Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Keratinocytes

  • apoptotic keratinocyte
  • basal keratinocyte
  • cultured keratinocyte
  • epidermal keratinocyte
  • gingival keratinocyte
  • hacat keratinocyte
  • human epidermal keratinocyte
  • human keratinocyte
  • human oral keratinocyte
  • lesional keratinocyte
  • mouse keratinocyte
  • normal human epidermal keratinocyte
  • normal human keratinocyte
  • normal keratinocyte
  • oral keratinocyte
  • primary human keratinocyte
  • skin keratinocyte
  • suprabasal keratinocyte

  • Terms modified by Keratinocytes

  • keratinocyte apoptosi
  • keratinocyte cell
  • keratinocyte cell line
  • keratinocyte culture
  • keratinocyte differentiation
  • keratinocyte growth
  • keratinocyte growth factor
  • keratinocyte migration
  • keratinocyte proliferation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Comparison of Seborrheic Keratoses, Inflamed Seborrheic Keratoses, and Inverted Follicular Keratoses Using P53, BCL-1, and BCL-2

    C. Ko
    While cell cycle markers have been used to differentiate benign versus malignant lesions and to classify malignant lesions, benign keratoses have not been well studied using such markers, and the relation of the cell cycle to inflammation or irritation of benign keratoses is unclear. We compared the immunohistochemical staining patterns of 10 seborrheic keratoses, 10 inflamed seborrheic keratoses, and 10 inverted follicular keratoses using antibodies to p53, bcl-1, and bcl-2. Staining with antibodies to p53 was increased in inverted follicular keratoses compared to inflamed or non-inflamed seborrheic keratoses. Bcl-1 staining was similar in all lesions. A population of bcl-2-positive dendritic cells was seen within the epidermal portion of inverted follicular keratoses. Keratinocyte bcl-2 staining was higher in seborrheic keratoses compared to the other two keratoses. Bcl-2 may be increased in seborrheic keratoses as an anti-apoptotic mechanism while increased p53 may trigger apoptosis in inverted follicular keratoses. [source]

    Androgens and hair growth

    Valerie Anne Randall
    ABSTRACT:, Hair's importance in human communication means that abnormalities like excess hair in hirsutism or hair loss in alopecia cause psychological distress. Androgens are the main regulator of human hair follicles, changing small vellus follicles producing tiny, virtually invisible hairs into larger intermediate and terminal follicles making bigger, pigmented hairs. The response to androgens varies with the body site as it is specific to the hair follicle itself. Normally around puberty, androgens stimulate axillary and pubic hair in both sexes, plus the beard, etc. in men, while later they may also inhibit scalp hair growth causing androgenetic alopecia. Androgens act within the follicle to alter the mesenchyme,epithelial cell interactions, changing the length of time the hair is growing, the dermal papilla size and dermal papilla cell, keratinocyte and melanocyte activity. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of androgen action in follicles should improve therapies for poorly controlled hair disorders like hirsutism and alopecia. [source]

    Cholinergic control of epidermal cohesion

    Sergei A. Grando
    Abstract:, The non-neuronal cholinergic system of human epidermis includes the keratinocyte (KC) acetylcholine (ACh) axis composed of the enzymes mediating ACh synthesis and degradation, and two classes of ACh receptors, the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors, mediating biological effects of the cutaneous cytotransmitter ACh. Regulation of KC cell,cell and cell,matrix adhesion is one of the important biological functions of cutaneous ACh. The downstream targets of ACh effects mediated by distinct ACh receptor subtypes include both the intercellular adhesion molecules, such as classical and desmosomal cadherins, and integrins mediating KC adhesion to a substrate. The signaling pathways include activation or inhibition of kinase cascades resulting in either up- or down-regulation of the expression of cell adhesion molecules or changes in their phosphorylation status, or both. The components of the KC ACh axis are involved in cutaneous blistering in patients with autoimmune pemphigus, junctional and dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa, thermal burns, and mustard-induced vesication. Recent progress with the development of antiacantholytic therapies of patients with pemphigus using cholinomimetics indicates that cholinergic drugs may be a promising approach for other cutaneous blistering disorders. [source]

    Stimulation of epidermal calcium gradient loss and increase in TNF-, and IL-1, expressions by glycolic acid in murine epidermis

