Ketamine Group (ketamine + group)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Ketamine use, cognition and psychological wellbeing: a comparison of frequent, infrequent and ex-users with polydrug and non-using controls

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Celia J. A. Morgan
ABSTRACT Introduction Preliminary research has indicated that recreational ketamine use may be associated with marked cognitive impairments and elevated psychopathological symptoms, although no study to date has determined how these are affected by differing frequencies of use or whether they are reversible on cessation of use. In this study we aimed to determine how variations in ketamine use and abstention from prior use affect neurocognitive function and psychological wellbeing. Method We assessed a total of 150 individuals: 30 frequent ketamine users, 30 infrequent ketamine users, 30 ex-ketamine users, 30 polydrug users and 30 controls who did not use illicit drugs. Cognitive tasks included spatial working memory, pattern recognition memory, the Stockings of Cambridge (a variant of the Tower of London task), simple vigilance and verbal and category fluency. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess psychological wellbeing. Hair analysis was used to verify group membership. Results Frequent ketamine users were impaired on spatial working memory, pattern recognition memory, Stockings of Cambridge and category fluency but exhibited preserved verbal fluency and prose recall. There were no differences in the performance of the infrequent ketamine users or ex-users compared to the other groups. Frequent users showed increased delusional, dissociative and schizotypal symptoms which were also evident to a lesser extent in infrequent and ex-users. Delusional symptoms correlated positively with the amount of ketamine used currently by the frequent users. Conclusions Frequent ketamine use is associated with impairments in working memory, episodic memory and aspects of executive function as well as reduced psychological wellbeing. ,Recreational' ketamine use does not appear to be associated with distinct cognitive impairments although increased levels of delusional and dissociative symptoms were observed. As no performance decrements were observed in the ex-ketamine users, it is possible that the cognitive impairments observed in the frequent ketamine group are reversible upon cessation of ketamine use, although delusional symptoms persist. [source]


Ketamine attenuates post-operative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 7 2009
J. A. HUDETZ
Background: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. Ketamine exerts neuroprotective effects after cerebral ischemia by anti-excitotoxic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We hypothesized that ketamine attenuates POCD in patients undergoing cardiac surgery concomitant with an anti-inflammatory effect. Methods: Patients randomly received placebo (0.9% saline; n=26) or an i.v. bolus of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg; n=26) during anesthetic induction. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and fentanyl. A nonsurgical group (n=26) was also included as control. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed before and 1 week after surgery or a 1-week waiting period for the nonsurgical controls. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were determined before surgery and on the first post-operative day. Results: Baseline neurocognitive and depression scores were similar in the placebo, ketamine, and nonsurgical control groups. Cognitive performance after surgery decreased by at least 2 SDs (z -score of 1.96) in 21 patients in the placebo group and only in seven patients in the ketamine group compared with the nonsurgical controls (P<0.001, Fisher's exact test). Cognitive performance was also significantly different between the placebo- and the ketamine-treated groups based on all z -scores (P<0.001, Mann,Whitney U -test). Pre-operative CRP concentrations were similar (P<0.33, Mann,Whitney U -test) in the placebo- and ketamine-treated groups. The post-operative CRP concentration was significantly (P<0.01, Mann,Whitney U -test) lower in the ketamine-treated than in the placebo-treated group. Conclusions: Ketamine attenuates POCD 1 week after cardiac surgery and this effect may be related to the anti-inflammatory action of the drug. [source]


Effects of postoperative ketamine infusion on pain control and feeding behaviour in bitches undergoing mastectomy

JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, Issue 12 2007
S. Sarrau
Objectives: To determine if ketamine administered to bitches at the end of a mastectomy, followed by a six-hour constant rate infusion (CRI), improved postoperative opioid analgesia and feeding behaviour. Methods: The bitches were randomised into three groups: the placebo group received 0·09 ml/kg isotonic saline intravenously followed by a six-hour CRI of 0·5 ml/kg/hour, the low-dose ketamine received 150 ,g/kg ketamine intravenously followed by a six-hour CRI of 2 ,g/kg/minute and the high-dose ketamine group received 700 ,g/kg ketamine intravenously followed by a six-hour CRI of 10 ,g/kg/minute. Any additional opioids given were recorded at the time of extubation and at intervals after extubation. Food intake was evaluated eight (T8) and 20 (T20) hours after extubation by measuring the per cent coverage of basal energy requirements (BER). Results: No significant difference was observed for opioid requirements between the three groups. The mean percentages of BER coverage did not differ significantly at T8 but the difference between the high-dose and low-dose ketamine groups (P=0·014), and the high-dose ketamine and placebo groups (P=0·038) was significant at T20. Clinical Significance: This study demonstrated that 700 ,g/kg ketamine given intravenously postoperatively followed by a six-hour ketamine CRI of 10 ,g/kg/minute improved patient feeding behaviour. [source]


Ketamine or alfentanil administration prior to propofol anaesthesia: the effects on ProSealÔ laryngeal mask airway insertion conditions and haemodynamic changes in children

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2009
Z. Begec
Summary This study was designed to compare the effects of ketamine and alfentanil administered prior to induction of anaesthesia with propofol, on the haemodynamic changes and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway® (PLMA) insertion conditions in children. Eighty children, aged between 3,132 months, were randomly allocated to receive either alfentanil 20 ,g.kg,1 (alfentanil group) or ketamine 0.5 mg.kg,1 (ketamine group) before induction of anaesthesia. Ninety seconds following the administration of propofol 4 mg.kg,1, a PLMA was inserted. In the ketamine group, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were higher during the study period compared with the alfentanil group (p < 0.05). The time for the return of spontaneous ventilation was prolonged in the alfentanil group (p = 0.004). In conclusion, we found that the administration of ketamine 0.5 mg.kg,1 with propofol 4 mg.kg,1 preserved haemodynamic stability, and reduced the time to the return of spontaneous ventilation, compared with alfentanil 20 ,g.kg,1 during PLMA placement. In addition, the conditions for insertion of the PLMA with ketamine were similar to those found with alfentanil. [source]


Pediatric Procedural Sedation with Ketamine: Time to Discharge after Intramuscular versus Intravenous Administration

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
Preeti Ramaswamy MBBS
Abstract Objectives:, Ketamine is an attractive agent for pediatric procedural sedation. There are limited data on time to discharge comparing intramuscular (IM) vs. intravenous (IV) ketamine. The authors set out to determine whether IM or IV ketamine leads to quicker discharge from the emergency department (ED) and how side effect profiles compare. Methods:, All patients who had received ketamine IM or IV at a tertiary children's hospital ED during the 3-year study period (2004,2007) were identified. Prospective sedation registry data, retrospective medical records, and administrative data were reviewed for drug dosages, use of additional agents, time of drug administration to discharge, total ED time (triage to discharge), and adverse events. A subgroup analysis for patients requiring five or fewer sutures (short suture group) was performed. Results:, A total of 229 patients were enrolled (60% male) with median age of 2.8 years (IQR =1.8,4.3 years) and median weight of 15.7 kg (range = 8.7,74 kg). Ketamine was most frequently employed for laceration repair (80%) and foreign body removal (9%). Overall, 48% received ketamine IM and 52% received it IV. In the short-suture subgroup, 52% received ketamine IM, while 48% received it IV. Multivariate linear regression analysis determined time from drug administration to patient discharge as 21 minutes shorter for IV compared with IM administration, adjusted for age and number of additional doses (R2 = ,0.35; 95% CI = ,0.5 to ,0.19; p < 0.001). Total time in the ED (triage to discharge) comparing IV versus IM administration, adjusting for age and gender and number of additional doses, was not significantly different (p = 0.16). In the short-suture subgroup, time to discharge from administration was also shorter in the IV ketamine group (R2 = ,0.454; 95%CI = ,0.66 to ,0.25; p < 0.001) but similar for total time in ED (p = 0.16). Overall, adverse events occurred in 35% (95% CI = 27% to 45%) of the IM group and 20% (95% CI = 13% to 28%) of the IV group (p = 0.01). Only one patient required brief bag-mask ventilation. Conclusions:, In this institution, time from drug injection to discharge was shorter in the IV compared to IM ketamine group, both overall and for the short-suture group. However, time from triage to discharge was similar. [source]


