Key Differences (key + difference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

,Social Development' as Neoliberal Trojan Horse: The World Bank and the Kecamatan Development Program in Indonesia

Toby Carroll
ABSTRACT This article seeks to reconceptualize the post-Washington consensus (PWC) by focusing not simply upon the institutional structures and ideology promoted by it, but the manner in which these are promoted on the ground. The aim is to reveal a central distinction between the Washington consensus and the PWC that has been somewhat neglected: their diverging approaches to implementation. The author focuses on the World Bank-funded Kecamatan Development Program (KDP) in Indonesia, a project that is viewed by some as being somewhat unorthodox. He argues that in addition to its promotion of the latest round of institutional reforms, what is really different about KDP, compared with older approaches to market-led development typical of the Washington consensus, is the manner in which it delivers its mix of neoliberalism. What is radical about a programme like KDP is that it constitutes a new Trojan horse for embedding market-centred norms and practices.1 In general, this is demonstrative of a key difference between the Washington consensus and the PWC that has been undervalued in many analyses of the dominant development paradigm: the methods used to embed and sustain liberal markets. [source]

Smoothing Mechanisms in Defined Benefit Pension Accounting Standards: A Simulation Study,

Cameron Morrill
ABSTRACT The accounting for defined benefit (DB) pension plans is complex and varies significantly across jurisdictions despite recent international convergence efforts. Pension costs are significant, and many worry that unfavorable accounting treatment could lead companies to terminate DB plans, a result that would have important social implications. A key difference in accounting standards relates to whether and how the effects of fluctuations in market and demographic variables on reported pension cost are "smoothed". Critics argue that smoothing mechanisms lead to incomprehensible accounting information and induce managers to make dysfunctional decisions. Furthermore, the effectiveness of these mechanisms may vary. We use simulated data to test the volatility, representational faithfulness, and predictive ability of pension accounting numbers under Canadian, British, and international standards (IFRS). We find that smoothed pension expense is less volatile, more predictive of future expense, and more closely associated with contemporaneous funding than is "unsmoothed" pension expense. The corridor method and market-related value approaches allowed under Canadian GAAP have virtually no smoothing effect incremental to the amortization of actuarial gains and losses. The pension accrual or deferred asset is highly correlated with the pension plan deficit/surplus. Our findings complement existing, primarily archival, pension accounting research and could provide guidance to standard-setters. [source]

Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma complicating chronic hepatitis C

Yoshiyuki Ueno
Abstract Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection accounts for most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan and is the second major cause in many other countries. Development of HCC takes a considerable time after onset of HCV infection, between 20,40 years in most cases, and usually develops after cirrhosis is established. Although only a minority of HCV infections reach this stage, the high prevalence of chronic HCV infection in many countries (1,3%) is such that HCC related to HCV infection poses a significant public health issue 20,50 years after the onset of HCV epidemics. Due to advances in testing, and accessibility of clean, disposable medical apparatus including syringes and needles, and particularly screening of donor blood for anti-HCV and by nucleic acid testing, new cases of HCV infection have decreased in most countries, except for continued transmission by injection drug users (IDU). A key difference between HBV and HCV infection is that HCV can be eradicated by effective antiviral treatment. Sustained eradication of HCV reverses hepatic fibrosis, thereby preventing progression to cirrhosis and risk of HCC. Further, it has been well demonstrated that interferon-based antiviral therapy suppresses development of HCC in high-risk patients, particularly when sustained viral response (SVR) is obtained. In summary, the two key approaches to prevent development of HCV-related HCC are primary prevention of HCV infection (adequate programs to screen donor blood, universal precautions to stop medical transmission of blood-borne viruses, curbing transmission by IDU) and potent antiviral therapy of chronic HCV infection. [source]

Deterministic and statistical methods for reconstructing multidimensional NMR spectra,

