Key Attributes (key + attribute)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

gfap and nestin reporter lines reveal characteristics of neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish brain

Chen Sok Lam
Abstract Adult neurogenesis arises from niches that harbor neural stem cells (NSC). Although holding great promise for regenerative medicine, the identity of NSC remains elusive. In mammals, a key attribute of NSC is the expression of the filamentous proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NESTIN. To assess whether these two markers are relevant in the fish model, two transgenic zebrafish lines for gfap and nestin were generated. Analysis of adult brains showed that the fusion GFAP,green fluorescent protein closely mimics endogenous GFAP, while the nestin transgene recapitulates nestin at the ventricular zones. Cells expressing the two reporters display radial glial morphology, colocalize with the NSC marker Sox2, undergo proliferation, and are capable of self-renewal within the matrix of distinct thickness in the telencephalon. Together, these two transgenic lines reveal a conserved feature of putative NSC in the adult zebrafish brain and provide a means for the identification and manipulation of these cells in vivo. Developmental Dynamics 238:475,486, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Resistance to Deficient Organizational Authority: The Impact of Culture and Connectedness in the Workplace

Wilhelmina Wosinska
In 2 countries differing on individualistic,collectivistic orientation, we investigated resistance to a request made by a manager perceived as lacking personal power based on a key attribute (e.g., expertise, relationality). Results of an experiment with Polish and American participants were consistent with cultural differences in the preferred attribute of leaders in the 2 nations. Participants were more resistant to a manager who lacked the attribute more valued in their culture: Americans were more resistant to managers perceived as lacking in expertise, whereas Poles were more resistant to managers perceived as lacking in relational skills. This effect occurred only under conditions of well-established workplace relationships, suggesting that group connectedness creates a tendency to behave in line with predominant cultural norms. [source]

Food Security in Protracted Crises: Building More Effective Policy Frameworks

DISASTERS, Issue 2005
Margarita Flores
This paper considers the principal elements that underpin policy frameworks for supporting food security in protracted crisis contexts. It argues that maintaining the food entitlements of crisis-affected populations must extend beyond interventions to ensure immediate human survival. A ,policy gap' exists in that capacities for formulating policy responses to tackle the different dimensions of food insecurity in complex, fluid crisis situations tend to be weak. As a result, standardised, short-term intervention designs are created that fall short of meeting the priority needs of affected populations in the short and long term and only partially exploit the range of policy options available. The paper discusses key attributes of agency frameworks that could support more effective policy processes to address longer term as well as immediate food security needs. Additionally, it points to some main challenges likely to be encountered in developing such frameworks and, with the participation of beneficiaries, translating them into effective action. [source]

Management options for river conservation planning: condition and conservation re-visited

Summary 1. Systematic conservation planning is a process widely used in terrestrial and marine environments. A principal goal is to establish a network of protected areas representing the full variety of species or ecosystems. We suggest considering three key attributes of a catchment when planning for aquatic conservation: irreplaceability, condition and vulnerability. 2. Based on observed and modelled distributions of 367 invertebrates in the Australian state of Victoria, conservation value was measured by calculating an irreplaceability coefficient for 1854 subcatchments. Irreplaceability indicates the likelihood of any subcatchment being needed to achieve conservation targets. We estimated it with a bootstrapped heuristic reserve design algorithm, which included upstream,downstream connectivity rules. The selection metric within the algorithm was total summed rarity, corrected for protected area. 3. Condition was estimated using a stressor gradient approach in which two classes of geographical information system Layers were summarised using principal components analysis. The first class was disturbance measures such as nutrient and sediment budgets, salinisation and weed cover. The second class was land use layers, including classes of forestry, agricultural and urban use. The main gradient, explaining 56% of the variation, could be characterised as agricultural disturbance. Seventy-five per cent of the study area was classified as disturbed. 4. Our definition of vulnerability was the likelihood of a catchment being exposed to a land use that degrades its condition. This was estimated by comparing land capability and current land use. If land was capable of supporting a land use that would have a more degrading effect on a river than its current tenure, it was classified vulnerable (66% of the study area). 79% of catchments contained more then 50% vulnerable land. 5. When integrating the three measures, two major groups of catchments requiring urgent conservation measures were identified. Seven per cent of catchments were highly irreplaceable, highly vulnerable but in degraded condition. These catchments were flagged for restoration. While most highly irreplaceable catchments in good condition were already protected, 2.5% of catchments in this category are on vulnerable land. These are priority areas for assigning river reserves. [source]

