Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Key

  • identification key
  • session key

  • Terms modified by Key

  • key Intermediate
  • key activity
  • key actor
  • key adaptation
  • key advance
  • key advantage
  • key agreement
  • key amino acid residue
  • key application
  • key approach
  • key area
  • key argument
  • key article
  • key aspect
  • key asset
  • key assumption
  • key attribute
  • key barrier
  • key brain regions
  • key building block
  • key catalyst
  • key challenge
  • key change
  • key character
  • key characteristic
  • key chemokine
  • key clinical
  • key component
  • key compound
  • key concept
  • key concern
  • key conclusion
  • key consideration
  • key construct
  • key contribution
  • key contributor
  • key criterioN
  • key criterion
  • key criticism
  • key cytokine
  • key data
  • key debate
  • key decision
  • key determinant
  • key development
  • key difference
  • key dimension
  • key direction
  • key discovery
  • key document
  • key domain
  • key driver
  • key drivers
  • key ecosystem process
  • key effector
  • key element
  • key environmental factor
  • key enzyme
  • key event
  • key evidence
  • key example
  • key exchange protocol
  • key factor
  • key feature
  • key figure
  • key finding
  • key focus
  • key fragment
  • key frame
  • key function
  • key gene
  • key goal
  • key group
  • key groups
  • key habitat
  • key hypothesis
  • key idea
  • key implication
  • key importance
  • key indicator
  • key individual
  • key influence
  • key informant
  • key informant interview
  • key information
  • key ingredient
  • key initiative
  • key innovation
  • key input
  • key insight
  • key instrument
  • key interaction
  • key intermediate
  • key intervention
  • key issue
  • key issues
  • key item
  • key journal
  • key leader
  • key learning point
  • key lesson
  • key life-history trait
  • key limitation
  • key link
  • key locations
  • key marker
  • key material
  • key measure
  • key mechanism
  • key mediator
  • key member
  • key message
  • key metabolite
  • key modulator
  • key molecular event
  • key molecule
  • key motivation
  • key negative regulator
  • key neurotransmitter
  • key nutrient
  • key objective
  • key observation
  • key obstacle
  • key operating parameter
  • key outcome
  • key parameter
  • key part
  • key participant
  • key performance indicator
  • key person
  • key personnel
  • key pest
  • key phase
  • key player
  • key point
  • key position
  • key precursor
  • key prediction
  • key predictor
  • key principle
  • key problem
  • key process
  • key property
  • key protein
  • key publication
  • key question
  • key reaction
  • key reaction intermediate
  • key reason
  • key recommendation
  • key regions
  • key regulator
  • key regulatory molecule
  • key regulatory role
  • key relationships
  • key requirement
  • key research question
  • key residue
  • key resource
  • key responsibility
  • key result
  • key risk factor
  • key role
  • key signalling molecule
  • key site
  • key skill
  • key source
  • key species
  • key stage
  • key stakeholder
  • key step
  • key strategy
  • key structural feature
  • key structure
  • key studies
  • key success factor
  • key supplier
  • key target
  • key task
  • key technology
  • key tenet
  • key term
  • key text
  • key theme
  • key themes
  • key time
  • key tool
  • key topics
  • key trait
  • key transcription factor
  • key value
  • key variable
  • key word
  • key worker
  • key worker role

  • Selected Abstracts


    Given considerable racial differences in voluntary turnover (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006, Table 28), the present study examined the influence of diversity climate perceptions on turnover intentions among managerial employees in a national retail organization. The authors hypothesized that pro-diversity work climate perceptions would correlate most negatively with turnover intentions among Blacks, followed in order of strength by Hispanics and Whites (Hypothesis 1), and that organizational commitment would mediate these interactive effects of race and diversity climate perceptions on turnover intentions (Hypothesis 2). Results from a sample of 5,370 managers partially supported both hypotheses, as findings were strongest among Blacks. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, White men and women exhibited slightly stronger effects than Hispanic personnel. [source]

