Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Keeping

  • livestock keeping
  • record keeping

  • Terms modified by Keeping

  • keeping pace
  • keeping quality

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Keeping Up with the Joneses and the Home Bias

    Beni Lauterbach
    F30; G11; G12; G15 Abstract We argue that when individuals care about their consumption relative to that of their neighbours, a home bias emerges, that is investors overweight domestic stocks in their portfolios. Domestic stocks are preferred because they also serve the objective of mimicking the economic fortunes and welfare of the investor's neighbours, countrymen, and social reference group. We also demonstrate that globalization mitigates the home bias, and derive a modified international CAPM. [source]

    Keeping up or Falling behind?

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 4 2008
    Poverty, Tax Uprating on Incomes, The Impact of Benefit
    D31; I38 Abstract Each year, the government decides how much to raise benefits and tax allowances. In the UK, the basis for these upratings is rarely debated, yet has major long-term consequences for the relative living standards of different groups as well as for the public finances. This paper considers the medium-term implications of present uprating policies, which vary across parameters of the tax,benefit system. Continuing these policies for 20 years, other things staying the same, would result in a near doubling of the child poverty rate alongside a substantial gain to the public finances. At the same time, pensioners are largely protected by the earnings indexation of pensioner benefits including, in time, the basic state pension. We show how difficult it will be to meet the UK child poverty targets unless the greater inequality inherent in the current regime for uprating payments and allowances is redressed. [source]

    Novel tools for extraction and validation of disease-related mutations applied to fabry disease,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 9 2010
    Remko Kuipers
    Abstract Genetic disorders are often caused by nonsynonymous nucleotide changes in one or more genes associated with the disease. Specific amino acid changes, however, can lead to large variability of phenotypic expression. For many genetic disorders this results in an increasing amount of publications describing phenotype-associated mutations in disorder-related genes. Keeping up with this stream of publications is essential for molecular diagnostics and translational research purposes but often impossible due to time constraints: there are simply too many articles to read. To help solve this problem, we have created Mutator, an automated method to extract mutations from full-text articles. Extracted mutations are crossreferenced to sequence data and a scoring method is applied to distinguish false-positives. To analyze stored and new mutation data for their (potential) effect we have developed Validator, a Web-based tool specifically designed for DNA diagnostics. Fabry disease, a monogenetic gene disorder of the GLA gene, was used as a test case. A structure-based sequence alignment of the alpha-amylase superfamily was used to validate results. We have compared our data with existing Fabry mutation data sets obtained from the HGMD and Swiss-Prot databases. Compared to these data sets, Mutator extracted 30% additional mutations from the literature. Hum Mutat 31:1026,1032, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Keeping Up With Scientific Advances

    Rose Marry Carroll-Johonson MN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Keeping up with change

    Jane McCaffrey DFASHRM
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Economic and Environmental Implications of Centralized Stock Keeping

    H. Scott Matthews
    Summary Recent changes to the management of inventory and warehousing methods have created significant changes in business processes. These changes have produced economic savings to firms from reduced handling of supplies. The system-wide impacts of this shift in methods on overall cost and the environment are still unclear, however. Reductions in inventories can provide significant environmental savings. In this article, we analyze the changes in inventory control methods and assess the environmental and cost tradeoffs between increased trucking and more efficient centralized warehouses. We consider the case of consolidating the spare-parts inventory at U.S. Department of Defense warehouses and discuss similarities to other existing businesses. The case suggests large economic and environmental benefits due to reductions in warehousing expenses, despite higher transportation costs. [source]

    How to get the most from the medical literature: Keeping up to date in nephrology

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    ABSTRACT Best clinical practice means being up to date with the latest research, trials, guidelines and patient perspectives. Recent developments in the Internet, specifically Web 2.0 and its tools offer numerous opportunities for the doctor to keep up to date with all types of information, from professional news to the latest clinical research. Many clinicians are time-poor, and may not have had the opportunity to learn about newer technological innovations, or to understand how they can be used to save clinician's time and energy, while making information management more efficient. In this paper we will examine Web 2.0, including the use of RSS, and suggest a number of different websites that offer free access to nephrology news. [source]