    Se Kyoo Jeong
    Abstract:, In a previous study, we reported that ,-hydroxy acids (AHA), such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, did not induce any significant changes in transepidermal water loss for normal murine skin. The ultrastructural observations, however, showed that the extent of lamellar body exocytosis significantly increased. Because AHA can theoretically decrease the calcium ion concentration by chelation, topical AHA may induce the loss of epidermal calcium gradient by lowering the calcium ion concentration in the granulocytes and, subsequently, induce lamellar body secretion. The aim of this study is to verify that glycolic acid could modulate the epidermal calcium gradient and increase lamellar body exocytosis. Seventy per cent of glycolic acid aqueous solution was applied to the normal skin of hairless mice and biochemical and morphological studies were performed. The loss of epidermal calcium gradient was observed in glycolic-acid-applied skin of hairless mice and subsequent barrier function recovery processes, such as an increase in lamellar body secretion, were observed. The extracellular glycolic acid was found to inhibit the change in intracellular calcium ion concentration in response to extracellular calcium ion concentration changes in the cultured mouse keratinocyte in vitro. The protein and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor-, and interleukin-1, in the murine epidermis were significantly increased after glycolic acid application. An in vitro study using cultured keratinocytes suggested that glycolic acid could lower the calcium ion concentration, at least in part, through the chelating effects of the glycolic acid on the cationic ions. [source]

    Two modes of ERK activation by TNF in keratinocytes: Different cellular outcomes and bi-directional modulation by vitamin D,

    Ester Ziv
    Abstract Inflammation, elicited in the skin following tissue damage or pathogen invasion, may become chronic with deleterious consequences. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key mediator of cutaneous inflammation and the keratinocyte an important protagonist of skin immunity. Calcitriol, the hormonally active vitamin D metabolite, and its analogs attenuate epidermal inflammation and inhibit the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes associated with the inflammatory disorder, psoriasis. Since activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) promotes keratinocyte proliferation and mediates epidermal inflammation, we studied the effect of calcitriol on ERK activation in HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to the ubiquitous inflammatory cytokine TNF. By using the EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1487 and the Src family inhibitor, PP-1, we established that TNF activated ERK in an EGFR and Src dependent and an EGFR and Src independent modes. EGFR dependent activation resulted in the upregulation of the transcription factor, c-Fos, while the EGFR independent activation mode was of a shorter duration, did not affect c-Fos expression but induced IL-8 mRNA expression. Pretreatment with calcitriol, enhanced TNF-induced EGFR-Src dependent ERK activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR, but abolished the EGFR-Src independent ERK activation. These effects were mirrored by enhancement of c-Fos and inhibition of IL-8 induction by TNF. Treatment with calcitriol increased the rate of the de-phosphorylation of activated ERK, accounting for the inhibition of EGFR-Src independent ERK activation by TNF. It is possible that effects on the ERK cascade contribute to the effects of calcitriol and its synthetic analogs on cutaneous inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation. J. Cell. Biochem. 104: 606,619, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of a releasable form of annexin II by human keratinocytes

    Feridoun Karimi-Busheri
    Abstract Annexin II is a multifunctional calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein whose presence in epidermis has previously been reported. However, like other members of annexin family, annexin II has been regarded as either an intracellular protein or associated with the cellular membrane. Here, we report the presence of a releasable annexin II and p11, two monomers of annexin II tetramer, in keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM). Proteins present in KCM were fractionated on a gel filtration column and following further evaluation, a releasable protein with apparent MW of 36 kDa was identified. Further characterization identified this protein as the p36 monomer of annexin II tetramer. The phospho-tyrosine antibody did not visualize this protein as the phosphorylated form of p36. Several experiments were conducted to examine whether this protein is soluble or associated with keratinocyte cell membranes in the conditioned medium. A centrifugation of conditioned medium was not able to bring this protein down into the pellet. Surprisingly, the results of Western analysis identified p36 and p11, two monomers of the annexin II tetramer, in conditioned medium derived from either keratinocytes cultured alone or keratinocytes co-cultured with fibroblasts. In contrast to the keratinocyte-conditioned medium in which annexin II was easily detectable, both monomers were barely detectable in conditioned medium collected from dermal fibroblasts. This finding was in contrast to the cell lysates in which p36 was detectable in both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. However, the amount of this protein was markedly higher in keratinocyte lysate relative to that of dermal fibroblasts. Conditioned medium derived from keratinocyte established from adult showed a higher level of annexin II compared to that of keratinocytes established from newborn babies. The expression of p11 seems to increase with differentiation of keratinocytes derived from either adult or newborn skin samples. When the site of annexin synthesis in human skin was examined by immunohistochemical staining, the antibody for p36 localized the annexin to the keratinocyte cell members in the basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. In conclusion, Western blot detection of both p36 and p11 in conditioned medium from skin cells revealed that human keratinocytes, but not fibroblasts, express a releasable monomer form of annexin II which is regulated by differentiation status of keratinocytes. This finding is consistent with the localization of annexin II detected by immunohistochemical staining. J. Cell. Biochem. 86: 737,747, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    If pemphigus vulgaris IgG are the cause of acantholysis, new IgG-independent mechanisms are the concause

