Key Brain Regions (key + brain_regions)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sing the mind electric , principles of deep brain stimulation

Morten L. Kringelbach
Abstract The remarkable efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for a range of treatment-resistant disorders is still not matched by a comparable understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms. Some progress has been made using translational research with a range of neuroscientific techniques, and here we review the most promising emerging principles. On balance, DBS appears to work by restoring normal oscillatory activity between a network of key brain regions. Further research using this causal neuromodulatory tool may provide vital insights into fundamental brain function, as well as guide targets for future treatments. In particular, DBS could have an important role in restoring the balance of the brain's default network and thus repairing the malignant brain states associated with affective disorders, which give rise to serious disabling problems such as anhedonia, the lack of pleasure. At the same time, it is important to proceed with caution and not repeat the errors from the era of psychosurgery. [source]

Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the brain of an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni

Lauren A. Munchrath
Abstract Sex steroid hormones released from the gonads play an important role in mediating social behavior across all vertebrates. Many effects of these gonadal hormones are mediated by nuclear steroid hormone receptors, which are crucial for integration in the brain of external (e.g., social) signals with internal physiological cues to produce an appropriate behavioral output. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni presents an attractive model system for the study of how internal cues and external social signals are integrated in the brain as males display robust plasticity in the form of two distinct, yet reversible, behavioral and physiological phenotypes depending on the social environment. In order to better understand where sex steroid hormones act to regulate social behavior in this species, we have determined the distribution of the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and progesterone receptor mRNA and protein throughout the telencephalon and diencephalon and some mesencephalic structures of A. burtoni. All steroid hormone receptors were found in key brain regions known to modulate social behavior in other vertebrates including the proposed teleost homologs of the mammalian amygdalar complex, hippocampus, striatum, preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area. Overall, there is high concordance of mRNA and protein labeling. Our results significantly extend our understanding of sex steroid pathways in the cichlid brain and support the important role of nuclear sex steroid hormone receptors in modulating social behaviors in teleosts and across vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:3302,3326, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Supraspinal modulation of pain by cannabinoids: the role of GABA and glutamate

K Rea
Recent physiological, pharmacological and anatomical studies provide evidence that one of the main roles of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is the regulation of ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release. This article aims to review this evidence in the context of its implications for pain. We first provide a brief overview of supraspinal regulation of nociception, followed by a review of the evidence that the brain's endocannabinoid system modulates nociception. We look in detail at regulation of supraspinal GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons by the endocannabinoid system and by exogenously administered cannabinoids. Finally, we review the evidence that cannabinoid-mediated modulation of pain involves modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in key brain regions. British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 152, 633,648; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707440; published online 10 September 2007 [source]

The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation

Belinda Ivanovski
Objective:, To provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the psychological and neurophysiological literature pertaining to mindfulness meditation. Methods:, A search for papers in English was undertaken using PsycINFO (from 1804 onward), MedLine (from 1966 onward) and the Cochrane Library with the following search terms: Vipassana, Mindfulness, Meditation, Zen, Insight, EEG, ERP, fMRI, neuroimaging and intervention. In addition, retrieved papers and reports known to the authors were also reviewed for additional relevant literature. Results:, Mindfulness-based therapeutic interventions appear to be effective in the treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, borderline personality disorder and suicidal/self-harm behaviour. Mindfulness meditation per se is effective in reducing substance use and recidivism rates in incarcerated populations but has not been specifically investigated in populations with psychiatric disorders. Electroencephalography research suggests increased alpha, theta and beta activity in frontal and posterior regions, some gamma band effects, with theta activity strongly related to level of experience of meditation; however, these findings have not been consistent. The few neuroimaging studies that have been conducted suggest volumetric and functional change in key brain regions. Conclusions:, Preliminary findings from treatment outcome studies provide support for the application of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of affective, anxiety and personality disorders. However, direct evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation per se in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is needed. Current neurophysiological and imaging research findings have identified neural changes in association with meditation and provide a potentially promising avenue for future research. [source]