    Keeping up with the Joneses: The relationship of perceived descriptive social norms, social information, and charitable giving

    Rachel Croson
    We study the influence of perceived descriptive social norms on subsequent giving behavior to nonprofits, explore how social information can influence these norms, and provide insight for fundraising practice. A survey conducted in a nonprofit organization first shows that donors use their beliefs about the descriptive social norm to inform their own donation behavior. Donors who believe that others make high contributions tend to make high contributions themselves. Next, a laboratory experiment demonstrates the influence of social information on the descriptive social norm and consequently on giving. These results suggest strategies for fundraising practice. Informing donors of contributions made by another person influences their perceptions about the descriptive social norm, which in turn influences their giving behavior. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Keeping The Journal of Sexual Medicine Unique

    Irwin Goldstein MD Editor-in-Chief

    Keeping connected: security, place, and social capital in a ,Londoni' village in Sylhet

    Katy Gardner
    This article explores the relationship between social mobility, insecurity, and connectedness to hierarchically ordered foreign places in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Here, particular areas have migratory connections with Britain, a destination which is perceived by those left behind as supplying bountiful economic opportunities and long-lasting security. In contrast, Bangladesh is experienced as insecure and lacking in prospects. Within this context, social connections are vital, for through them links to Britain are produced and maintained; this is especially the case for young men who are hoping to find a British bride. For them, connectedness results from both their social capital (relationships to successful ,Londoni' migrants who help arrange their marriages) and their cultural capital (gained by participating in particular forms of work and lifestyles, thus making them more attractive as prospective grooms). Meanwhile for those families settled in Britain, another form of transnational connectedness takes place, in which the political insecurity and social exclusion experienced in Britain are offset by economic and social investments in the desh (homeland). Résumé L'article explore la relation entre mobilité sociale, insécurité et connections avec des lieux situés à l'étranger et entre lesquels une hiérarchie est établie. Dans le Sylhet, région du Bangladesh, certaines zones ont des connections migratoires avec la Grande-Bretagne, destination que ceux qui sont restés perçoivent comme riche de possibilités économiques lucratives et de sécurité durable alors que le Bangladesh est perçu comme peu sûr et dépourvu de perspectives. Dans ce contexte, les connections sociales sont vitales car elles font le lien avec la Grande-Bretagne, en particulier pour les jeunes hommes qui espèrent y trouver une épouse. Dans leur cas, les connections sont le produit à la fois d'un capital social (relations avec les émigrés londoni qui ont réussi et qui aident à arranger les mariages) et d'un capital culturel (acquis en participant à certaines formes de travail et de mode de vie qui améliorent leur attrait en tant que maris potentiels). Pour les familles installées en Grande-Bretagne, les connections transnationales prennent une autre forme, dans laquelle l'insécurité politique et l'exclusion sociale vécues sur place sont compensées par les investissements économiques et sociaux dans le desh (« le pays »). [source]

    Using particles for 3D texture sculpting

    ich Bene
    Abstract Particle systems have been used in computer graphics for many different purposes, including visual simulation of fur, grass, hair, and similar fuzzy textures and shapes. The underlying theories used in these algorithms are usually quite complex and are mostly based on simulation of diffuse-limited aggregation, cellular development, reaction-diffusion models, etc. This leads to high time complexity of these algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to show that collision detection and distance keeping among moving particles can generate similar realistic textures efficiently. This approach is easy to implement, sufficiently fast allowing for interactive modeling, and inherits the major features from the previously published techniques. We first construct a scene consisting of generators of particles, attractors, and cutters. The generators generate oriented particles, and the attractors attract or repulse them. When collision with the cutter is detected, the particle performs an action according to its state and position in the 3D space. Every particle has assigned a table of possible actions that is used for solving these critical states. Trajectories of the particles are then used as a resulting shape of the texture. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of methane emissions from agricultural sources in China