    Nicola Cirillo
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a disease of epidermal adhesion. Its pathogenesis is currently traced back to the action of autoantibodies against antigens located within the intercellular substance of keratinocytes, such as desmogleins and acetylcholine receptors. In the present paper, we sought to elucidate the non-IgG-mediated effects of PV sera on keratinocytes. Results showed that PV sera depleted of IgG were able to induce well-defined changes on keratinocyte morphology and metabolic activity. Indeed, PV IgG-free sera determined marked alterations on cell shape, accompanied by partial loss of keratinocyte,keratinocyte interactions within 48 h after treatment. Furthermore, PV IgG-depleted sera caused a sharp reduction of cell viability along with a less sustained weakening of intercellular adhesion strength. In light of the above findings, loss of cell,cell adhesion in PV occurs as a result of the cooperating action of both IgG and non-IgG-mediated mechanisms. These data have remarkable consequences on experimental models of PV and might open new "biological" approaches to its therapy. Thus, researchers are well advised that PV pathophysiology cannot be faithfully reproduced by leaving non-IgG serum factors out of consideration. J. Cell. Physiol. 212:563,567, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    AKT and MAPK signaling in KGF-treated and UVB-exposed human epidermal cells

    Lavinia Vittoria Lotti
    Regulation of proliferation and differentiation in keratinocyte is a complex and dynamic process that involves activation of multiple signaling pathways triggered by different growth factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is not only a potent mitogen, but differently from other growth factors, is a potent inducer of differentiation. The MAP kinase and AKT pathways are involved in proliferation and differentiation of many cell types including keratinocytes. We investigated here the role of KGF in modulating AKT and MAPK activity during differentiation of human keratinocytes. Our results show that the mechanisms of action of KGF are dose-dependent and that a sustained activation of the MAPK signaling cascade causes a negative regulation of AKT. We also demostrated increasing expression of KGFR substrates, such as PAK4 during keratinocyte differentiation parallel to the receptor upregulation. J. Cell. Physiol. 212:633,642, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Merkel cell (primary neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the skin with nodal metastasis showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation

    María-Teresa Fernández-Figueras
    Background:, We describe a unique case of Merkel cell (primary neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the skin with a lymph node metastasis showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Skeletal muscle differentiation has occasionally been described in primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and considered a form of dual differentiation rather than a collision tumor. In the present case, capacity for divergent differentiation appeared late in the course of the tumor, which suggests a clonal origin for both components of the neoplasm. Conclusions:, The coexistence of neural and rhabdomyoblastic types of differentiation, best epitomized by the Triton tumor, has been construed as the product of dual differentiation of cells originated from neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme. Since Merkel cells seem to originate from a pluripotential primitive keratinocyte and not from the neural crest, rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a metastasis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin probably reflects the close proximity between the programs of neural and skeletal muscle differentiation, which would have been sequentially activated in the case we are reporting. [source]

    Establishment of OC3 oral carcinoma cell line and identification of NF-,B activation responses to areca nut extract

    Shu-Chun Lin
    Background:, Cell lines derived from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) exposed to variable etiological factors can bestow advantages in understanding the molecular and cellular alterations pertaining to environmental impacts. Most OSCC cell lines have been established from smoker patients or areca chewing/smoker patients, carrying the genomic alterations in p53. Methods:, A new cell line, oral carcinoma 3 (OC3), was established from an OSCC in a long-term areca (betel) chewer who does not smoke. Cellular and molecular features of OC3 were determined by variable assays. Results:, The cultured monolayer cells were mainly polygonal and had the expression of cytokeratin 14. The chromosomal analysis using comparative genomic hybridization has revealed the gain in chromosomes 1q, 5q, and 8q, the loss in 4q, 6p, and 8p as well as the gain of entire chromosome 20. Loss of heterozygosity and instability in multiple microsatellite markers in chromosome 4q were also noted. OC3 cells bear wild-type p53 coding sequence and have a high level of p53 expression. Its p21 expression was similar to that in normal human oral keratinocyte (NHOK). Interestingly, activation of nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) in OC3 cells following the treatment of areca nut extract was observed. Conclusion:, OC3 cell line could be valuable in understanding the genetic impairments and phenotypic changes associated with areca in oral keratinocyte. [source]