Ji Won Yoon
Abstract Reconstruction of an image from a set of projections is a well-established science, successfully exploited in X-ray tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This principle has been adapted to generate multidimensional NMR spectra, with the key difference that, instead of continuous density functions, high-resolution NMR spectra comprise discrete features, relatively sparsely distributed in space. For this reason, a reliable reconstruction can be made from a small number of projections. This speeds the measurements by orders of magnitude compared to the traditional methodology, which explores all evolution space on a Cartesian grid, one step at a time. Speed is of crucial importance for structural investigations of biomolecules such as proteins and for the investigation of time-dependent phenomena. Whereas the recording of a suitable set of projections is a straightforward process, the reconstruction stage can be more problematic. Several practical reconstruction schemes are explored. The deterministic methods,additive back-projection and the lowest-value algorithm,derive the multidimensional spectrum directly from the experimental projections. The statistical search methods include iterative least-squares fitting, maximum entropy, and model-fitting schemes based on Bayesian analysis, particularly the reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure. These competing reconstruction schemes are tested on a set of six projections derived from the three-dimensional 700-MHz HNCO spectrum of a 187-residue protein (HasA) and compared in terms of reliability, absence of artifacts, sensitivity to noise, and speed of computation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modeling solar cell degradation in space: A comparison of the NRL displacement damage dose and the JPL equivalent fluence approaches,

S. R. Messenger
The method for predicting solar cell degradation in space radiation environments developed recently at the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is compared in detail with the earlier method developed at the US Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Although both methods are similar, the key difference is that in the NRL approach, the energy dependence of the damage coefficients is determined from a calculation of the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) and requires relatively few experimental measurements, whereas in the JPL method the damage coefficients have to be determined using an extensive set of experimental measurements. The end result of the NRL approach is a determination of a single characteristic degradation curve for a cell technology, which is measured against displacement damage dose rather than fluence. The end-of-life (EOL) cell performance for a particular mission can be read from the characteristic curve once the displacement damage dose for the mission has been determined. In the JPL method, the end result is a determination of the equivalent 1,MeV electron fluence, which would cause the same level of degradation as the actual space environment. The two approaches give similar results for GaAs/Ge solar cells, for which a large database exists. Because the NRL method requires far less experimental data than the JPL method, it is more readily applied to emerging cell technologies for which extensive radiation measurements are not available. The NRL approach is being incorporated into a code named SAVANT by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center. The predictions of SAVANT are shown to agree closely with actual space data for GaAs/Ge and CuInSe2 cells flown on the Equator-S mission. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Temperature-induced reversible conformational change in the first 100 residues of ,-synuclein

Brian C. McNulty
Abstract Natively disordered proteins are a growing class of anomalies to the structure,function paradigm. The natively disordered protein ,-synuclein is the primary component of Lewy bodies, the cellular hallmark of Parkinson's disease. We noticed a dramatic difference in dilute solution 1H- 15N Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) spectra of wild-type ,-synuclein and two disease-related mutants (A30P and A53T), with spectra collected at 35C showing fewer cross-peaks than spectra acquired at 10C. Here, we show the change to be the result of a reversible conformational exchange linked to an increase in hydrodynamic radius and secondary structure as the temperature is raised. Combined with analytical ultracentrifugation data showing ,-synuclein to be monomeric at both temperatures, we conclude that the poor quality of the 1H- 15N HSQC spectra obtained at 35C is due to conformational fluctuations that occur on the proton chemical shift time scale. Using a truncated variant of ,-synuclein, we show the conformational exchange occurs in the first 100 amino acids of the protein. Our data illustrate a key difference between globular and natively disordered proteins. The properties of globular proteins change little with solution conditions until they denature cooperatively, but the properties of natively disordered proteins can vary dramatically with solution conditions. [source]

Design and analysis for the Gaussian process model,

Bradley Jones
Abstract In an effort to speed the development of new products and processes, many companies are turning to computer simulations to avoid the time and expense of building prototypes. These computer simulations are often complex, taking hours to complete one run. If there are many variables affecting the results of the simulation, then it makes sense to design an experiment to gain the most information possible from a limited number of computer simulation runs. The researcher can use the results of these runs to build a surrogate model of the computer simulation model. The absence of noise is the key difference between computer simulation experiments and experiments in the real world. Since there is no variability in the results of computer experiments, optimal designs, which are based on reducing the variance of some statistic, have questionable utility. Replication, usually a ,good thing', is clearly undesirable in computer experiments. Thus, a new approach to experimentation is necessary. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility: a comparative analysis of the UK and the US,