    Peter H. Verburg
    Summary Agricultural activities contribute significantly to the global methane budget. Agricultural sources of methane are influenced by land-use change, including changes in agricultural area, livestock keeping and agricultural management practices. A spatially explicit inventory of methane emissions from agriculture is made for China taking the interconnections between the different agricultural sources into account. The influence of land-use change on methane emissions is studied by linking a dynamic land-use change model with emission calculations. The land-use change model calculates changes in rice area and livestock numbers for a base-line scenario. Emissions are calculated for 1991 based on land-use statistics and for 2010 based on simulated changes in land-use patterns. Emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management are based on emission factors, while emissions from rice paddies involve the calculation of total organic carbon added to rice paddy soils and assume that a constant fraction is emitted as methane. Spatial patterns of emissions are presented for the different sources. For the land-use scenario considered it is expected that total methane emissions from agricultural sources in China increase by 11% while the relative contribution of rice fields to the emission decreases. Emissions from manure management are expected to become more important. These results indicate that agencies should anticipate changes in source strengths as a consequence of land-use changes when proposing mitigation strategies and future national greenhouse gas budgets. [source]

    Informal care: the views of people receiving care

    S. McCann BA MPsychSc
    Abstract Informal care is perceived to be the best option for people who require assistance to look after themselves. National and international studies of informal care have focused on the carer, not on the care provided, or the needs and experiences of the care recipients. In the present study, 55 people receiving informal care (21 males and 24 females, mean age = 67.6) were surveyed to determine the type of assistance that they receive, perceptions of the quality of their care, feelings about being looked after by a carer and their perceptions of the services which would be useful. A random sample of 531 households were selected as part of a larger study into informal care in the west of Ireland. A total of 98 carers were identified and 55 of the people they looked after were well enough to participate in the study. Over two-thirds of carers assisted with household chores (e.g. cleaning, preparing meals and shopping). Other activities which carers assisted with included keeping the person safe from household accidents (62%), personal care (42%), and dressing and undressing (31%). Whilst most were very satisfied with the quality of care, a minority reported dissatisfaction, and stated that their carer showed signs of anger and frustration. Common concerns related to the health of the carer, their safety when the carer is not available and the cost of being cared for. Financial support for the person receiving care and the carer were the main priorities for these individuals. The present study points to a need for greater involvement of care recipients in planning services relating to informal care, and support and access to health professionals for people receiving care. People receiving care are also concerned about the level of financial support for themselves and their carers. [source]

    Putting flesh and polish on autoimmune hepatitis and moving the disease of exclusion to inclusion,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Albert J. Czaja
    Autoimmune hepatitis emerged during an era when concepts of neonatal immune tolerance, clonal selection of lymphocytes, and "forbidden clones" of activated immune cells were forming. The diagnosis had to be deduced from circumstantial evidence and by exclusion of other conditions. The goals of this review are to demonstrate how a clinician nonscientist can contribute to the maturation of autoimmune hepatitis and to illustrate the principles of clinical investigation that can be applied broadly to other projects. Autoimmune hepatitis initially had to be distinguished from other diseases, and improvements in the tests for viral and immune markers were instrumental in this regard. Diversification of the clinical phenotype to accommodate acute severe, asymptomatic, elderly, and variant forms enhanced the pertinence of the disease, and the formation of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group standardized the diagnosis, interconnected investigators, and promoted global acceptance of the condition. Subsequent studies refined current corticosteroid-based therapies, identified prognostic markers, assessed genetic predispositions, explored new pharmacological agents, and forecast the emergence of cellular and molecular interventions. Good fortune, stimulating mentors, career dedication, practical goal selection, protocol compliance, compulsive record keeping, personal resilience, and strong collaborations were the bases for progress. Autoimmune hepatitis exemplifies an evolutionary process in the science of autoimmunity and the people committed to its study. Lessons derived from this experience can be far-reaching. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;52:1177-1184) [source]

    The Unfolding Trends and Consequences of Expanding Higher Education in Ethiopia: Massive Universities, Massive Challenges