    Towards a specific characterisation of components on a cell surface,combined TERS-investigations of lipids and human cells

    R. Böhme
    Abstract Supported lipid structures and human cells (human dermal derived keratinocyte, HaCaT) were investigated using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to use the high spatial resolution capabilities of TERS, which is assumed to be less than 10 nm, to determine specific components on the cell surface. As lipids are a main component of cellular membranes, the correlation of spectral properties of pure lipids with respect to the complex biological sample was investigated. Induced by dynamic structural changes as well as nanoscale effects, a particular spectral feature of the lipid TERS spectra is found to vary, and a similar spectral deviation appears among the TERS spectra measured on the cell. Modifications of the cell surface alone cannot cause such behaviour. In contrast to soft lipid agglomerates, the cells were fixed and therefore hampered for intrinsic structural changes. Hence, the main contribution for the cell TERS spectra variation results from nanoscale effects, determined by different spectral characteristics compared to conventional Raman spectroscopy. The present results demonstrate the capability of TERS to provide a detailed and fast insight into the composition of the cell surface, even allowing the detection of single components. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Thalidomide inhibits UVB-induced mouse keratinocyte apoptosis by both TNF-,-dependent and TNF-,-independent pathways

    Kurt Q. Lu
    Background: Thalidomide is an anti-inflammatory pharmacologic agent that has been utilized as a therapy for a number of dermatologic diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to its ability to antagonize tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-,) production by monocytes. However, its mechanism of action in the skin is not known. Purpose: To test our hypothesis that thalidomide may antagonize TNF-, production in the skin, we used a mouse model for acute ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure, a known stimulus for inducing this cytokine. Results: A single bolus dose of thalidomide (either 100 or 400 mg/kg) given immediately before UVB exposure (40,120 mJ/cm2) inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, sunburn cell formation (i.e. keratinocyte (KC) apoptosis as defined by histologic appearance and confirmed by terminal transferase mediated biotinylated dUTP nick end labelling staining) in mouse skin biopsy specimens. However, this agent did not affect the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, a measure of UVB-induced DNA damage, which is an early event associated with apoptosis. RNase protection assays confirmed that high (400 mg/kg), but not low (100 mg/kg), doses of thalidomide inhibited the UVB-induced increase in steady-state TNF-, mRNA. Additionally, our in vitro data using neonatal mouse KCs showed that thalidomide prevented UVB-induced cell death (JAM assay). The antiapoptotic effects of thalidomide can be reversed by the addition of exogenous recombinant mouse TNF-, and hence reconstituting UVB-induced programmed cell death. The inhibition of sunburn cell formation by low-dose thalidomide in the absence of TNF-, inhibition suggests that other, unidentified mechanisms of apoptosis inhibition are active. Conclusions: These data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of thalidomide can affect UVB injury, and may, in part, explain its action in photosensitivity diseases such as cutaneous lupus erythematosus. [source]

    The role of p53 in pigmentation, tanning and melanoma

    Neil F. Box
    Summary p53 has a central role in skin pigmentation and may impact on melanoma at all stages, however, as it's mutation frequency in melanoma is low, it's role has been somewhat under-appreciated. During normal skin function, p53 in the keratinocyte is a transducer of the skin tanning signal and an essential component of what is effectively a keratinocyte-melanocyte signaling cycle that regulates skin pigmentation. It is clear that this cycle functions optimally in skin of dark pigmentation. When melanin biosynthesis is genetically disrupted in skin of white complexion, we propose that this cycle operates as a promoter of melanocyte proliferation. The cell autonomous function of p53 in melanocytes is not well described, however, the balance of the evidence suggests that p53 is an effective tumor suppressor and the myriad of mechanisms by which the p53 pathway may be dysregulated in tumors attests to it importance as a tumor suppressor. In this review, we outline the known mechanisms that impair p53 itself and its immediate regulators or target genes during melanomagenesis. Due to the importance of this pathway, it is clear that p53 disruptions may relate directly to a patient's prognosis. This pathway will continue to be a focus of investigation, particularly with respect to targeted experimental chemotherapeutics. [source]

    Epithelial,mesenchymal interactions in keloid pathogenesis modulate vascular endothelial growth factor expression and secretion,

