Key Data (key + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Overcrowding in medium-volume emergency departments: Effects of aged patients in emergency departments on wait times for non-emergent triage-level patients

Mary Knapman MN BHScN GCEd RN
Knapman M, Bonner A. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2010; 16: 310,317 Overcrowding in medium-volume emergency departments: Effects of aged patients in emergency departments on wait times for non-emergent triage-level patients This study aims to examine patient wait times from triaging to physician assessment in the emergency department (ED) for non-emergent patients, and to see whether patient flow and process (triage) are impacted by aged patients. A retrospective study method was used to analyse 185 patients in three age groups. Key data recorded were triage level, wait time to physician assessment and ED census. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of association with increased wait time. A longer average wait time for all patients occurred when there was an increase in the number of patients aged , 65 years in the ED. Further analysis showed 12.1% of the variation extending ED wait time associated with the triage process was explained by the number of patients aged , 65 years. In addition, extended wait time, overcrowding and numbers of those who left without being seen were strongly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of aged patients in the ED. The effects of aged patients on ED structure and process have significant implications for nursing. Nursing process and practice sets clear responsibilities for nursing to ensure patient safety. However, the impact of factors associated with aged patients in ED, nursing's role and ED process can negatively impact performance expectations and requires further investigation. [source]

The effectiveness of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Victoria A. Goodwin MSc
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the physical, psychological, social, and functional status of individuals. Exercise programs may be an effective strategy to delay or reverse functional decline for people with PD and a large body of empirical evidence has emerged in recent years. The objective is to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effectiveness of exercise interventions on outcomes (physical, psychological or social functioning, or quality of life) for people with PD. RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria were identified by systematic searching of electronic databases. Key data were extracted by two independent researchers. A mixed methods approach was undertaken using narrative, vote counting, and random effects meta-analysis methods. Fourteen RCTs were included and the methodological quality of most studies was moderate. Evidence supported exercise as being beneficial with regards to physical functioning, health-related quality of life, strength, balance and gait speed for people with PD. There was insufficient evidence support or refute the value of exercise in reducing falls or depression. This review found evidence of the potential benefits of exercise for people with PD, although further good quality research is needed. Questions remain around the optimal content of exercise interventions (dosing, component exercises) at different stages of the disease. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy

Part 1.
In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetics. In Europe, low frequencies of sensitization have been observed to all releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol 0.4,1.2%, diazolidinyl urea 0.5,1.4%, imidazolidinyl urea 0.3,1.4%, quaternium-15 0.6,1.9% (for DMDM hydantoin no recent data are available). All releasers score (far) higher prevalences in the USA; the possible explanations for this are discussed. The relevance of positive patch test reactions has been insufficiently investigated. In the USA, approximately 20% of cosmetics and personal care products (stay-on products: 17%, rinse-off products 27%) contain a formaldehyde-releaser. The use of quaternium-15 is decreasing. For Europe, there are no comparable recent data available. In the second part of the article, the patch test relationship of the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy will be reviewed and it will be assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals who have contact allergy to formaldehyde. [source]

Assessing motivation to quit smoking in people with mental illness: a review

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
Ranita Siru
ABSTRACT Background People with mental health (MH) disorders smoke at higher rates, are more nicotine-dependent and suffer greater morbidity and mortality from smoking-related illnesses than the general population. Helping these people to quit smoking is a public health priority; however, many MH professionals assume that those with mental illness are not motivated to quit. Objectives To use predetermined criteria to identify, review critically and evaluate empirically all English language, peer-reviewed data on motivation to quit smoking in MH populations. Methods A systematic search was conducted and key data on subject characteristics, measures of motivation and other variables abstracted. ,2 analyses were used to compare motivation between MH and general populations, between in-patients and out-patients and between people with depression and people with psychotic disorders. Results Evidence suggests that people with MH disorders are as motivated to quit smoking as the general population, although those with psychotic disorders may be less motivated than individuals with depression. Although readiness to cease smoking was assessed in 14 studies, only two evaluated motivation to quit smoking in in-patient populations. Conclusions People with MH disorders are motivated to quit smoking, although more research is needed looking at in-patient populations. The commonly held false belief that people with MH disorders are not motivated to cease smoking means that opportunities to encourage smoking cessation among this disenfranchised group are being missed. [source]


Derek C. Jones
ABSTRACT:,We provide the first empirical evidence on the determinants of differences in the size of the cooperative sector around the world. Our key data have been recently released by the ICA and are integrated with other standard sources, such as data from the World Values surveys. In our empirical work we concentrate on the links between inequality and trust and cooperative incidence and undertake selectivity correction estimates as well as a series of robustness checks. Consistent with theory we find strong support for the proposition that trust plays a causal role in accounting for differences in co-operative incidence. Also consistent with theory, we find support (albeit much weaker) for the role of inequality. Further support for our findings flows from our estimates for conventional, listed firms, where we do not find that trust and inequality play similar roles in accounting for the variation in the incidence of large listed firms across countries. [source]

Unified Frontiers: Reaching Out with BIM

Coren Sharples
Abstract Coren Sharples is a partner of SHoP Architects in New York where building information modelling (BIM) has become integral to the fluid promotion of communication between contractors, consultants and clients on a project. This is exemplified by two projects in the city: the reconstruction of Rector Bridge, where BIM enabled SHoP to work seamlessly with a firm of custom boat builders and other contractors, and the speculative development at 290 Mulberry Street, where it became a significant means of disseminating key data to the client for marketing and financial planning. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Álvaro Herrero
This study presents a novel, multidisciplinary research project entitled DIPKIP (data acquisition, intelligent processing, knowledge identification and proposal), which is a Knowledge Management (KM) system that profiles the KM status of a company. Qualitative data is fed into the system that allows it not only to assess the KM situation in the company in a straightforward and intuitive manner, but also to propose corrective actions to improve that situation. DIPKIP is based on four separate steps. An initial "Data Acquisition" step, in which key data is captured, is followed by an "Intelligent Processing" step, using neural projection architectures. Subsequently, the "Knowledge Identification" step catalogues the company into three categories, which define a set of possible theoretical strategic knowledge situations: knowledge deficit, partial knowledge deficit, and no knowledge deficit. Finally, a "Proposal" step is performed, in which the "knowledge processes",creation/acquisition, transference/distribution, and putting into practice/updating,are appraised to arrive at a coherent recommendation. The knowledge updating process (increasing the knowledge held and removing obsolete knowledge) is in itself a novel contribution. DIPKIP may be applied as a decision support system, which, under the supervision of a KM expert, can provide useful and practical proposals to senior management for the improvement of KM, leading to flexibility, cost savings, and greater competitiveness. The research also analyses the future for powerful neural projection models in the emerging field of KM by reviewing a variety of robust unsupervised projection architectures, all of which are used to visualize the intrinsic structure of high-dimensional data sets. The main projection architecture in this research, known as Cooperative Maximum-Likelihood Hebbian Learning (CMLHL), manages to capture a degree of KM topological ordering based on the application of cooperative lateral connections. The results of two real-life case studies in very different industrial sectors corroborated the relevance and viability of the DIPKIP system and the concepts upon which it is founded. [source]