Ketamine Sedation (ketamine + sedation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Anticholinergics and Ketamine Sedation in Children: A Secondary Analysis of Atropine Versus Glycopyrrolate

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
Steven M. Green MD
Abstract Objectives:, Adjunctive anticholinergics are commonly administered during emergency department (ED) ketamine sedation in children under the presumption that drying oral secretions should decrease the likelihood of airway and respiratory adverse events. Pharmacologic considerations suggest that glycopyrrolate might exhibit a superior adverse effect profile to atropine. The authors contrasted the adverse events noted with use of each of these anticholinergics in a large multicenter observational database of ketamine sedations. Methods:, This was a secondary analysis of an observational database of 8,282 ED ketamine sedations assembled from 32 prior series. The authors compared the relative incidence of six adverse events (airway and respiratory adverse events, laryngospasm, apnea, emesis, recovery agitation, and clinically important recovery agitation) between children who received coadministered atropine, glycopyrrolate, or no anticholinergic. Multivariable analysis using the specific anticholinergic as a covariate was performed, while controlling for other known predictors. Results:, Atropine was associated with less vomiting (5.3%) than either glycopyrrolate (10.7%) or no anticholinergic (11.4%) in both unadjusted and multivariable analyses. Glycopyrrolate was associated with significantly more airway and respiratory adverse events (6.4%) than either atropine (3.3%) or no anticholinergic (3.0%) and similarly more clinically important recovery agitation (2.1% vs. 1.2 and 1.3%). There were, however, no differences noted in odds of laryngospasm and apnea. Conclusions:, This secondary analysis unexpectedly found that the coadministered anticholinergic atropine exhibited a superior adverse event profile to glycopyrrolate during ketamine sedation. Any such advantage requires confirmation in a separate trial; however, our data cast doubt on the traditional premise that glycopyrrolate might be superior. Further, neither anticholinergic showed efficacy in decreasing airway and respiratory adverse events. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:157,162 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


Adjunctive Atropine Is Unnecessary during Ketamine Sedation in Children

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Lance Brown MD
Abstract Background:, The prophylactic coadministration of atropine or other anticholinergics during dissociative sedation has historically been considered mandatory to mitigate ketamine-associated hypersalivation. Emergency physicians (EPs) are known to omit this adjunct, so a prospective study to describe the safety profile of this practice was initiated. Objectives:, To quantify the magnitude of excessive salivation, describe interventions for hypersalivation, and describe any associated airway complications. Methods:, In this prospective observational study of emergency department (ED) pediatric patients receiving dissociative sedation, treating physicians rated excessive salivation on a 100-mm visual analog scale and recorded the frequency and nature of airway complications and interventions for hypersalivation. Results:, Of 1,090 ketamine sedations during the 3-year study period, 947 (86.9%) were performed without adjunctive atropine. Treating physicians assigned the majority (92%) of these subjects salivation visual analog scale ratings of 0 mm, i.e., "none," and only 1.3% of ratings were , 50 mm. Transient airway complications occurred in 3.2%, with just one (brief desaturation) felt related to hypersalivation (incidence 0.11%, 95% confidence interval = 0.003% to 0.59%). Interventions for hypersalivation (most commonly suctioning) occurred in 4.2%, with no occurrences of assisted ventilation or intubation. Conclusions:, When adjunctive atropine is omitted during ketamine sedation in children, excessive salivation is uncommon, and associated airway complications are rare. Anticholinergic prophylaxis is not routinely necessary in this setting. [source]


What is the nature of the emergence phenomenon when using intravenous or intramuscular ketamine for paediatric procedural sedation?

EMERGENCY MEDICINE AUSTRALASIA, Issue 4 2009
Greg Treston
Abstract Objective: Ketamine has become the drug most favoured by emergency physicians for sedation of children in the ED. Some emergency physicians do not use ketamine for paediatric procedural sedation (PPS) because of concern about emergence delirium on recovery. The present study set out to determine the true incidence and nature of this phenomenon. Methods: Prospective data relating to any emergence agitation, crying, hallucinations, dreams, altered perceptions, delirium and necessary interventions were recorded in consecutive cases of ketamine PPS from March 2002 to June 2007, and analysed. Standard inclusion and exclusion criteria for the use of ketamine were followed. Results: A total of 745 prospective data collection records were available for analysis over the 5 year period. Of all, 93 (12.5%) children cried on awakening when recovering from PPS, 291 (39%) experienced pleasant altered perceptions and 16 (2.1%) experienced what was called ,emergence delirium'. None required any active treatment and all except one settled within 20 min. There was no evidence of an increased rate of nightmares on telephone follow up in the weeks post procedure. Conclusion: The belief that ketamine, in the doses used for ED PPS, causes frequent emergence delirium is flawed. A pleasant emergence phenomenon is common, but is not distressing for the child, and has no long-term (up to 30 days) negative sequelae. Rarely, there is anxiety or distress on awakening from ketamine sedation, which settles spontaneously. This should not deter emergency physicians from using ketamine for PPS. [source]