    Disruption of gap junctions attenuates aminoglycoside-elicited renal tubular cell injury

    Jian Yao
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Gap junctions play important roles in the regulation of cell phenotype and in determining cell survival after various insults. Here, we investigated the role of gap junctions in aminoglycoside-induced injury to renal tubular cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Two tubular epithelial cell lines NRK-E52 and LLC-PK1 were compared for gap junction protein expression and function by immunofluorescent staining, Western blot and dye transfer assay. Cell viability after exposure to aminoglycosides was evaluated by WST assay. Gap junctions were modulated by transfection of the gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43), use of Cx43 siRNA and gap junction inhibitors. KEY RESULTS NRK-E52 cells expressed abundant Cx43 and were functionally coupled by gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Exposure of NRK-E52 cells to aminoglycosides, G418 and hygromycin, increased Cx43 phosphorylation and GJIC. The aminoglycosides also decreased cell viability that was prevented by gap junction inhibitors and Cx43 siRNA. LLC-PK1 cells were gap junction-deficient and resistant to aminoglycoside-induced cytotoxicity. Over-expression of a wild-type Cx43 converted LLC-PK1 cells to a drug-sensitive phenotype. The gap junction inhibitor ,-glycyrrhetinic acid (,-GA) activated Akt in NRK-E52 cells. Inhibition of the Akt pathway enhanced cell toxicity to G418 and abolished the protective effects of ,-GA. In addition, gentamycin-elicited cytotoxicity in NRK-E52 cells was also significantly attenuated by ,-GA. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Gap junctions contributed to the cytotoxic effects of aminoglycosides. Modulation of gap junctions could be a promising approach for prevention and treatment of aminoglycoside-induced renal tubular cell injury. [source]

    From segment to somite: Segmentation to epithelialization analyzed within quantitative frameworks

    Paul M. Kulesa
    Abstract One of the most visually striking patterns in the early developing embryo is somite segmentation. Somites form as repeated, periodic structures in pairs along nearly the entire caudal vertebrate axis. The morphological process involves short- and long-range signals that drive cell rearrangements and cell shaping to create discrete, epithelialized segments. Key to developing novel strategies to prevent somite birth defects that involve axial bone and skeletal muscle development is understanding how the molecular choreography is coordinated across multiple spatial scales and in a repeating temporal manner. Mathematical models have emerged as useful tools to integrate spatiotemporal data and simulate model mechanisms to provide unique insights into somite pattern formation. In this short review, we present two quantitative frameworks that address the morphogenesis from segment to somite and discuss recent data of segmentation and epithelialization. Developmental Dynamics 236:1392,1402, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spatial dynamics of supercolonies of the invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean

    K. L. AbbottArticle first published online: 19 DEC 200
    ABSTRACT Key to the management of invasive species is an understanding of the scope of an invasion, the rate of proliferation and the rate at which invaded habitats become degraded. This study examines the spatial dynamics of high-density supercolonies of the invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, and the associated impacts at their boundaries. Since the early 1990s, A. gracilipes supercolonies have occupied over 30% of the 10,000 ha of rainforest on Christmas Island. Thirty-four discrete high-density supercolonies formed between 1989 and 2003, ranging in size across nearly three orders of magnitude from 0.9 to 787 ha. Supercolonies boundaries are diffuse, and ants were observed in low densities in some cases up to 200 m from the main high-density supercolony. The 13 boundaries examined were all dynamic over a 10,20 observation month period: nine boundaries expanded, and the maximum rate of spread was 0.5 m day,1. Across boundary transition zones, between high-density supercolonies and intact rainforest, yellow crazy ants reduced other ant species richness, occupied red crab burrows and killed resident red crabs, which was the trigger for ,invasional meltdown' on Christmas Island. The highly variable and unpredictable nature of A. gracilipes boundaries poses a challenge for incorporation into a predictive framework, as well as for their management. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2006
    Tyson E. LewisArticle first published online: 3 MAY 200
    Agamben's theory of the camp provides a challenging, critical vantage point for looking at the ambiguities that emerge from the complex field of disciplinary procedures now prevalent in inner-city, low-income, minority schools, and helps to clarify what exactly is at stake in the symbolic and sometimes physical violence of schooling. Key to understanding the primary relation between camp and classroom is Agamben's framework of the biopolitical, which paradoxically includes life as a political concern through its exclusion from the political sphere. Here Lewis appropriates Agamben's terminology in order to theorize the biopedagogical, wherein educational life is included in schooling through its abandonment. For Lewis, the theory of the camp is necessary to recognizing how schools function and, in turn, how they could function differently. [source]