    Kedir Assefa Tessema
    Abstract There have been significant increases in the number of universities and student enrollments in the last fifteen years in Ethiopia. The numerical gains have brought about improved access to higher education for students. The expansion has also diversified fields of study and opened opportunities to pursue higher degrees to a significant number of students. Furthermore, the opportunity created for the university staff includes increased university job security, positions in the university leadership and scholarships for PhD degrees. On the other hand, the downside effects of the massification have worsened the conditions of university teaching staff. Among others, it has resulted in increasing work load and extended work schedules for academic staff. A managerialist culture has evolved that measures teaching against instrumental outcomes. There is a sense of deprofessionalisation and deskilling among staff manifested in practices that are disconnections from professional knowledge, skills and attitudes. As staff are increasingly over-engaged, by taking more weekly class hours and managerial responsibilities, less ,down time' is available to keeping with developments in their fields of specialisation and practice [source]

    Strange Anatomy: Gertrude Stein and the Avant-Garde Embryo

    HYPATIA, Issue 1 2006
    Lynn M. Morgan
    Today's personable, sanitized images of human embryos and fetuses require an audience that is literally and metaphorically distanced from dead specimens. Yet scientists must handle dead specimens to produce embryological knowledge, which only then can be transformed into beautiful photographs and talking fetuses. I begin with an account of Gertrude Stein's experience making a model of a fetal brain. Her tactile encounter is contrasted to the avant-garde artistic tradition that later came to dominate embryo imagery. This essay shows the embryo visualizations portrayed in a contemporary coffee-table book about gestational development to be a remarkable political achievement predicated, in part, on keeping hidden the unsavory details of anatomical technique that transform dead specimens into icons of life. [source]

    Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets?

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 3 2010
    R. J. Bertelsen
    Abstract, Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Practical Implications Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping. [source]

    Taking Stock at Quantum University,/INVENTAIRE À L'UNIVERSITÉ QUANTUM

    Gary Grudnitski
    ABSTRACT This case describes the operations and procedures of a major university's athletic equipment room. It details the functions of requisitioning, purchasing, and receiving of equipment and gear used by the university's sports teams; and the custody, management, and record keeping of these items. On the basis of this description, the student is asked to prepare a two-part report. In the first part of the report the student should identify the weaknesses and associated risks that existed in the operations of the equipment room and its inventory of athletic equipment, gear, and clothing. Furthermore, instances in the case that provide evidence of these weaknesses and risks should also be reported. Upon receiving feedback on the adequacy of the first part of the report, the student in the second part of the report should delineate the controls that might be implemented to address these weaknesses and mitigate their associated risks. RÉSUMÉ Le cas élaboré par les auteurs contient une description du fonctionnement et des méthodes de gestion de la salle de matériel de sport d'une grande université. Les fonctions de demande d'achat, d'achat et de réception du matériel et des appareils utilisés par les équipes sportives de l'université y sont décrites avec précision, de même que celles de la garde et de la gestion de ce matériel ainsi que de la tenue des registres de stock. À partir de cette description, l'étudiant est appelé à préparer un rapport en deux volets. Dans le premier volet doivent être relevés les faiblesses que présentent le fonctionnement de la salle de matériel de sport et la tenue de l'inventaire du matériel, des appareils et des vêtements de sport, et les risques qui y sont associés. Les données du cas établissant l'existence de ces faiblesses et de ces risques doivent aussi figurer dans le rapport. Lorsque l'étudiant reçoit une appréciation de la pertinence du premier volet du rapport, il doit, dans le second volet, décrire les contrôles qui pourraient être mis en ,uvre pour combler ces faiblesses et atténuer les risques qui y sont associés. [source]

    President George W. Bush and his faith-based initiative: creative solution or political minefield?