    CT Ong
    Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis during the wound healing process. As epithelial,mesenchymal interactions have been shown to regulate a plethora of genes in wound healing, we hypothesized that these interactions might have a role in modulating VEGF expression and angiogenesis. A two chamber co-culture model was used, wherein normal and keloid keratinocytes and fibroblasts were physically separated by membrane inserts while allowing cytokine diffusion. Cell lysates obtained from keratinocytes co-cultured with fibroblasts demonstrated increased expression of VEGF. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed significant increase in VEGF expression in co-culture conditioned media compared with controls. Additionally, the conditioned medium from keloid keratinocyte and fibroblast co-cultures increased proliferation and formation of complex three-dimensional capillary-like structures in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, emphasising the importance of epithelial,mesenchymal interactions in the angiogenic process. Immunostaining of keloid tissue localized VEGF in the basal layer of the epidermis and also demonstrated higher blood vessel density than normal skin. Keloid tissue extract also demonstrated increased expression of VEGF compared with normal skin. It is likely that epidermal VEGF exerts significant paracrine control over the dynamics and expression profile of underlying dermal fibroblasts. Addition of the inhibitors WP631, mitoxantrone, and Rapamycin to keloid keratinocyte and fibroblast co-cultures, downregulated secreted VEGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting therapeutic potential for these compounds in the treatment of keloid scars. Copyright © 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    T-cadherin loss induces an invasive phenotype in human keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells in vitro and is associated with malignant transformation of cutaneous SCC in vivo

    D. Pfaff
    Summary Background, Cadherins play important roles in controlling keratinocyte growth, differentiation and survival. Atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored T-cadherin (T-cad) is highly expressed in the basal keratinocyte layer of skin. The role of T-cad in keratinocyte biology and pathology is unclear. Objectives, To define the role of T-cad in the pathogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in vitro and through examination of T-cad expression patterns in human cutaneous SCC specimens in relation to histological classification of degree of tumour differentiation. Methods,In vitro studies employed lentiviral-mediated overexpression/silencing of T-cad in normal human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and SCC (A431) cell lines, monolayer and multicellular spheroid culture models, cell morphology analyses and assays of random motility and invasion. Immunohistochemistry was performed on skin specimens from patients with actinic keratosis, Bowen disease or SCC. Results,In vitro, silencing of T-cad induced a morphologically elongated and disorganized cell phenotype, increased random motility and markedly enhanced invasive potential. Overexpression of T-cad induced a morphologically spread and compact cell phenotype and blunted invasive potential. In vivo, regional loss of T-cad expression was more frequent and prominent in SCC classified as moderately-to-poorly differentiated than in SCC classified as well differentiated. However, in both categories aberrant and/or absence of T-cad expression was associated with histological features of a potentially more malignant and invasive phenotype of cutaneous SCC. Conclusions, T-cad is a controlling determinant of SCC phenotype and invasive behaviour and its loss is associated with the process of malignant transformation from noninvasive to invasive SCC. [source]

    The effects of exogenous p53 overexpression on HPV-immortalized and carcinogen transformed oral keratinocytes

    CANCER, Issue 1 2002
    George H. Yoo M.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND Overexpression of p53 in head and neck carcinoma cells has demonstrated tumor growth suppression using in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of exogenous overexpression of wild-type p53 on human papilloma virus (HPV),immortalized and carcinogen transformed oral keratinocytes were determined. METHODS The p53 gene was overexpressed in IHGK (immortalized human gingival keratinocyte), IHGKN [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, (NNK)]-carcinogen transformed keratinocytes, and two head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines, HN30 and HN12. The transfection efficiency, growth suppression, and inhibition of the cell cycle along with the induction of apoptosis were measured. RESULTS Transfections with adenoviruses were more efficient for IHGK cells than for IHGKN, HN12, and HN30 cells. Inhibition of proliferation in all cell lines was proportional to the viral particle to cell (VPC) ratios. IHGK cells were more sensitive to p53 than IHGKN cells. HN12 cells were more suppressed than HN30 cells. HN12 were the most suppressed at 72 hours whereas HN30 cells were most suppressed at 24 hours. Expression of exogenous p53-induced G1 cell cycle arrest and p21 expression as VPC ratios increased in IHGK and IHGKN cell lines. Apoptosis also was induced in these cells by p53 as VPC increased. IHGK cells were more sensitive to p53-induced growth inhibition, cell cycle regulation, p21 expression and apoptosis than IHGKN cells. HN12 (mutated p53) cells were more sensitive to p53 overexpression than HN30 (wild-type p53) cells. Gene transfer and expression of exogenous p53 by using Ad-p53 demonstrates suppressive effects on HPV immortalized and carcinogen transformed oral keratinocytes. CONCLUSIONS Cell cycle regulation by gene transfer is feasible in immortalized oral keratinocytes. Carcinogen transformed cells are less susceptible to the effects of p53 overexpression. Expression of exogenous p53 through p53 gene transfer can suppress HPV immortalization and carcinogen transformation in oral keratinocytes. The sensitivity of HNSCC cell lines to p53-induced cell cycle regulation and apoptosis is variable and dependent on the cell line and duration of exposure. In vitro results using p53 gene transfer must be validated in clinical studies with patients at risk for HNSCC. Cancer 2002;94:159,66. © 2002 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Application for regenerative medicine of epithelial cell culture-vistas of cultured epithelium