    Implication of polymer toxicity in a municipal wastewater effluent

    Carolyn D. Rowland
    Abstract The use of cationic polymers as flocculants and coagulant aids to control suspended solid levels in the water and wastewater treatment industry is widespread in most developed countries. Today, the most frequently used clarification polymers, polyacrylamides, are often proprietary, and little information exists on the ecological impacts of these products. Following standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) whole effluent toxicity testing (WET) protocols, effluent toxicity can be detected via organism response, yet methods to positively characterize cationic polymers in effluents are not provided in U.S. EPA Phase I toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) protocols. Implication of cationic polymer toxicity in a municipal wastewater effluent was achieved through a series of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity testing with toxicant elimination steps that included extensive effluent characterization and effluent manipulation. Key in the identification was a discrepancy in effluent toxicity with respect to the type of container in which the effluents were stored. All effluent toxicity was lost within 48 h of storage in plastic containers, while on the contrary, effluent toxicity persisted in glass-contained samples for up to 4 weeks of 4°C storage. A weight-of-evidence approach suggested that the cationic polyacrilamide polymer, Hyperfloc®, was the primary source of acute toxicity in the effluent. Removal of this polymer significantly reduced effluent toxicity. This study suggests that cationic polymer-related toxicity might not be detected if effluent samples are stored in plastic containers. [source]

    From Central to Axial to Central Chirality: Enantioselective Construction of the trans -4,5,9,10-Tetrahydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene System

    Georgi Stavrakov
    Abstract Enantioselective synthesis of the core trans -4,5,9,10-tetrahydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene parent system of the antibiotics benanimicin, pradimicin and FD 594 has been accomplished. The synthesis employs a chiral tether approach and makes use of efficient central to axial to central chirality transfer. Key to success was an "imine-directed" atropdiastereoselective Ullmann coupling under mild reaction conditions. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    Trichoderma biodiversity in China: Evidence for a North to South distribution of species in East Asia

    Chu-long Zhang
    Abstract Towards assessing the biodiversity and biogeography of Trichoderma, we have analyzed the occurrence of Trichoderma species in soil and litter from four areas in China: North (Hebei province), South-East (Zhejiang province), West (Himalayan, Tibet) and South-West (Yunnan province). One hundred and thirty five isolates were grouped according to tentative morphological identification. A representative 64 isolates were verified at the species level by the oligonucleotide barcode program TrichO Key v.1.0 and the custom BLAST server Tricho BLAST, using sequences of the ITS1 and 2 region of the rRNA cluster and from the longest intron of the tef1 (translation elongation factor 1-,) gene. Eleven known species (Trichoderma asperellum, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. velutinum, T. cerinum, T. virens, T. harzianum, T. sinensis, T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum) and two putative new species (T. sp. C1, and T. sp. C2), distinguished from known species both by morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis, were identified. A significant difference in the occurrence of these species was found between the North (Hebei) and South-West (Yunnan) areas, which correlates with previously reported species distributions in Siberia and South-East Asia, respectively. As in previous studies, T. harzianum accounted for almost half of the biodiversity; although, in this study, it was exclusively found in the North, and was predominantly represented by an ITS1 and 2 haplotype, which has so far been rarely found elsewhere. This study therefore reveals a North,South gradient in species distribution in East Asia, and identifies Northern China as a potential center of origin of a unique haplotype of T. harzianum. [source]

    Understanding Dryland Landscape Dynamics: Do Biological Crusts Hold the Key?