    Nadeem Firoz
    On 29th January, 2001, President Bush issued an executive order creating a faith-based initiative office. This paper examines the history of the separation of church and state in the United States starting with the Constitution's First Amendment which established the freedom of religion. Pertinent historical facts through the 1990s are presented. The paper then defines President Bush's faith-based initiative and how it will be implemented. There is concern about whether this initiative will violate the Constitutional separation of religion and government. Another concern is how it will affect the religious organisations and the charities it is supposed to be helping. There is also a discussion on whether President Bush's faith-based initiative will have a positive or negative impact on religious organisations as well as keeping then separate from the government. The concern is whether the initiative will benefit and progress society as a whole. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

    Output feedback control design for station keeping of AUVs under shallow water wave disturbances

    Shuyong Liu
    Abstract In this paper, we consider the problem of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) station keeping (SK) in shallow water area. During SK, an AUV is required to maintain position and orientation with respect to a fixed reference point at the sea floor. When AUV operates in shallow water, high-frequency disturbances due to waves will significantly affect the motion of the AUV. In order to derive wave disturbance information for control purposes, a nonlinear observer is first designed to estimate the shallow water wave velocities and AUV relative velocities by using position and attitude measurement. Using the observer estimates, a nonlinear output feedback controller is subsequently synthesized by applying observer backstepping technique. Global exponential stability (GES) of the proposed nonlinear observer,controller design is proved through Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation studies on a model based on an actual AUV were performed to verify the performance of the proposed nonlinear observer and output feedback controller. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Lane change algorithm for autonomous vehicles via virtual curvature method

    M. L. Ho
    This paper addresses the lane changing problem of autonomous vehicles when there is no road infrastructure support. The autonomous vehicle should drive from the current lane to the adjacent lane in the absence of a reference path to guide the vehicle to the new lane. We suggest an algorithm that incorporates a virtual road curvature with bicycle model for lane change guidance. As the name suggests, the virtual road curvature does not physically exist. It is a user assigned radius of a curved path which connects the current lane to the adjacent lane. Since the lateral sensor readings during lane changing maneuver are erroneous, the steering angle along with the virtual curvature is fed into a bicycle model to estimate the lateral position during the transition to the next lane. Details of the algorithm and the virtual road curvature determination are presented in the paper. In contrast to other lane changing methods, controller switching is not required and the same controller is for both lane keeping and lane changing. The algorithm is verified experimentally and the results are comparable with lane changing with physical transition lane. [source]

    A methodology on the automatic recognition of poor lane keeping

    Article first published online: 8 JAN 2010, Banihan Gunay
    Driving disorder, such as having difficulty in staying in the lane, abrupt lane changes and driving on the shoulder are typical consequences of many dangerous driving circumstances, and can be grouped under the heading of "lateral discipline of driving". Recognition of these situations is largely observational and spotted/examined by police at high costs. The work provides a theoretical description of an automatic detection system to recognise irregular lateral vehicle movements resulted by various forms of dangerous driving. It is based on establishing certain threshold values for normal driving (lateral) patterns and by checking given traffic instances against these criteria. The system described is thought to offer substantial time and money savings to the responsible authorities, after having applied and validated the system in practice as part of ongoing research. [source]

    Economic Impacts of Technology, Population Growth And Soil Erosion At Watershed Level: The Case Of the Ginchi in Ethiopia

    B.N. Okumu
    A dynamic bio-economic model is used to show that, without technological and policy intervention, soil loss levels, income and nutrition could not be substantially or sustainably improved in a highland area of Ethiopia. Although cash incomes could rise by more than 40% over a twelve-year planning period, average per ha soil losses could be as high as 31 tonnes per ha. With the adoption of an integrated package of new technologies, however, results show the possibility of an average two-and-a-half-fold increase in cash incomes and a 28% decline in aggregate erosion levels even with a population growth rate of 2.3%. Moreover, a minimum daily calorie intake of 2000 per adult equivalent could be met from on-farm production with no significant increases in erosion. However, higher rates of growth in nutritional requirements and population introduce significant strains on the watershed system. From a policy perspective, there is a need for a more secure land tenure policy than currently prevailing to facilitate uptake of the new technology package, and a shift from the current livestock management strategy to one that encourages livestock keeping as a commercial enterprise. It would also imply a shift to a more site-specific approach to land management. [source]

    Future eating and country keeping: what role has environmental history in the management of biodiversity?