Ruth V. Aguilera
This paper argues that key differences between the UK and the US in the importance ascribed to a company's social responsibilities (CSR) reflect differences in the corporate governance arrangements in these two countries. Specifically, we analyse the role of a salient type of owner in the UK and the US, institutional investors, in emphasising firm-level CSR actions. We explore differences between institutional investors in the UK and the US concerning CSR, and draw on a model of instrumental, relational and moral motives to explore why institutional investors in the UK are becoming concerned with firms' social and environmental actions. We conclude with some suggestions for future research in this area. [source]

Cardiac gene expression profiling may reveal key differences between physiologic and pathologic cardiac hypertrophy

Dr Maurice H. Laughlin
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Assessing trace-metal exposure to American dippers in mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada

Christy A. Morrissey
Abstract To develop a suitable biomonitor of metal pollution in watersheds, we examined trends in exposure to nine trace elements in the diet (benthic invertebrates and fish), feathers (n = 104), and feces (n = 14) of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), from the Chilliwack watershed in British Columbia, Canada. We hypothesized that key differences may exist in exposure to metals for resident dippers that occupy the main river year-round and altitudinal migrants that breed on higher elevation tributaries because of differences in prey metal levels between locations or possible differences in diet composition. Metals most commonly detected in dipper feather samples in decreasing order were Zn > Cu > Hg > Se > Pb > Mn > Cd > Al > As. Resident dipper feathers contained significantly higher mean concentrations of mercury (0.64 ,g/g dry wt), cadmium (0.19 ,g/g dry wt), and copper (10.8 ,g/g dry wt) relative to migrants. Mass balance models used to predict daily metal exposure for dippers with different diets and breeding locations within a watershed showed that variation in metal levels primarily was attributed to differences in the proportion offish and invertebrates in the diet of residents and migrants. In comparing predicted metal exposure values to tolerable daily intakes (TDI), we found that most metals were below or within the range of TDI, except selenium, aluminum, and zinc. Other metals, such as cadmium, copper, and arsenic, were only of concern for dippers mainly feeding on insects; mercury was only of concern for dippers consuming high fish diets. The models were useful tools to demonstrate how shifts in diet and breeding location within a single watershed can result in changes in exposure that may be of toxicological significance. [source]

Challenging the omnipotence of the suprachiasmatic timekeeper: are circadian oscillators present throughout the mammalian brain?

Clare Guilding
Abstract The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN) is the master circadian pacemaker or clock in the mammalian brain. Canonical theory holds that the output from this single, dominant clock is responsible for driving most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviour. However, important recent findings challenge this uniclock model and reveal clock-like activities in many neural and non-neural tissues. Thus, in addition to the SCN, a number of areas of the mammalian brain including the olfactory bulb, amygdala, lateral habenula and a variety of nuclei in the hypothalamus, express circadian rhythms in core clock gene expression, hormone output and electrical activity. This review examines the evidence for extra-SCN circadian oscillators in the mammalian brain and highlights some of the essential properties and key differences between brain oscillators. The demonstration of neural pacemakers outside the SCN has wide-ranging implications for models of the circadian system at a whole-organism level. [source]