    Hajime Inoue
    ABSTRACT This review describes culture techniques for the epithelial system as well as trends in the clinical application of cultured keratinocytes in our department and the possibility of applying the techniques to other organs. Cultured epithelium and cultured dermis in particular have considerably preceded regeneration of other organs in the field of regenerative medicine. Since 1988 we have grafted cultured keratinocytes by the Rheinwald-Green modified method in at least 500 patients with large skin defects. As a result of the establishment of a culture technique for individual patients, it is now possible to prepare enough regenerated epithelium to cover the body surface area of as many as 10 adult patients in approximately three weeks after collecting 1 cm2 of skin, and then remaining cultured keratinocytes can be cryo-preserved for two-stage dermatoplasty at another site. This procedure makes it possible to avoid frequent skin collection from the same patient and thereby improves patients' quality of life and activities of daily living. On the other hand, to solve the problem of regenerated epithelium shrinking and problems with graft efficiency on dermis defect lesion, we have developed a proteinase-resistant regenerated dermis by mixing a certain protein with a fibrin scaffold. Recently we also took the initiative in grafting hybrid-type regenerated trachea in an animal experiment by using the epithelial and dermal cell culture technique, and some results of the graft were obtained. [source]

    P28 Interleukin-8 from keratinocytes can be used to test for contact allergy

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Bolli Bjarnason
    Objective:, To investigate whether secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) proteins by keratinocytes following in vitro exposure to a contact allergen can be used to detect contact allergy. Methods:, Suction blisters were made on skin of allergic and anergic subjects to urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Keratinocyte cultures were prepared and exposed to the allergen in vitro. Controls were the allergen solvent. Variable allergen concentrations, allergen exposure times and cell culture times were used. At the end of each culture time, IL-8 RNA and protein of the culture supernatants were analyzed by PCR and ELISA. Results:, The concentration of IL-8 in the supernatants proved to be a successful way to distinguish between subjects who patch tested positive with a non-toxic concentration of urushiol and subjects who tested negative. In the allergic subjects, a correlation was established between the dose of the allergen and the IL-8 protein concentration in the supernatants. Conclusions:, In vitro testing of contact allergies in patients makes possible an objective assessment of their allergic status without causing a booster effect or risking active sensitizations. The results indicate that the method may be used as an alternative method to animal models for testing consumer products before their marketing, thus avoiding ethical problems and problems related to interpretation of tests because of biological differences between animals and humans. [source]

    Depigmentation Therapy with Q-Switched Ruby Laser After Tanning in Vitiligo Universalis

    Young-Jo Kim MD
    Background. In vitiligo universalis, repigmentation therapy is seldom effective. Besides, bleaching cream which is often used in depigmentation therapy may lead to several serious complications. Objective. Q-switched (QS) ruby laser can destroy melanosomes in melanocytes and keratinocytes by selective photothermolysis. Methods. We have attempted to destroy melanocytes by using the QS ruby laser after tanning in a patient with extensive vitiligo. Results. The patient had excellent results with no evidence of repigmentation after 1 year. Conclusion. Depigmentation therapy with QS ruby laser after tanning is an effective and safe way of removing remnants of normal pigmentation in patients with vitiligo universalis. [source]

    Ultrastructural features of the process of wound healing after tail and limb amputation in lizard