    D.M.J.S. Bowman
    In order to understand and moderate the effects of the accelerating rate of global environmental change land managers and ecologists must not only think beyond their local environment but also put their problems into a historical context. It is intuitively obvious that historians should be natural allies of ecologists and land managers as they struggle to maintain biodiversity and landscape health. Indeed, ,environmental history' is an emerging field where the previously disparate intellectual traditions of ecology and history intersect to create a new and fundamentally interdisciplinary field of inquiry. Environmental history is rapidly becoming an important field displacing many older environmentally focused academic disciplines as well as capturing the public imagination. By drawing on Australian experience I explore the role of ,environmental history' in managing biodiversity. First I consider some of the similarities and differences of the ecological and historical approaches to the history of the environment. Then I review two central questions in Australian environment history: landscape-scale changes in woody vegetation cover since European settlement and the extinction of the marsupials in both historical and pre-historical time. These case studies demonstrate that environmental historians can reach conflicting interpretations despite using essentially the same data. The popular success of some environmental histories hinges on the fact that they narrate a compelling story concerning human relationships and human value judgements about landscape change. Ecologists must learn to harness the power of environmental history narratives to bolster land management practices designed to conserve biological heritage. They can do this by using various currently popular environmental histories as a point of departure for future research, for instance by testing the veracity of competing interpretations of landscape-scale change in woody vegetation cover. They also need to learn how to write parables that communicate their research findings to land managers and the general public. However, no matter how sociologically or psychologically satisfying a particular environmental historical narrative might be, it must be willing to be superseded with new stories that incorporate the latest research discoveries and that reflects changing social values of nature. It is contrary to a rational and publicly acceptable approach to land management to read a particular story as revealing the absolute truth. [source]

    Environmental parameters and anthropogenic effects predicting the spatial distribution of wild ungulates in the Akagera savannah ecosystem

    Christiane Averbeck
    Abstract Savannah areas affected by human activities such as livestock keeping and agriculture are often characterized by shifts in landscape structuring, with a predominance of few(er) habitat types. This is typically accompanied by pronounced changes in the communities of ungulates. The aim of this study was to find out whether shifts in ungulate communities in Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP) are primarily predicted by an alteration in the composition of the preferred habitat types or if more complex interactions between habitat changes and the prevalence of ungulates occur. Monthly road counts were used to establish the number of eleven ungulate species in LMNP and adjacent unprotected Ankole Ranching Scheme. The common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia campbelliae Gray, 1843) was found in more abundance in disturbed areas, while showing a significant change in habitat use. Common duiker tended to use the vegetation type otherwise used by the bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus dama Neumann, 1902). Our results support the claim that the occurrence of ungulates is not only directly affected by the availability of ,suitable' habitats, but behavioural plasticity and competitive exclusion also need to be considered. Résumé Les zones de savane touchées par des activités humaines telles que l'élevage de bétail et l'agriculture se caractérisent souvent par des évolutions de la structure du paysage, avec une prédominance d'un (plus) petit nombre de types d'habitats. Cela s'accompagne généralement de changements marqués chez les communautés d'ongulés. Le but de cette étude était de voir si l'on peut s'attendre à des évolutions des communautés d'ongulés dans le Parc National du Lac Mburo du seul fait d'une altération de la composition des types d'habitats préférés ou s'il y a des interactions plus complexes entre les changements de l'habitat et la prévalence des ongulés. Nous avons eu recours à des comptages routiers mensuels pour établir le nombre d'ongulés de onze espèces dans le Parc National du Lac Mburo et dans l'Ankole Ranching Scheme voisin, nonprotégé. Le sylvicapre de Grimm (Sylvicapra grimmia campbelliae Gray, 1843) fut observé en plus grand nombre dans les zones perturbées, et manifestait un changement significatif de l'utilisation de son habitat. Cette espèce avait tendance à utiliser le type de végétation normalement utilisé par le bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus dama Neumann, 1902). Nos résultats soutiennent l'affirmation selon laquelle la présence des ongulés n'est pas directement affectée seulement par la disponibilité d'habitats « appropriés », mais qu'il faut aussi envisager une certaine plasticité comportementale et des compétitions menant à des exclusions. [source]

    Impact of eucalyptus and pine growing on rural livelihood: the lesson from Bukoba area, north western Tanzania