Physiological constraints on contest behaviour

Summary 1Contests may involve injurious fighting, other types of direct physical aggression and communication. They occur over ownership access to mates and other resources that may increase an individual's attractiveness and its chance of survival. Traits that enhance resource holding potential may be the result of sexual selection, natural selection or a combination of both. 2Agonistic behaviours are expected to be demanding to perform and costly in terms of changes in physiological state. The ability to meet the physiological costs may determine contest outcomes and constrain the intensity of agonistic activities. 3The energetic costs have been investigated in a broad range of taxa using a variety of techniques. They include the mobilization of energy reserves, but a key cost in several taxa appears to be limited anaerobic capacity and subsequent accumulation of lactic acid. Androgens, stress hormones and neurohormones have also been shown to constrain fighting behaviour. However, due to key differences in the endocrine systems of vertebrates and invertebrates, the effects of hormones are far less consistent across taxa than in the case of metabolites. 4Physiological constraints on fighting may vary according to their importance relative to circumstantial costs, the time-scale over which they exert their effects, their effects on different roles and their causal links with behaviour. Incorporating these factors into theoretical studies of contest behaviour may give further insights of how the costs of fighting influence agonistic behaviour. [source]

Organic Thin Film Transistors with Polymer Brush Gate Dielectrics Synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

C. Pinto
Abstract Low operating voltage is an important requirement that must be met for industrial adoption of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We report here solution fabricated polymer brush gate insulators with good uniformity, low surface roughness and high capacitance. These ultra thin polymer films, synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), were used to fabricate low voltage OFETs with both evaporated pentacene and solution deposited poly(3-hexylthiophene). The semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in these systems were studied with a variety of methods including scanning force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and neutron reflectometry. These studies highlighted key differences between the surfaces of brush and spun cast polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) films. [source]

Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs

M. Susan Ridgely
Objective. To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and ,unmanaged" care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design. The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods. Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions. If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. [source]

Cultivating problem-solving skills through problem-based approaches to professional development

Margaret C. Lohman
An extensive literature review was conducted of four problem-based approaches to professional development: (1) case study, (2) goal-based scenario, (3) problem-based learning, and (4) action learning. The review comparatively analyzed the training designs of these four approaches and found key differences in the nature of their case problems and training strategies. Specifically, the analysis found that case problems are ill structured in action learning and problem-based learning, are moderately structured in a goal-based scenario, and are fairly well structured in the case study approach. In addition, it was found that prototypical problems are used to a much greater extent in the problem-based learning and goal-based scenario approaches than they are in the other two approaches. Furthermore, the analysis found that the case study approach uses the most expert-oriented training strategy, the goal-based scenario approach uses a more learner-oriented strategy than the case study approach, and the problem-based learning and action learning approaches use strongly learner-oriented strategies. These design differences suggest that the case study and goal-based scenario approaches are more likely to result in single-loop learning and to foster the ability to solve well-structured problems, whereas the problem-based learning and action learning approaches are more likely to lead to double-loop learning and to promote the ability to solve ill-structured problems. Implications of these findings for the design and research of problem-based approaches to professional development are discussed. [source]

Hold the Line: An Examination of Line vs.

Staff Differences
Despite common perceptions about the differences between line and staff personnel, few studies have provided answers as to which group is more effective. This study explores in detail key differences in managerial strengths between 46 line managers and 52 staff professionals in one of the fastest growing, highly service-oriented retail organizations in the United States. Using behavioral data from a developmental multirater feedback effort, results suggest that staff personnel were more modest and accurate in their self-assessments, while line managers were more service-oriented but significantly weaker at relationships, openness to new ideas, demonstrating respect, and adaptability to change. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Dynamics of stream nitrate sources and flow pathways during stormflows on urban, forest and agricultural watersheds in central Pennsylvania, USA

