that field. We consider Varioscope M5 a future mean of anastomotic magnification in most free-tissue transfers with specific characteristics that combine the microscope and loupe philosophies. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2007. [source]