Key Arguments (key + argument)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


DIFFICULT DISTINCTIONS: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and Political Identification in Gaza

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
ILANA FELDMAN
In this article, I explore the intersection of humanitarian practice and refugee law in shaping categories of "refugee" and "citizen" in Gaza in the first years after 1948. I examine how humanitarian practice produced enduring distinctions within the Gazan population and provided a space in which ideas about Palestinian citizenship began to take shape. A key argument is that humanitarianism, despite commitments to political neutrality, often has profound and enduring political effects. In this case, humanitarian distinctions contributed to making the "refugee" a central figure in the Palestinian political landscape. I also consider how humanitarianism in Palestine was guided by the larger, emerging postwar refugee regime, even as Palestinians were formally excluded from some of its mechanisms. [source]


REFORM OF THE PERSONAL INCOME TAX SYSTEM IN AUSTRALIA

ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2005
Jeff Pope
This paper examines the case for reform of Australia's Personal Income Tax (PIT), argues that it is outdated, and demonstrates a growing consensus for reform. The importance of tax avoidance, particularly the use of trusts, in the Australian PIT system, and arguably its abrogation of modern-day criteria of what constitutes a ,good tax', is emphasised. Three possible ,reform' options are identified: the ,tinkering and tokenism' approach of current Government policy; moderate reform and a proposed ,significant reform option' costing around $22 billion. Essentially this comprises company and top PIT rate equalisation and a doubling of the tax-free threshold. But funding this is problematical. Two key arguments of the paper are that: (real) simplification i.e. lower compliance costs, is an important yet usually down-played objective in reform proposals; savings from reform denying PIT deductions such as work expenses are insufficient to achieve significant PIT reform. An increase in the rate of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) from 10% to 15% (with a compensation package) is therefore advocated in a revenue-neutral analysis ignoring current Government budget surpluses. The overall outcome would be a simplified, more equitable and incentive-driven PIT system that would move Australia closer to the PIT and GST policies of other OECD countries. But the political difficulties of reform mean that the Government's ,tinkering' approach is likely to continue. [source]


Denying equality: an analysis of arguments against lowering the age of consent for sex between men

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Sonja J. Ellis
Abstract This paper takes a human rights approach to lesbian and gay oppression and critically explores the arguments used to oppose equality in debates about the age of consent for sex between men. A thematic analysis of Hansard and newspaper reports produced in Britain during the 1990s showed that opponents of a proposal to equalize the age of consent countered with three key arguments: (1) principles of right and wrong take precedence over equality; (2) principles of democracy take precedence over equality; (3) principles of care and protection take precedence over equality. Two additional arguments (concerning the health risks of anal intercourse and escalating demands for gay rights) are also outlined. Our findings are discussed with reference to debates on other lesbian and gay rights issues and we consider the ways in which these arguments might best be resisted. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Promoting the skills of knowledge translation in an online master of science course in primary health care

THE JOURNAL OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS, Issue 2 2006
FRCGP, ILTM, Trisha Greenhalgh MA
Abstract We present 4 key arguments: (1) knowledge translation requires tacit and explicit knowledge that must be introduced into the organization as well as simply acquired by individuals; (2) educating for knowledge translation must go beyond conveying facts and developing capability; (3) a constructivist and collaborative approach to education can address the needs of learners for knowledge translation; and (4) the online environment, if appropriately used, has many useful features for supporting constructivist and collaborative learning. We illustrate these arguments with reference to a part-time online master of science course whose learners are mostly senior health care professionals engaged in knowledge translation. [source]