Anticholinergics and Ketamine Sedation in Children: A Secondary Analysis of Atropine Versus Glycopyrrolate

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
Steven M. Green MD
Abstract Objectives:, Adjunctive anticholinergics are commonly administered during emergency department (ED) ketamine sedation in children under the presumption that drying oral secretions should decrease the likelihood of airway and respiratory adverse events. Pharmacologic considerations suggest that glycopyrrolate might exhibit a superior adverse effect profile to atropine. The authors contrasted the adverse events noted with use of each of these anticholinergics in a large multicenter observational database of ketamine sedations. Methods:, This was a secondary analysis of an observational database of 8,282 ED ketamine sedations assembled from 32 prior series. The authors compared the relative incidence of six adverse events (airway and respiratory adverse events, laryngospasm, apnea, emesis, recovery agitation, and clinically important recovery agitation) between children who received coadministered atropine, glycopyrrolate, or no anticholinergic. Multivariable analysis using the specific anticholinergic as a covariate was performed, while controlling for other known predictors. Results:, Atropine was associated with less vomiting (5.3%) than either glycopyrrolate (10.7%) or no anticholinergic (11.4%) in both unadjusted and multivariable analyses. Glycopyrrolate was associated with significantly more airway and respiratory adverse events (6.4%) than either atropine (3.3%) or no anticholinergic (3.0%) and similarly more clinically important recovery agitation (2.1% vs. 1.2 and 1.3%). There were, however, no differences noted in odds of laryngospasm and apnea. Conclusions:, This secondary analysis unexpectedly found that the coadministered anticholinergic atropine exhibited a superior adverse event profile to glycopyrrolate during ketamine sedation. Any such advantage requires confirmation in a separate trial; however, our data cast doubt on the traditional premise that glycopyrrolate might be superior. Further, neither anticholinergic showed efficacy in decreasing airway and respiratory adverse events. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:157,162 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


Adjunctive Atropine Is Unnecessary during Ketamine Sedation in Children

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Lance Brown MD
Abstract Background:, The prophylactic coadministration of atropine or other anticholinergics during dissociative sedation has historically been considered mandatory to mitigate ketamine-associated hypersalivation. Emergency physicians (EPs) are known to omit this adjunct, so a prospective study to describe the safety profile of this practice was initiated. Objectives:, To quantify the magnitude of excessive salivation, describe interventions for hypersalivation, and describe any associated airway complications. Methods:, In this prospective observational study of emergency department (ED) pediatric patients receiving dissociative sedation, treating physicians rated excessive salivation on a 100-mm visual analog scale and recorded the frequency and nature of airway complications and interventions for hypersalivation. Results:, Of 1,090 ketamine sedations during the 3-year study period, 947 (86.9%) were performed without adjunctive atropine. Treating physicians assigned the majority (92%) of these subjects salivation visual analog scale ratings of 0 mm, i.e., "none," and only 1.3% of ratings were , 50 mm. Transient airway complications occurred in 3.2%, with just one (brief desaturation) felt related to hypersalivation (incidence 0.11%, 95% confidence interval = 0.003% to 0.59%). Interventions for hypersalivation (most commonly suctioning) occurred in 4.2%, with no occurrences of assisted ventilation or intubation. Conclusions:, When adjunctive atropine is omitted during ketamine sedation in children, excessive salivation is uncommon, and associated airway complications are rare. Anticholinergic prophylaxis is not routinely necessary in this setting. [source]