Anthony R. Buda
Abstract Understanding the influence of storm events on nitrate (NO3,) dynamics is important for efficiently managing NO3, pollution. In this study, five sites representing a downstream progression of forested uplands underlain by resistant sandstone to karst lowlands with agricultural, urban and mixed land-use were established in Spring Creek, a 201 km2 mixed land-use watershed in central Pennsylvania, USA. At each site, stream water was monitored during six storm events in 2005 to assess changes in stable isotopes of NO3, (,15N-NO3, and ,18O-NO3,) and water (,18O-H2O) from baseflow to peakflow. Peakflow fractions of event NO3, and event water were then computed using two-component mixing models to elucidate NO3, flow pathway differences among the five sites. For the forested upland site, storm size appeared to affect NO3, sources and flow pathways. During small storms (<35 mm rainfall), greater event NO3, fractions than event water fractions indicated the prevalence of atmospheric NO3, source contributions at peakflow. During larger storms (>35 mm rainfall), event NO3, fractions were less than event water fractions at peakflow suggesting that NO3, was flushed from stored sources via shallow subsurface flow pathways. For the urbanized site, wash-off of atmospheric NO3, was an important NO3, source at peakflow, especially during short-duration storms where event water contributions indicated the prevalence of overland flow. In the karst lowlands, very low fractions of event water and even lower fractions of event NO3, at peakflow suggested the dominance of ground water flow pathways during storms. These ground water flow pathways likely flushed stored NO3, sources into the stream, while deep soils in the karst lowlands also may have promoted NO3, assimilation. The results of this study illustrated how NO3, isotopes and ,18O-H2O could be combined to show key differences in water and NO3, delivery between forested uplands, karst valleys and fully urbanized watersheds. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

How international nonprofits build brand equity

Nathalie Laidler-Kylander
This paper describes an empirical model of brand equity for international nonprofit organizations and offers nonprofit managers suggestions for the management of their brands. The main areas of interest include: A review of the importance of branding for nonprofits, the lack of a brand equity models specifically for nonprofits, and the key differences between for-profits and nonprofits. A proposed nonprofit brand equity model, based on a grounded theory and system dynamics approach. A series of specific managerial recommendations, for building nonprofit brand equity. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Machiavelli's Legacy: Domestic Politics and International Conflict

David Sobek
Research examining the effect of regime type on conflict has focused on the democracy/autocracy continuum expounded in the political philosophies of liberal thinkers such as Kant and Schumpeter. While this concentration has yielded impressive results (democratic peace), it seems plausible that other conceptions of regime type may yield similar success. This paper examines the philosophy of Machiavelli and develops a measure of his "imperial regimes." These states, which can either be democratic or autocratic, should exhibit an increased propensity to initiate international conflict. Testing this contention in Renaissance Italy (1250,1494) and the modern international system (1920,1992), this paper finds strong empirical support. Machiavelli's views illuminate key differences between democracies and autocracies that have been previously overlooked. Thus, it deepens rather than replaces our conception of how domestic institutions affect international conflict. [source]

Personality and psychopathology in an impulsive aggressive college sample

Laura E. Helfritz
Abstract Certain personality traits have been associated with impulsive aggression in both college and community samples, primarily irritability, anger/hostility, and impulsivity. The literature regarding the psychopathology associated with impulsive aggression is relatively sparse and strongly emphasizes DSM-IV-TR [APA, 2000] Axis II personality disorders, although some comorbidity with Axis I clinical disorders has been reported. The current study compares impulsive aggressive (IA) college students with their non-aggressive peers on several self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. Personality results were as predicted, with IAs scoring higher than controls on measures of impulsivity and aggression. Additionally, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), which was given for exploratory purposes, revealed a unique pattern of psychopathic traits in impulsive aggression that contained key differences from the callous-unemotional profile seen in premeditated aggression. Contrary to our hypothesis that a specific pattern of psychopathology (personality disorders, bipolar disorder, and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) would emerge for impulsive aggression, IAs scored significantly higher than controls on nearly every clinical scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, Anxiety-Related Disorders, Depression, Mania, Schizophrenia, Borderline Features, Antisocial Features, Alcohol Problems, and Drug Problems), indicating a global elevation of psychopathology. In conclusion, while the personality traits and behaviors that characterize impulsive aggression are relatively consistent across individuals, its associated psychopathology is unexpectedly variable. Aggr. Behav. 00:1,10, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

When Do Nutrient Content and Nutrient Content Claims Matter?