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    L. Alibardi
    Abstract Alibardi, L. 2010. Ultrastructural features of the process of wound healing after tail and limb amputation in lizard.,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 306,318 Wound healing and re-epitelization after amputation of tail and limb in lizard have been studied by electron microscopy to understand the cytological base of immunity to infection in this species. After 2 days post-amputation in both limb and tail stumps, numerous granulocytes are accumulated over the stump, and participate to the formation of the scab. Bacteria remain confined to the scab or are engulfed by leukocytes and migrating keratinocytes located underneath the scab. Bacteria are degraded within lysosomes present in these cells and are not observed among mesenchymal cells or in blood vessels of the regenerative blastema. Granulocytes, migrating keratinocytes, and later macrophages form an effective barrier responsible for limiting microbe penetration. The innate immunity in lizard is very effective in natural (dirty) condition and impedes the spreading of infection to inner tissues. While the complete re-epitelization of the tail stump underneath the scab requires 4,7 days, the same process in the limb requires 8,18 or more days post-amputation, depending from the level of amputation and the persistence of a protruding humerus or femurs on the stump surface. This delay produces the permanence of inflammatory cells such as granulocytes and macrophages in the limb stump for a much longer period than in the tail stump, a process that stimulates scarring. [source]

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the process of cornification in developing claws of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    Lorenzo Alibardi
    Abstract Cornification of developing claws in the brush possum has been analysed by electron microscopy and compared with the process in other tetrapods. Newborns from 3 to 60 days postparturition were studied. After formation of symmetric and round outgrowth in digits the epidermis becomes thicker in the dorsal with respect to the ventral digit tip. The claw elongates forming the unguis and a shorter subunguis. Spinosus keratinocytes in both unguis and subunguis accumulate tonofilaments that fill their cytoplasm. Keratohyaline-like granules are formed in early stages of differentiation in both unguis and subunguis but they later disappear in highly cornified corneocytes. Tonofilaments become electron-dense in keratinocytes of the precorneous layer in the large corneocytes of the unguis and in narrow corneocytes of the subunguis. Keratin bundles transform into an amorphous corneous material that embeds or masks the original keratin intermediate filaments. Nucleated corneocytes are accumulated in the unguis while thinner corneocytes are present in the subunguis. The latter contain a dense material, possibly containing high sulphur keratin associated proteins, as occurs during cornifcation of the cortex and cuticle hair cells and in the nail. The process of cornification of mammalian claws is compared with that of reptilian and avian claws. [source]

    Embryonic keratinization in vertebrates in relation to land colonization

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    L. Alibardi
    Abstract The embryogenesis and cytology of the epidermis in different vertebrates is variable in relation to the formation of a stratum corneum of different complexity. The latter process was essential for land colonization during vertebrate evolution and produced an efficient barrier in amniotes. Keratinocytes are made of cross-linked keratins associated with specific proteins and lipids that are produced at advanced stages of embryogenesis when the epidermis becomes stratified. In these stages the epidermis changes from an aquatic to a terrestrial type, preadapted in preparation for the impact with the dry terrestrial environment that occurs at hatching or parturition. The epidermal barrier against water-loss, mechanical and chemical stress, and microbe penetration is completely formed shortly before birth. Beneath the outer periderm, variably stratified embryonic layers containing glycine-rich alpha-keratins are formed in preparation for adult life. The following layers of the epidermis produce proteins for the formation of the cornified cell membrane and of the cornified material present in keratinocytes of the adult epidermis in reptiles, birds and mammals. The general features of the process of soft cornification in the embryonic epidermis of vertebrates are presented. Cornification in developing scales in reptiles, avian feathers and mammalian hairs is mainly related to the evolution of keratin-associated proteins. The latter proteins form the resistant matrix of hard skin derivatives such as claws, beaks, nails and horns. [source]

    CCL17 transgenic mice show an enhanced Th2-type response to both allergic and non-allergic stimuli

    Yuichiro Tsunemi Dr.
    Abstract CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). To study the effect of CCL17 produced by keratinocytes (KC) during inflammation, we created transgenic (Tg) mice in which CCL17 is overexpressed in KC. Th2-type contact hypersensitivity (CHS) was enhanced and Th1-type CHS was suppressed in these mice. Increased numbers of CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4+ cells and mast cells infiltrated in Tg mice. Levels of IL-4 mRNA were higher and those of IFN-, mRNA were lower in both acute and chronic CHS. Higher levels of serum IgE were observed after CHS. Numbers of CCR4+ cells among PBMC were increased in Tg mice challenged acutely on the trunk. Chronic irritation with croton oil induced dermatitis and an elevation of serum IgE levels. Tg mice showed enhanced ear swelling after tape stripping. CCL17 was thought to modify the inflammation caused by sensitizing reagents as well as irritant reagents by attracting CCR4+ cells into the lesional skin and creating a Th2-dominant condition. AD-like conditions such as increased number of mast cells and elevated levels of serum IgE were observed. Thus, CCL17 may participate in the pathogenesis of skin diseases such as AD by regulating both allergic and irritant inflammation. [source]

