Key Chemokines (key + chemokine)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Human mucosa/submucosa interactions during intestinal inflammation: involvement of the enteric nervous system in interleukin-8 secretion

Emmanuelle Tixier
Summary Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a key chemokine upregulated in various forms of intestinal inflammation, especially those induced by bacteria such as Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Although interactions between different mucosal and submucosal cellular components have been reported, whether such interactions are involved in the regulation of IL-8 secretion during C. difficile infection is unknown. Moreover, whether the enteric nervous system, a major component of the submucosa, is involved in IL-8 secretion during an inflammatory challenge remains to be determined. In order to investigate mucosa/submucosa interactions that regulate IL-8 secretion, we co-cultured human intestinal mucosa and submucosa. In control condition, IL-8 secretion in co-culture was lower than the sum of the IL-8 secretion of both tissue layers cultured alone. Contrastingly, IL-8 secretion increased in co-culture after mucosal challenge with toxin B of C. difficile through an IL-1,-dependent pathway. Moreover, we observed that toxin B of C. difficile increased IL-8 immunoreactivity in submucosal enteric neurones in co-culture and in intact preparations of mucosa/submucosa, through an IL-1,-dependent pathway. IL-1, also increased IL-8 secretion and IL-8 mRNA expression in human neuronal cell lines (NT2-N and SH-SY5Y), through p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent pathways. Our results demonstrate that mucosa/submucosa interactions regulate IL-8 secretion during inflammatory processes in human through IL-1,-dependent pathways. Finally we observed that human submucosal neurones synthesize IL-8, whose production in neurones is induced by IL-1, via MAPK-dependent pathways. [source]

Altered immune response to CNS viral infection in mice with a conditional knock-down of macrophage-lineage cells

GLIA, Issue 2 2006
Jessica Carmen
Abstract Neuroadapted Sindbis Virus (NSV) is a neuronotropic virus that causes hindlimb paralysis in susceptible mice and rats. The authors and others have demonstrated that though death of infected motor neurons occurs, bystander death of uninfected neurons also occurs and both contribute to the paralysis that ensues following infection. The authors have previously shown that the treatment of NSV-infected mice with minocycline, an inhibitor that has many functions within the central nervous system (CNS), including inhibiting microglial activation, protects mice from paralysis and death. The authors, therefore, proposed that microglial activation may contribute to bystander death of motor neurons following NSV infection. Here, the authors tested the hypothesis using a conditional knock-out of activated macrophage-lineage cells, including endogenous CNS macrophage cells. Surprisingly, ablation of these cells resulted in more rapid death and similar weakness in the hind limbs of NSV-infected animals compared with that of control animals. Several key chemokines including IL-12 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) did not become elevated in these animals, resulting in decreased infiltration of T lymphocytes into the CNS of the knock-down animals. Either because of the decreased macrophage activation directly or because of the reduced immune cell influx, viral replication persisted longer within the nervous system in knock-down mice than in wild type mice. The authors, therefore, conclude that although macrophage-lineage cells in the CNS may contribute to neurodegeneration in certain situations, they also serve a protective role, such as control of viral replication. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Lymphoid microenvironment in the gut for immunoglobulin A and inflammation

Robert Chin
Summary:, Signaling through lymphotoxin , receptor (LT,R) initiates the unfolding of a host of developmental programs ranging from the organogenesis of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches (PPs) to the coordination of splenic microarchitecture. While investigating an alternative pathway to immunoglobulin A (IgA) production, it was uncovered that LT,R signaling in the lamina propria (LP) stroma orchestrates the coordinated expression of key chemokines and adhesion molecules, creation of a cytokine milieu, and stroma development that facilitates robust IgA production independent of secondary lymphoid structures. Simultaneously, this same infrastructure can be commandeered by autoreactive T cells to organize both the acute destruction of the intestinal mucosa and chronic intestinal inflammation via the ligands for LT,R. The ability to modulate LT,R signaling may alternatively permit the suppression of autoimmune responses and augmentation of gut defenses. [source]

Role of osteopontin in induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1, through the NF-,B and MAPK pathways in rheumatoid arthritis

Wenxin Zheng
Objective Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory protein with a critical role in leukocyte migration. Although OPN has been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), its underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role and molecular mechanism of OPN in the induction of 2 key chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1, (MIP-1,), in RA. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine chemokine expression. Leukocyte migration in the presence of OPN was measured by chemotaxis assay. Signaling and molecular events were analyzed by immunoblotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results The effect of OPN on inflammatory cell migration was mediated through its unique property of inducing the expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1, in CD14+ monocytes. The concentration of OPN was significantly elevated in RA patients and appeared to correlate with the serum levels of inflammation markers and increased expression of MCP-1 or MIP-1, in monocytes in RA patients. Endogenous production of OPN in RA synovial fluid was attributable to increased production of MCP-1 or MIP-1,, and this effect could be blocked by an anti-OPN antibody. Furthermore, the structural motif responsible for this property resided within residues 50,83 of human OPN, sparing the known RGD or SVVYGLR sequences. It was evident that the effect of OPN on chemokine expression was mediated through both the NF-,B and MAPK pathways, involving the activation of IKK,, p38, and JNK. Conclusion These results support a unique role of OPN in leukocyte migration, in the context of perpetuation of rheumatoid synovitis through the induction of MCP-1 and MIP-1,. [source]