    Heather A. Viles
    Understanding landscape dynamics in arid and semi-arid areas is becoming increasingly important, as global change threatens to upset linked ecological and geomorphological systems with potentially serous impacts on livelihoods and environments. Biological crusts (composed of lichens, algae, fungi and bacteria) cover many rock, soil and sediment surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas and provide a key to understanding future dryland landscape dynamics. Such crusts have been found to play a number of key geomorphic and ecological roles, and are identified as important ecosystem engineers and biogeomorphological agents that could be used in environmental restoration. However, they have also been reported to be highly fragile and susceptible to disturbance, and damage to them may result in non-linear consequences for linked dryland geomorphological and ecological systems. This paper outlines the current state of knowledge on biological crusts in arid and semi-arid areas and calls for increased collaboration between geomorphologists and ecologists and better links between studies of biological crusts on rock and soil surfaces. [source]

    Parent-Identified Barriers to Pediatric Health Care: A Process-Oriented Model

    Elisa J. Sobo
    Objective. To further understand barriers to care as experienced by health care consumers, and to demonstrate the importance of conjoining qualitative and quantitative health services research. Data Sources. Transcripts from focus groups conducted in San Diego with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with special health care needs. Study Design. Participants were asked about the barriers to care they had experienced or perceived, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers. Using elementary anthropological discourse analysis techniques, a process-based conceptual model of the parent experience was devised. Principal Findings. The analysis revealed a parent-motivated model of barriers to care that enriched our understanding of quantitative findings regarding the population from which the focus group sample was drawn. Parent-identified barriers were grouped into the following six temporally and spatially sequenced categories: necessary skills and prerequisites for gaining access to the system; realizing access once it is gained; front office experiences; interactions with physicians; system arbitrariness and fragmentation; outcomes that affect future interaction with the system. Key to the successful navigation of the system was parents' functional biomedical acculturation; this construct likens the biomedical health services system to a cultural system within which all parents/patients must learn to function competently. Conclusions. Qualitative analysis of focus group data enabled a deeper understanding of barriers to care,one that went beyond the traditional association of marker variables with poor outcomes ("what") to reveal an understanding of the processes by which parents experience the health care system ("how,""why") and by which disparities may arise. Development of such process-oriented models furthers the provision of patient-centered care and the creation of interventions, programs, and curricula to enhance such care. Qualitative discourse analysis, for example using this project's widely applicable protocol for generating experientially based models, can enhance our knowledge of the parent/patient experience and aid in the development of more powerful conceptualizations of key health care constructs. [source]

    Synthesis of (+)-13-Stemarene and (+)-18-Deoxystemarin: Expeditious Preparation of the Key 6- exo -Hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-one, Ethylene Dithioacetal

    Francesca Leonelli
    Abstract An expeditious preparation of the 6- exo -hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-one ethylene dithioacetal 2b, a key intermediate in the synthesis of (+)-13-stemarene (4) and (+)-18-deoxystemarin (5) is described. Compound 2b was obtained as the major product by equilibrating the endo rich mixture of 6-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-one ethylene dithioacetals 2 with TsOH in benzene at reflux, easily available from the corresponding hydroxy ketones 9. The model experiments which preceeded the above transformation, not previously described in the literature, are also presented. [source]