Randomized Clinical Trial of Propofol Versus Ketamine for Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2010
James R. Miner MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to compare the occurrence of respiratory depression, adverse events, and recovery duration of propofol versus ketamine for use in procedural sedation in the emergency department (ED). Methods:, This was a randomized nonblinded prospective clinical trial of adult patients undergoing procedural sedation for painful procedures in the ED. Patients with pain before the procedure were treated with intravenous (IV) morphine sulfate until their pain was adequately treated at least 20 minutes before starting the procedure. Patients were randomized to receive either propofol 1 mg/kg IV followed by 0.5 mg/kg every 3 minutes as needed or ketamine 1.0 mg/kg IV followed by 0.5 mg/kg every 3 minutes as needed. Doses, vital signs, nasal end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), and pulse oximetry were recorded. Subclinical respiratory depression was defined as a change in ETCO2 of >10 mm Hg, an oxygen saturation of <92% at any time, or an absent ETCO2 waveform at any time. Clinical interventions related to respiratory depression were noted during the procedure, including the addition of or increase in the flow rate of supplemental oxygen, the use of a bag-valve mask apparatus, airway repositioning, or stimulation to induce breathing. After the procedure, patients were asked if they experienced pain during the procedure and had recall of the procedure. Physicians were asked to describe any adverse events or the occurrence of recovery agitation. Results:, One-hundred patients were enrolled; 97 underwent sedation and were included in the analysis. Fifty patients received propofol and 47 received ketamine. Subclinical respiratory depression was seen in 20 of 50 patients in the propofol group and 30 of 47 patients in the ketamine group (p = 0.019, effect size 22.8%; 95% CI = 4.0% to 43.6%). Clinical interventions related to respiratory depression were used in 26 of 50 propofol patients and 19 of 47 ketamine patients (p = 0.253, effect size = ,13.7%; 95% CI = ,33.8% to 6.4%). The median times of the procedures were 11 minutes (range = 4 to 33 minutes) for the ketamine group versus 10 minutes (range = 5 to 33 minutes) for the propofol group (p = 0.256). The median time to return to baseline mental status after the procedure was completed was 14 minutes (range = 2 to 47 minutes) for the ketamine group and 5 minutes (range = 1 to 32 minutes) for the propofol group (p < 0.001). Pain during the procedure was reported by 3 of 50 patients in the propofol group and 1 of 47 patients in the ketamine group (effect size = ,3.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = ,11.9 to 4.1). Recall of some part of the procedure was reported by 4 of 50 patients in the propofol group and 6 of 47 patients in the ketamine group (effect size = 4.8%, 95% CI = ,7.6% to 17.1%). Forty-eight of 50 procedures were successful in the propofol group and 43 of 47 in the ketamine group (p = 0.357, effect size = 0.3%; 95% CI = ,7.8% to 8.4%). Recovery agitation was reported in 4 of 50 in the propofol group and 17 of 47 in the ketamine group (effect size = 28.2%, 95% CI = 12.4% to 43.9%). Conclusions:, This study detected a higher rate of subclinical respiratory depression in patients in the ketamine group than the propofol group. There was no difference in the rate of clinical interventions related to respiratory depression, pain, or recall of the procedure between the groups. Recovery agitation was seen more frequently in patients receiving ketamine than in those receiving propofol. The time to regain baseline mental status was longer in the ketamine group than the propofol group. This study suggests that the use of either ketamine or propofol is safe and effective for procedural sedation in the ED. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:604,611 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]