,A Very Sensible Man': Imagining Fatherhood in England c.1750,1830

HISTORY, Issue 319 2010
Fathers are at once everywhere and nowhere in the historiography of eighteenth-century England. They interact with children in family history, bear authority in histories of women, gender and marriage, use the role to demonstrate virility, and the capacity for household mastery and citizenship in the history of masculinity, and are metaphors in political culture. Yet there is little sustained work on what constituted the key attributes of fatherhood before 1830. This article shows that the ideal father in the period c.1750 to 1830 was tenderly affectionate, sensitized and moved by babies; he provided hugs, material support and a protective guiding hand. Engrossed in his offspring to the exclusion of much else apart from his wife and national duties, he offered his children a moral example and instruction and possessed a deep understanding of his children's personalities. The genesis of this imagined fatherhood lay in fundamental eighteenth-century concerns about social, class, gender and familial relationships, and national strength. His form and the language used to describe him owed much to the combined forces of the culture of sensibility and of general Christian ideals antedating Evangelical revival. [source]

Evaluating the guest experience at theme parks: an empirical investigation of key attributes

Ady Milman
Abstract The study identified and documented a consumer-oriented attribute inventory for evaluating theme parks. Data were collected from 608 Central Florida residents, domestic and international tourists who identified and ranked the level of importance of 41 attributes and park characteristics when visiting a typical theme park. Further analysis of the data using factor analysis identified seven key constructs that summarised important areas of concern when consumers evaluate theme parks. The majority of these factors were related to guest experiences such as (i) entertainment variety and quality; (ii) courtesy, cleanliness, safety and security; (iii) food variety and value for money; (iv) quality of theming and design; (v) availability and variety of family-oriented activities; (vi) quality and variety of rides and attractions; and (vii) pricing and value for money. Implications for theme park owners, operators and marketing executives were discussed in light of the increasing demand for distinctive guest experiences while visiting theme parks. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modelling consumer entertainment software choice: An exploratory examination of key attributes, and differences by gamer segment

Sunita Prugsamatz
From virtually nowhere 20 years ago to sales of US$9.5 billion in 2007, the video game industry has now overtaken movie industry box-office receipts in terms of annual sales, and blockbuster video games can out perform blockbuster movies for opening-week sales. This dramatic growth is likely to continue in coming years. Yet there has been little scholarly attention to consumers within the industry. This research fills this gap by providing a comprehensive study of consumer behaviour in the gaming industry, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB); a widely used, robust and reliable consumer research instrument. The study elicits key salient attributes for the major constructs in the TPB model , attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control , and shows how these key constructs affect purchase intention. To avoid aggregation error in analysing overall market data, this study segments the market and examines differences in perspective by gamer type. We therefore examine differences in these key salient attributes by gamer type to understand consumer motivations better. As the first systematic study to examine consumer behaviour issues in the gaming industry, this study provides useful insights to consumers' behaviour in a large, growing industry. Consumer perceptions and behaviour toward entertainment software is complex and this study is not the final word, but it is the first available empirical evidence and can thus move forward the discussion from speculation to replication, extension, and alternative approaches. For managers in this industry, this study demonstrates how a comprehensive model can be applied to entertainment software. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Taking stock of evidence-based medicine: opportunities for its continuing evolution