    The Global Marketplace and the Privatisation of Security

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 2 2009
    Jeffrey Isima
    The privatisation of security in the age of globalisation raises crucial concerns for global governance and development. Key among these are the impacts on the structures of poverty and inequality, and how these twin development issues shape global security privatisation. Equally important are the structural limits on public policy imposed by the promotion of the market as a powerful alternative mechanism for security provisioning. These concerns have become more urgent as the dominant neoliberal security governance paradigm has tended to avoid questions relating to poverty, social inequality and the dire condition of those who live on the margins of state protection. This calls for innovative policy changes for transforming security institutions and practices in a way that promotes security, not just for state officials and the wealthy, but most importantly, for the poor. This article attempts to explore these core development concerns in relation to the increasing outsourcing of security to non-state actors and how state actors, as leading agents of development, can protect and promote the wellbeing of vulnerable populations within the global market order. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2000
    WU Zhi-shan
    Abstract, A new species and a new record of the genus Centistideu Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae:) are reported from China in this paper. Centistideu immitis Wu et Chen is new to science and Centistideu irruptor (Papp) is recorded for the first time from China. Key to the species of the genus paper is also provided. The type specimens and other material examined are deposited in the Beneficial Insects Lab, Fujian Agricultural University, Fuzhou. [source]

    Reproductive stem cell research and its application to urology

    Takehiko Ogawa
    Abstract: Germ cells are defined by their innate potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation through fertilization. Males produce numerous sperm for long periods to maximize chances of fertilization. Key to the continuous production of large numbers of sperm are germline stem cells and their immediate daughter cells, functioning as transit amplifying cells. Recently, it has become possible to expand germline stem cells of rodents in vitro. In addition, multipotent stem cells, which are functionally the same as embryonic stem cells, have been established from neonatal mouse testes. These stem cells derived from the testis should contribute to biological research and technologies. On the other hand, the nature of human spermatogenesis is largely unknown due to the lack of an appropriate experimental system. However, the prevailing testicular sperm extraction procedure unraveled hitherto unknown facets of human spermatogenesis. The establishment of a culturing method for human spermatogonial stem cells in hopefully the near future would be a great benefit for achieving further insight into human spermatogenesis and should lead to more sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic clinical measures for male infertility. [source]

    Kinetic Enzymatic Resolution of Cyclopropane Derivatives

    Jörg Pietruszka
    Abstract The kinetic enzymatic resolution of various cyclopropane derivatives was systematically investigated. The study focused on synthetically useful cyclopropylmethanols (e.g., 18a/j or 19a/j) as well as some rarely investigated cyclopropanols (e.g., 24/25 or 27). The combination of enantioselective catalytic or diastereoselective synthesis of enantiomerically enriched compounds with enzymatic approaches ultimately led to the most convenient route to enantiomerically pure starting materials. Again, this was especially proven for the synthesis of cyclopropanols 18a/j and 19a/j. Key to the successful investigation was to rigorously establish an analytical tool for the analysis of enantiomeric composition of reaction mixtures. [source]

    REVIEW: Mechanisms driving change: altered species interactions and ecosystem function through global warming

    Lochran W. Traill
    Summary 1.,We review the mechanisms behind ecosystem functions, the processes that facilitate energy transfer along food webs, and the major processes that allow the cycling of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, and use case studies to show how these have already been, and will continue to be, altered by global warming. 2.,Increased temperatures will affect the interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs (e.g. pollination and seed dispersal), and between heterotrophs (e.g. predators-prey, parasites/pathogens-hosts), with generally negative ramifications for important ecosystem services (functions that provide direct benefit to human society such as pollination) and potential for heightened species co-extinction rates. 3.,Mitigation of likely impacts of warming will require, in particular, the maintenance of species diversity as insurance for the provision of basic ecosystem services. Key to this will be long-term monitoring and focused research that seek to maintain ecosystem resilience in the face of global warming. 4.,We provide guidelines for pursuing research that quantifies the nexus between ecosystem function and global warming. These include documentation of key functional species groups within systems, and understanding the principal outcomes arising from direct and indirect effects of a rapidly warming environment. Localized and targeted research and monitoring, complemented with laboratory work, will determine outcomes for resilience and guide adaptive conservation responses and long-term planning. [source]