Assessing Consumer Tradeoffs Between Carbohydrates
Substantial concern about the wide variety of carbohydrate-related claims appearing on consumer packaged food products have been expressed by members of both the marketing and public policy communities. As a result, a number of petitions requesting the establishment of carbohydrate levels required for a low-carbohydrate nutrient content claim have been submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, and the agency is considering the establishment of criteria for such a claim. This research examines the potential effects of a "low-carbohydrate" claim, relative to the effects of a "low-fat" claim, across selected product fat and carbohydrate levels. The study also considers whether consumers' motivation to process nutrition information serves as a potential moderator of the effects of the nutrient content claims and nutrient levels on the dependent measures. As predicted, the results show key differences across consumer motivation levels. The policy implications of our findings are discussed. [source]


Michael K. Liquori
ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of riparian buffers in providing aquatic functions to forested streams, few studies have sought to capture key differences in ecological and geomorphic processes between buffered sites and forested conditions. This study examines post-harvest buffer conditions from 20 randomly selected harvest sites within a managed tree farm in the Cascade Mountains of western Washington. Post-harvest wind derived treefall rates in buffers up to three years post-harvest averaged 268 trees/km/year, 26 times greater than competition-induced mortality rate estimates. Treefall rates and stem breakage were strongly tied to tree species and relatively unaffected by stream direction. Observed treefall direction is strongly biased toward the channel, irrespective of channel or buffer orientation. Fall direction bias can deliver significantly more wood recruitment relative to randomly directed treefall, suggesting that models that utilize the random fall assumption will significantly underpredict recruitment. A simple estimate of post-harvest wood recruitment from buffers can be obtained from species specific treefall and breakage rates, combined with bias corrected recruitment probability as a function of source distance from the channel. Post-harvest wind effects may reduce the standing density of trees enough to significantly reduce or eliminate competition mortality and thus indirectly alter bank erosion rates, resulting in substantially different wood recruitment dynamics from buffers as compared to unmanaged forests. [source]

Validating the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) in the postgraduate context: are health care professionals ready for IPL?

Ross Reid
Aims, This paper describes the process of validating the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) for use with postgraduate health care professionals. Context, The RIPLS questionnaire has proved useful in the undergraduate context, enabling tutors to assess the readiness of students to engage in interprofessional learning (IPL). With the drive in the National Health Service (NHS) to deliver health care in interprofessional teams, it seems logical to ask whether postgraduate education should, or could, be delivered successfully in interprofessional contexts. As a preliminary to undertaking an extended IPL project, the researchers tested the validity of the RIPLS tool in the postgraduate health care context. Method, A modified version of the RIPLS questionnaire was administered to all general practitioners, nurses, pharmacists and allied health professionals in the Dundee Local Health Care Cooperative (LHCC) (n = 799). A total of 546 staff responded (68%). Results, Three factors, comprising 23 statements, emerged from the statistical analysis of the survey data, namely, teamwork and collaboration, sense of professional identity and patient-centredness. The internal consistency measure was 0.76. Analysis of variance suggested some key differences between the different professions in respect of the factors. Conclusions, The RIPLS questionnaire was validated for use in the postgraduate context, thus providing researchers with a tool for assessing health professionals' attitudes towards interprofessional learning at practice level, community health partnership level or at a national level of education and training. Significant differences between professional groups should be taken into account in designing any interprofessional learning programme. [source]

From biological anthropology to applied public health: Epidemiological approaches to the study of infectious disease,,

Rachel Albalak
This article describes two large, multisite infectious disease programs: the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) and the Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs). The links between biological anthropology and applied public health are highlighted using these programs as examples. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the TBESC and EIPs conduct applied public health research to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control efforts in the United States. They involve collaborations among CDC, public health departments, and academic and clinical institutions. Their unique role in national infectious disease work, including their links to anthropology, shared elements, key differences, strengths and challenges, is discussed. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Launch Decisions and New Product Success: An Empirical Comparison of Consumer and Industrial Products