Stephen Buetow MA(Hons) PhD
Abstract Tough but constructive criticisms of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have without doubt informed the evolution and serial reconstitutions of this approach to clinical decision making and behaviour. Yet, concerns about EBM persist and as EBM changes in response to reflection and criticism, so too do the criticisms themselves. This paper describes our current understanding of EBM and, to identify opportunities for the continuing evolution of EBM, discusses some key attributes of EBM that still or now cause us concern. Specifically, these attributes are the nature of evidence in EBM; the unknown effectiveness of EBM; the clinician-centric focus of EBM; and the potential of EBM to harm patients. [source]

Ecologically Functional Floodplains: Connectivity, Flow Regime, and Scale,

Jeffrey J. Opperman
Opperman, Jeffrey J., Ryan Luster, Bruce A. McKenney, Michael Roberts, and Amanda Wrona Meadows, 2010. Ecologically Functional Floodplains: Connectivity, Flow Regime, and Scale. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(2):211-226. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00426.x Abstract:, This paper proposes a conceptual model that captures key attributes of ecologically functional floodplains, encompassing three basic elements: (1) hydrologic connectivity between the river and the floodplain, (2) a variable hydrograph that reflects seasonal precipitation patterns and retains a range of both high and low flow events, and (3) sufficient spatial scale to encompass dynamic processes and for floodplain benefits to accrue to a meaningful level. Although floodplains support high levels of biodiversity and some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth, they are also among the most converted and threatened ecosystems and therefore have recently become the focus of conservation and restoration programs across the United States and globally. These efforts seek to conserve or restore complex, highly variable ecosystems and often must simultaneously address both land and water management. Thus, such efforts must overcome considerable scientific, technical, and socioeconomic challenges. In addition to proposing a scientific conceptual model, this paper also includes three case studies that illustrate methods for addressing these technical and socioeconomic challenges within projects that seek to promote ecologically functional floodplains through river-floodplain reconnection and/or restoration of key components of hydrological variability. [source]

Training the ideal hospital doctor: the specialist registrars' perspective

N Khera
Background When training for junior doctors is being planned, little discussion is focused on what outcomes hospitals are trying to achieve with regard to education/training, i.e. on what makes the ideal hospital doctor. Instead, the primary focus is on the requirements of the syllabi of the Royal Colleges (credentialing) and the requirements of service delivery (job description). Current literature has no qualitative studies of any longitude in which middle-grade doctors are asked about their vision of the ideal hospital doctor, what they feel can be done to help realize this vision, and how they feel about their own training. Methods This study examined data principally collected through a series of semistructured interviews conducted with eight specialist registrars (SpRs), four each from the North Trent and South Thames rotations over a period of 18 months. Additional information was taken from focus groups, interviews with programme directors, and questionnaires. Findings A model was created of the SpRs' perceptions of the key attributes of an ideal hospital doctor and of how these may be achieved in training. Eight broad areas were identified: clinical knowledge and skills; key clinically related generic/non-clinical skills; self-directed learning and medical education; implementing change management; applying strategic and organizational skills in career planning; consultation skills; research; and key personal attributes. Conclusions SpRs are articulate in expressing their own expectations of their training and have considerable insight into the components of good training. Further improvement could be made and will require significant commitment from both trainees and trainers. [source]

Watershed protection: Capturing the benefits of nature's water supply services

Sandra L. Postel
Abstract Healthy watersheds provide valuable services to society, including the supply and purification of fresh water. Because these natural ecosystem services lie outside the traditional domain of commercial markets, they are undervalued and underprotected. With population and development pressures leading to the rapid modification of watershed lands, valuable hydrological services are being lost, which poses risks to the quality and cost of drinking water and the reliability of water supplies. Increasing the scale and scope of programmes to protect hydrological services requires policies that harmonize land uses in watersheds with the provision of these important natural services. This article summarizes key attributes of hydrological services and their economic benefits; presents a spectrum of institutional mechanisms for safeguarding those services; discusses programmes in Quito (Ecuador), Costa Rica and New York City; and offers some lessons learned and recommendations for achieving higher levels of watershed protection. [source]