    A differential thermal expansion approach to crystal structure determination from powder diffraction data

    P. Fernandes
    Differential thermal expansion over the range 90,210,K has been applied successfully to determine the crystal structure of chlorothiazide from synchrotron powder diffraction data using direct methods. Key to the success of the approach is the use of a multi-data-set Pawley refinement to extract a set of reflection intensities that is more `single-crystal-like' than those extracted from a single data set. The improvement in reflection intensity estimates is quantified by comparison with reference single-crystal intensities. [source]

    GENERAL: Prices Hold Key To Growth

    Article first published online: 1 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cross-talk between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and membrane integrins to regulate cell physiology

    James Beattie
    The biology of cross-talk between activated growth factor receptors and cell-surface integrins is an area which has attracted much interest in recent years (Schwartz and Ginsberg, 2002). This review discusses the relationship between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and cell-surface integrin receptors in the regulation of various aspects of cell physiology. Key to these interactions are signals transmitted between integrins and the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) when either or both are bound to their cognate ligands and we will review the current state of knowledge in this area. The IGF axis comprises many molecular components and we will also discuss the potential role of these species in cross-talk with the integrin receptor. With respect to integrin ligands, we will mainly focus on the well-characterized interactions of the two extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins fibronectin (FN) and vitronectin (VN) with cell-surface ligands, and, how this affects activity through the IGF axis. However, we will also highlight the importance of other integrin activation mechanisms and their impact on IGF activity. J. Cell. Physiol. 224: 605,611, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pathophysiology of Target-Organ Disease: Does Angiotensin II Remain the Key?

    Ronald G. Victor MD
    Basic research provides an increasingly compelling rationale for renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade in hypertension treatment and cardiovascular risk reduction. Clinical trials addressing blood pressure-independent effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, however, have yielded mixed results, in part because of incomplete RAS blockade. Animal studies have shed new light on the complexity of RAS pathways involved in the induction of target-organ damage. New outcomes trials are under way to explore the full potential of more complete RAS blockade with regard to cardiovascular target-organ protection. [source]

    The Role of the Individual , A Key to Learning in Preparedness Organizations

    Jerry Nilsson
    A well functioning societal response to crises is benefited by individuals having adequate skills and knowledge. From a municipal perspective this requires the creation of a learning organization. The objective of this study is to determine whether individual municipal employees, who have the responsibility for preparedness planning, reason and act in ways that promote learning about crises and preparedness issues throughout the municipal organization. Analysis of interviews with preparedness planners in six Swedish municipalities on their strategies for preparedness planning, reveal that preparedness planning too often becomes a demarcated activity, restricted to not more than a handful of individuals. This study indicates that one reason for why the preparedness work becomes demarcated is that individuals central to the preparedness planning are not taking on roles for acting in ways that are required in order for a learning organization to be established. [source]

    .177 Caliber Pellet Classification System and Identification Key,

    James A. Bailey Ph.D.
    Abstract:, A classification system and identification key for .177 caliber air gun pellets was developed based on a five-class characteristic criterion. Sixty-eight pellet types from 15 companies were examined and compared. A classification system was developed based on the pellets' head shapes, skirt types, lengths, weights, and other markings or observations. In some cases, when a pellet is recovered from a crime scene, product brand identification may aid the investigation. Even though all product brands cannot be identified, various brands of pellets can be eliminated based on a pellet's class characteristics. The pellet producers in this study were located in the following countries: China, Czech Republic, England, Korea, Spain, and the United States. An identification key can be used for possible pellet identification or elimination. [source]

    Promotion of clinical science Key Symposium series in the honour of Axel Key, a pioneer in medicine

    Gøran Holm Editor-in-chief
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The development and regulation of lobbying in the new member states of the European Union