Erik Jan Hultink
Many articles have investigated new product development success and failure. However, most of them have used the vantage point of characteristics of the product and development process in this research. In this article we extend this extensive stream of research, looking at factors affecting success; however, we look at the product in the context of the launch support program. We empirically answer the question of whether successful launch decisions differ for consumer and industrial products and identify how they differ. From data collected on over 1,000 product introductions, we first contrast consumer product launches with industrial product launches to identify key differences and similarities in launch decisions between market types. For consumer products, strategic launch decisions appear more defensive in nature, as they focus on defending current market positions. Industrial product strategic launch decisions seem more offensive, using technology and innovation to push the firm to operate outside their current realm of operations and move into new markets. The tactical marketing mix launch decisions (product, place, promotion and price) also differ markedly across the products launched for the two market types. Successful products were contrasted with failed products to identify those launch decisions that discriminate between both outcomes. Here the differences are more of degree rather than principle. Some launch decisions were associated with success for consumer and industrial products alike. Launch successes are more likely to be broader assortments of more innovative product improvements that are advertised with print advertising, independent of market. Other launch decisions uniquely related to success per product type, especially at the marketing mix level (pricing, distribution, and promotion in particular). The launch decisions most frequently made by firms are not well aligned with factors associated with higher success. Additionally, comparing the decisions associated with success to the recommendations for launches from the normative literature suggests that a number of conventional heuristics about how to launch products of each type will actually lead to failure rather than success. [source]

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a report of a case with atypical features

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 11 2008
J. N. Pratap
Summary We report a case of a young woman presenting with profound depression of consciousness and intra-uterine death in the late stages of an unbooked pregnancy. She proceeded to develop features of cardiovascular, renal, hepatic and haematological failures. The patient was challenging to manage in view of uncertainty regarding the underlying cause, and required multidisciplinary consultation. A diagnosis was subsequently made of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the context of pre-eclampsia. We review the typical presentation and wide-ranging associations of this recently described clinico-neuroradiological syndrome, and look at how appropriate management may lead to rapid resolution of its often life-threatening features. We highlight the importance to anaesthetists and critical care physicians of recognising even atypical cases such as this one in view of key differences in management from similarly presenting conditions. [source]

Tuberculosis in pregnancy in the UK

M Knight
Tuberculosis (TB) is a globally important cause of morbidity and mortality with an increasing incidence in women of reproductive ages. This descriptive study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System demonstrates key differences in the presentation of TB during pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant population. The disease is limited to ethnic minority women, most commonly recent immigrants. Presentation may be atypical, with extrapulmonary disease as common as pulmonary. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for nonspecific presentation of the disease in pregnancy and consider the diagnosis in women, especially recently arrived immigrants, presenting with nonspecific symptoms. [source]

Devolution and Disability Equality Legislation: The Implementation of Part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 in England and Scotland

Sheila Riddell
Part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (as amended) came into force in September 2002. The Act covers Great Britain but, in relation to schools, is implemented through different special educational needs legislation in England and Scotland. This article by Sheila Riddell, Professor of Social Policy (Disability Studies) at Glasgow University and Director of the Strathclyde Centre for Disability Research, explores the key differences in these legal frameworks, and discusses their implications for delivering consistent anti-discrimination policies north and south of the border. Professor Riddell argues that there is a need for close monitoring of the implementation of Part 4 of the DDA in English and Scottish schools. If major differences in implementation of the legislation emerge over time, there may be a need to consider the case for devolving responsibility for equal opportunities to the Holyrood Parliament or amending national education legislation to make it more consistent. This article will be of interest to anyone concerned with the implementation of Part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act in England and Scotland. [source]

Excitation,Contraction Coupling In Skeletal Muscle: Comparisons With Cardiac Muscle

Gd Lamb
SUMMARY 1. The present review describes the mechanisms involved in controlling Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle, which ultimately regulates contraction. 2. Comparisons are made between cardiac and skeletal muscle with respect to: (i) the role of the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) as Ca2+ channels and voltage-sensors; (ii) the regulation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR)/Ca2+ -release channels in the SR; and (iii) the importance of Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release. 3. It is shown that the key differences of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ -release channel (RyR1), namely the increase in its stimulation by ATP and its inhibition by Mg2+, are critical for its direct regulation by the associated DHPR and, consequently, for the fast, accurate control of skeletal muscle contraction. [source]