Procedural Pain Management Patterns in Academic Pediatric Emergency Departments

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
Rishi Bhargava MD
ObjectivesTo describe the current state of the art for pain and sedation management for five common pediatric emergency department (ED) procedure scenarios. MethodsFellowship directors of U.S. EDs with a pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training program were surveyed by mail and asked to choose the one most commonly used pain or sedation management option for five clinical scenarios: facial laceration repair, cranial computed tomography in a toddler, closed fracture reduction, neonatal lumbar puncture, and intravenous catheter insertion. Results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and the differences between high and low volume departments were compared by using a chi-square test. ResultsThirty-eight of 51 fellowship programs responded (75%). The majority of respondents were fellowship directors (76%). Topical anesthetics were most commonly reported as used for a simple facial laceration (84%), whereas ketamine sedation was most popular for fracture reduction (86%). Pain management for the other scenarios was more variable. More than half of the respondents (53%) would not sedate at all for cranial computed tomography, and only 38% reported use of pharmacologic pain management for intravenous catheter insertion. The majority (74%) reported use of anesthetic (topical or injected local) for neonatal lumbar puncture. High volume departments were more likely to use pain management for intravenous catheter insertions. ConclusionsPain and sedation management methods for pediatric procedures continue to evolve. Despite gains, there is still room for improvement, particularly regarding intravenous catheter insertions. [source]


Anticholinergics and Ketamine Sedation in Children: A Secondary Analysis of Atropine Versus Glycopyrrolate

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
Steven M. Green MD
Abstract Objectives:, Adjunctive anticholinergics are commonly administered during emergency department (ED) ketamine sedation in children under the presumption that drying oral secretions should decrease the likelihood of airway and respiratory adverse events. Pharmacologic considerations suggest that glycopyrrolate might exhibit a superior adverse effect profile to atropine. The authors contrasted the adverse events noted with use of each of these anticholinergics in a large multicenter observational database of ketamine sedations. Methods:, This was a secondary analysis of an observational database of 8,282 ED ketamine sedations assembled from 32 prior series. The authors compared the relative incidence of six adverse events (airway and respiratory adverse events, laryngospasm, apnea, emesis, recovery agitation, and clinically important recovery agitation) between children who received coadministered atropine, glycopyrrolate, or no anticholinergic. Multivariable analysis using the specific anticholinergic as a covariate was performed, while controlling for other known predictors. Results:, Atropine was associated with less vomiting (5.3%) than either glycopyrrolate (10.7%) or no anticholinergic (11.4%) in both unadjusted and multivariable analyses. Glycopyrrolate was associated with significantly more airway and respiratory adverse events (6.4%) than either atropine (3.3%) or no anticholinergic (3.0%) and similarly more clinically important recovery agitation (2.1% vs. 1.2 and 1.3%). There were, however, no differences noted in odds of laryngospasm and apnea. Conclusions:, This secondary analysis unexpectedly found that the coadministered anticholinergic atropine exhibited a superior adverse event profile to glycopyrrolate during ketamine sedation. Any such advantage requires confirmation in a separate trial; however, our data cast doubt on the traditional premise that glycopyrrolate might be superior. Further, neither anticholinergic showed efficacy in decreasing airway and respiratory adverse events. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:157,162 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


Adjunctive Atropine Is Unnecessary during Ketamine Sedation in Children

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Lance Brown MD
Abstract Background:, The prophylactic coadministration of atropine or other anticholinergics during dissociative sedation has historically been considered mandatory to mitigate ketamine-associated hypersalivation. Emergency physicians (EPs) are known to omit this adjunct, so a prospective study to describe the safety profile of this practice was initiated. Objectives:, To quantify the magnitude of excessive salivation, describe interventions for hypersalivation, and describe any associated airway complications. Methods:, In this prospective observational study of emergency department (ED) pediatric patients receiving dissociative sedation, treating physicians rated excessive salivation on a 100-mm visual analog scale and recorded the frequency and nature of airway complications and interventions for hypersalivation. Results:, Of 1,090 ketamine sedations during the 3-year study period, 947 (86.9%) were performed without adjunctive atropine. Treating physicians assigned the majority (92%) of these subjects salivation visual analog scale ratings of 0 mm, i.e., "none," and only 1.3% of ratings were , 50 mm. Transient airway complications occurred in 3.2%, with just one (brief desaturation) felt related to hypersalivation (incidence 0.11%, 95% confidence interval = 0.003% to 0.59%). Interventions for hypersalivation (most commonly suctioning) occurred in 4.2%, with no occurrences of assisted ventilation or intubation. Conclusions:, When adjunctive atropine is omitted during ketamine sedation in children, excessive salivation is uncommon, and associated airway complications are rare. Anticholinergic prophylaxis is not routinely necessary in this setting. [source]