    Conor McGrath
    This paper focuses on lobbying as a political activity and the emergence of lobbying regulation in 10 new member states of the European Union (EU). The analysis begins with general observations about lobbying in post-communist states and on the development of lobbying in three of the larger new member states: Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Key to how lobbying will continue to develop in the future in these 10 countries is how it will be regulated and controlled. Therefore, the paper examines this in some detail. The analysis concludes with some recommendations on the role that could be played by professional bodies, which represent lobbyists in gaining more acceptance for interest groups in these new member states. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Travel Medicine: Key to Improved Adult Vaccination against Hepatitis A and B

    Charles D. Ericsson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Review article: the abdominal compartment syndrome

    S. M. LERNER
    Summary Background, The term abdominal compartment syndrome refers to hypoperfusion and ischaemia of intra-abdominal viscera and structures caused by raised intra-abdominal pressure. It occurs most commonly following major trauma and complex surgical procedures, but can also occur in their absence. Definitive treatment is decompression at laparotomy. Prevention and recognition of abdominal compartment syndrome are crucial to avoid additional morbidity and mortality. Postinjury abdominal compartment syndrome continues to complicate current resuscitation methods and new strategies for resuscitating critically ill patients need to be explored in addition to more accurate monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure. Aim, To examine the published literature regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of the abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods, A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken. Results, This syndrome is an important complication of major trauma and surgery as well as being recognized in critically-ill medical patients. It requires prompt recognition with a view to decompression at laparotomy. Conclusions, The abdominal compartment syndrome is an important complication of trauma, surgery and resuscitation. Key to its management are its prompt recognition and abdominal decompression. [source]

    Land under pressure: soil conservation concerns and opportunities for Ethiopia

    B. G. J. S. Sonneveld
    Abstract This paper evaluates the future impact of soil degradation on national food security and land occupation in Ethiopia. It applies a spatial optimization model that maximizes national agricultural revenues under alternative scenarios of soil conservation, land accessibility and technology. The constraints in the model determine whether people remain on their original site, migrate within their ethnically defined areas or are allowed a transregional migration. Key to this model is the combination of a water erosion model with a spatial yield function that gives an estimate of the agricultural yield in its geographical dependence of natural resources and population distribution. A comparison of simulated land productivity values with historical patterns shows that results are interpretable and yield more accurate outcomes than postulating straightforward reductions in yield or land area for each geographic entity. The results of the optimization model show that in absence of soil erosion control, the future agricultural production stagnates and results in distressing food shortages, while rural incomes drop dramatically below the poverty line. Soil conservation and migration support a slow growth, but do not suffice to meet the expected food demand. In a transregional migration scenario, the highly degraded areas are exchanged for less affected sites, whereas cultivation on already substantially degraded soils largely continues when resettlement is confined to the original ethnic,administrative entity. A shift to modern technology offers better prospects and moderates the migration, but soil conservation remains indispensable, especially in the long term. Finally, an accelerated growth of non-agricultural sectors further alleviates poverty in the countryside, contributing to higher income levels of the total population and, simultaneously, relieving the pressure on the land through rural,urban migration. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Systematic review: applications and future of gastric electrical stimulation

    J. ZHANG
    Summary Background, Over the past 20 years, gastric electrical stimulation has received increasing attention among researchers and clinicians. Aim, To give a systematic review on the effects, mechanisms and applications of gastric electrical stimulation. Methods, Medline was used to identify the articles to be included in this review. Key words used for the search included gastric electrical stimulation, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, stomach, gastrointestinal motility, central nervous system, gastroparesis, nausea and vomiting; obesity and weight loss. Combinational uses of these keywords were made to identify relevant articles. Most of the articles included in this review ranged from 1985 to 2006. Results, Based on the general search, the review was structured as follows: (i) peripheral and central effects and mechanisms of gastric electrical stimulation; (ii) clinical applications of gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis and obesity and (iii) future development of gastric electrical stimulation. Conclusions, Great progress has been made during the past decades. Gastric electrical stimulation has been shown to be effective in normalizing gastric dysrhythmia, accelerating gastric emptying and improving nausea and vomiting. Implantable device has been made available for treating gastroparesis as well as obesity. However, development of a new device and controlled clinical studies are required to further prove clinical efficacy of gastric electrical stimulation. [source]