Using Service-Customer Matrices in Strategic Analysis of Nonprofits

Anthony E. Boardman
This article demonstrates the value of service-customer matrices (SCMs) for managers performing strategic analysis of nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Some of the benefits of using SCMs are understanding the portfolio of businesses; clarifying what sponsors and clients value; identifying rivals, key attributes, and revenues on a service-customer segment basis; and understanding and formulating positioning strategy. [source]

An Analysis of the Concept of Patient Participation

NURSING FORUM, Issue 1 2008
BSc Health Service Adm., MSc Nursing, Monika J. M. Sahlsten PhD
The concept of patient participation has an array of interpretations and lacks clarity. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of patient participation within the context of nursing practice. The method described by Walker and Avant (1995) is used. The critical attributes of the concept are identified. Formation of model, borderline, and contrary cases exemplifies key characteristics. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents presented allow for further refinement of the key attributes defining the concept. Patient participation in nursing practice can be defined as an established relationship between nurse and patient, a surrendering of some power or control by the nurse, shared information and knowledge, and active engagement together in intellectual and/or physical activities. [source]

Commentary: Emerging Technologies Oversight: Research, Regulation, and Commercialization

Robbin Johnson
This paper reviews the paper by Kuzma, Najmaie, and Larson that looks at what can be learned from the experience with genetically engineered organisms for oversight of emerging technologies more generally. That paper identifies key attributes of a good oversight system: promoting innovation, ensuring safety, identifying benefits, assessing costs, and doing so all while building public confidence. In commenting on that analysis, this paper suggests that looking at "oversight" in three phases , research and development, regulatory review, and market acceptance , can help to determine when certain of these attributes should take precedence over others and how to structure remedies when an error occurs. The result is an approach that is precautionary with respect to research and development, prudent and open to public input in the regulatory review stage, and purposefully persuasive once market acceptability is at stake, with remedies that are risk-containing in the first phase, risk-managing in the second, and risk-assuaging in the third. Combining the key attributes with the idea of three phases can help attune oversight to society's needs. [source]

Growth and Development of a Body of Knowledge: 16 Years of New Product Development Research, 1989,2004,

Albert L. Page
In this study, a content analysis was performed on 815 articles focused on new product development (NPD) published in 10 selected leading marketing, management, NPD, and research and development (R&D) journals from 1989 to 2004. Journals selected were a combination of leading journals in the discipline and publications that included NPD articles. NPD articles were classified by a series of key attributes including methodology employed, domains of knowledge utilized, and broad topics explored. The resulting data were then studied to discern trends over time or common characteristics within domains, methodologies, or journals. The study of NPD has grown since the Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) was launched in 1984. This study shows strong growth in the number of articles on NPD in each category of journal selected. The research in the articles has changed: The early focus on a few selected success factors or a staged development process has evolved and broadened over the 16-year period. More variables and more sophisticated models are being studied in NPD articles. The study found a continuing evolution in research topics and increased sophistication in quantitative techniques over the 16-year period. Overall this review of the NPD literature uncovers encouraging signs of a maturing discipline. However, there are concerns about continuing issues in methodology, insufficient study of service innovation, and continued focus on process characteristics instead of other antecedents of NPD success. The service sector seems to be understudied, even as the reality of a service economy is generally acknowledged. The call in a recent meta-analysis to focus more on market and product characteristics and less on process characteristics has not yet been heeded, even by marketing researchers. [source]

What makes a community age-friendly: A review of international literature

Chi-Wai Lui
This paper undertakes a comprehensive review of the growing international literature on age-friendly communities. It examines a range of approaches and identifies the key attributes associated with creating a sustainable environment for seniors. The authors critically evaluate emerging policy trends and models and suggest directions for future research attention. The discussion provides important information and insights for the development of ageing policy and planning in Australia. [source]