    Phillip K. MwanukuziArticle first published online: 3 FEB 200
    Abstract Sustainable resource management intends to allocate resources in such a way that unnecessary deterioration of biophysical and socio-economical systems is avoided. In Bukoba Area where rainfalls are plenty, evergreen grasslands were expansive and forests were limited, eucalypts (eucalyptus spp.) and pines (pinus spp.) were grown on grasslands for preventing land degradation through deforestation and for providing additional source of income for rural poor. This study shows that in addition to detrimental consequence of eucalyptus and pine forests on soil resources, conversion of Bukoban grasslands to forests has negatively impacted livelihood of the rural poor. Growing eucalypts and pines on grasslands prevented a farming system that enabled integration of grasslands, cattle keeping and crop production. Consequently, the grasslands role of nutrients cycling was disrupted, food crop production reduced, home-gardens productivity declined, majority deprived important livelihood asset and foreign income flow into the area reduced. [source]

    Jack of all trades, master of none?: An alternative to clinical psychology's market-driven mission creep

    Martin Heesacker
    The authors C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott of this special issue's target article, "Twenty-First Century Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology: A Four Level Matrix Model" (this issue), are right that scientific distinctions should sometimes be de-emphasized in service of understanding the larger scientific vision. However, they take their combining too far, arrogating unto clinical psychology elements best left to their original scholarly disciplines. Snyder and Elliott simply present the next logical step in clinical psychology's longstanding tradition of "mission creep," broadening its focus to encompass new potential markets. Instead, the keeping and sharpening of disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries might best serve clinical psychology. The emphasis would shift from mission creep to building links with complementary disciplines and subdisciplines, to tackle issues that require true interdisciplinary scholarship. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]

    ,Who would take whose name?' Accounts of naming practices in same-sex relationships

    Victoria Clarke
    Abstract The practice of a woman assuming her husband's last name upon marriage is a deeply embedded norm in some countries. Whether or not individual heterosexual couples reproduce or resist this practice, it provides a context for making decisions about marital names. No conventions, other than heteronormative ones, govern naming practices in same-sex relationships and families, but very little is known about name changing in these contexts. This paper reports an exploratory qualitative study of the ways in which 30 lesbians and gay men in committed relationships made meaning of name changing and keeping. Only one participant reported changing her last name, some considered name changing a future possibility, but most had no plans to change their name. The lack of conventions regarding naming in same-sex families created a dilemma for some participants,who would take whose name? Many participants did not want to entirely give up their name, thus a hyphenated last name was the most popular option for those contemplating a name change. Accounts of name changing centred on doing/being family. This was also a theme in accounts of name keeping, along with maintaining a continuity of personal and professional identity, avoiding hassle, complications and confusion and resisting heteronormativity. The findings are discussed in relation to other research on naming in same-sex families and research on heterosexual marital naming practices. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Insights into creation and use of prescribing documentation in the hospital medical record

    Mary P. Tully PhD MRPharmS
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, Extraction of prescribing data from medical records is a common, albeit flawed, research method. Yet little is known about the processes that result in those data. This study explores the creation and use of prescribing documentation in the medical record, from the perspective of the hospital doctors who both create and use it. Methods, Thirty-six hospital doctors were purposively selected for qualitative interviews, giving a maximum variability sample of grades of doctors across the range of major medical specialty areas and medical teams at a large teaching hospital in England. Results, The findings suggest a number of reasons why hospital doctors fail to record prescribing decisions in the medical record. There was no set standard, record keeping was not formally taught and the hurried environment of the ward gave little time for documentation. The doctors also acknowledged that there was no need for completeness, as colleagues would be able to ,fill in the gaps' via an inferential process. ,Assumptions ,were ,made ,and ,although ,this ,was ,not ,seen ,as ,ideal, it was recognized as necessary if work was to be done efficiently. Conclusion, These results reinforce the suggestion that, despite the large number of potential users, the medical record is created for those with the right privileged knowledge. This has profound implications for those without that insider knowledge who are using medical records for research purposes. Funding, This work was funded by a North West Regional National Health Service Postdoctoral Fellowship. [source]