    Discovery of the hepatitis C virus

    Michael Houghton
    Abstract After nearly 6 years of intensive investigations between 1982 and 1988 in my laboratory at Chiron corporation, in which numerous molecular biological methods were used to investigate the viral aetiology of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH), a single cDNA clone (5-1-1) was isolated that was shown to be derived from a new flavi-like virus, termed the hepatitis C virus (HCV). After screening hundreds of millions of bacterial cDNA clones derived from different liver and plasma samples obtained from experimentally infected chimpanzees, a single HCV clone was eventually isolated using a novel, blind immunoscreening method in which antibodies derived from a clinically diagnosed NANBH patient were used to identify a cDNA clone encoding an immunodominant epitope within HCV nonstructural protein 4. Its viral origin was demonstrated by its specific hybridization to a large single-stranded RNA molecule of ,10 000 nucleotides found only in NANBH-infected samples that shared distant sequence identity with flaviviruses. Further, HCV clone 5-1-1 was shown to be extrachromosomal and to encode an antigen eliciting antibody seroconversion only in NANBH-infected chimpanzees and humans. Subsequent work demonstrated that HCV was the principal cause of parenterally transmitted NANBH around the world, with an estimated 170 million global carriers and that blood screening tests detecting circulating HCV antibodies and viral RNA could effectively eradicate the transmission of transfusion-associated NANBH. Key viral-encoded enzymes essential to its life cycle are now the targets of vigorous, ongoing drug development activities, and the feasibility of successful vaccination strategies has been demonstrated using the valuable chimpanzee model, without which any progress on HCV would not have been possible. My colleagues and coworkers who made essential contributions to the discovery of HCV were George Kuo, who had his own laboratory at Chiron and who provided intellectual and practical input, Dan Bradley of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, who provided a large supply of well-characterized chimpanzee samples and knowledge of the NANBH field, and Qui-Lim Choo, in my own laboratory, who provided many years of outstandingly dedicated and precise molecular biology expertise. [source]

    Trabecular bone volume fraction mapping by low-resolution MRI

    M.A. Fernández-Seara
    Abstract Trabecular bone volume fraction (TBVF) is highly associated with the mechanical competence of trabecular bone. TBVF is ordinarily measured by histomorphometry from bone biopsies or, noninvasively, by means of high-resolution microcomputed tomography and, more recently, by micro-MRI. The latter methods require spatial resolution sufficient to resolve trabeculae, along with segmentation techniques that allow unambiguous assignment of the signal to bone or bone marrow. In this article it is shown that TBVF can be measured under low-resolution conditions by exploiting the attenuation of the MR signal resulting from fractional occupancy of the imaging voxel by bone and bone marrow, provided that a reference signal is available from a marrow volume devoid of trabeculation. The method requires accurate measurement of apparent proton density, which entails correction for various sources of error. Key among these are the spatial nonuniformity in the RF field amplitude and effects of the slice profile, which are determined by B1 field mapping and numerical integration of the Bloch equations, respectively. By contrast, errors from variations in bone marrow composition (hematopoietic vs. fatty) between trabecular and reference site are predicted to be small and usually negligible. The method was evaluated in phantoms and in vivo in the distal radius and found to be accurate to 1% in marrow volume fraction. Finally, in a group of 12 patients of varying skeletal status, TBVF in the calcaneus was found to strongly correlate with integral bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.0001). The method may fail in large imaging objects such as the human trunk at high magnetic field where standing wave and RF penetration effects cause intensity variations that cannot be corrected. Magn Reson Med 46:103,113, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]