    Trefoil factor family 3 expression in the oral cavity

    T. Storesund
    This study examined the expression, in oral keratinocytes and in the major and minor salivary glands, of Trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) peptide. Trefoil factor family 3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and peptide were detected in cultures of normal oral keratinocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Trefoil factor family 3 was found, by immunohistochemical analyses, to be expressed in the basal layers of the oral mucosal epithelium. In salivary glands, immunohistochemical staining showed that TFF3 peptide expression was strongest in the mucous acini of the submandibular and the small salivary glands. Serous cells in the same glands showed weak staining. In the parotid gland, many serous acini showed weak positive staining, while other areas did not. In all glands examined, the intercalated, striated, and collecting ducts were moderately TFF3-positive. Double immunostaining confirmed that mucous (MUC5B positive) cells were moderately or strongly positive for TFF3 and that some serous (MUC7 positive) cells showed restricted TFF3 expression, mostly in a granular pattern. The prevalence of the TFF3 peptide in the salivary secretions of healthy volunteers was detected by western blotting of saliva from minor salivary glands (four of five) and the parotid gland (one of five) and of mixed submandibular/sublingual saliva (five of five). In conclusion, the submandibular and small salivary glands appear to be the major producers of oral TFF3, but duct cells of all glands and keratinocytes of the oral mucosa may also contribute as sources of TFF3 in the oral cavity. [source]

    Nerve growth factor ,/pro-nerve growth factor and their receptors in normal human oral mucosa

    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Nerve growth factor , (NGF- ,) and its precursor proNGF are important for the differentiation and survival of neurons and dermal keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the role that NGF might play in the differentiation and wound healing of oral mucosa. Cultured normal human oral mucosal keratinocytes expressed mRNA for NGF- ,/proNGF and for their receptors TrkA and p75NTR. Lysates from cultured oral mucosal keratinocytes did not contain detectable amounts of mature 14-kDa NGF- , but did contain several NGF proforms with molecular weights between 32 and 114 kDa. Culture medium from oral mucosal keratinocytes contained 75 kDa proNGF. The addition of NGF- , significantly enhanced the proliferation of oral mucosal keratinocyte cultures and in vitro scratch closure. Immunostaining of biopsies from normal oral mucosa showed the presence of proNGF in all epithelial layers. NGF staining was observed in the granular and upper spinous cell layers. TrkA immunoreactivity was detected in basal and parabasal cells, with weak to moderate staining in spinous and granular cell layers. p75NTR staining was seen in basal cell layers. These findings indicate that NGF- ,/proNGF have mitogenic and motogenic effects on oral mucosal keratinocytes and therefore may aid in the healing of oral wounds. Differential expression of NGF and NGF receptors throughout the epithelium suggests a role in epithelial differentiation. [source]

    Metalloproteinase expression in normal and malignant oral keratinocytes: stimulation of MMP-2 and -9 by scatter factor

    J. H. Bennett
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are Zn2+ dependent proteases produced by a variety of cell types. They have a fundamental role in tissue remodelling, tumour invasion and metastasis. Scatter factor (SF), secreted by fibroblasts, has a paracrine action on epithelial cells and binds the trans-membrane c-met receptor inducing loss of adhesion, cell motility and invasiveness in vitro. The purpose of this study was to test if SF can regulate the production of MMPs by epithelial cells. Supernatants from oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived cells (H375 and H376), a human keratinocyte line (UP), and primary cultures of oral mucosal keratinocytes, grown in the presence or absence of SF, were analysed using 0.1% gelatin zymography. MMPs were characterised by comparison with human recombinant enzymes and by the use of specific inhibitors. Oral mucosal keratinocytes, UP, and H357 cells expressed MMP-2 and MMP-9, whilst H376 cells only expressed MMP-2. SF increased the expression of MMP-9 in UP and MMP-2 in H376 supernatants. Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were increased in H357 and normal keratinocyte supernatants. This could be blocked using a human recombinant anti-SF antibody. In all epithelial lines tested, c-Met, the cell surface receptor for SF, could be detected. The results indicate that SF stimulates MMP expression in UP, H376, H357, and normal oral mucosal cells and points to a role for SF in the regulation of oral keratinocyte behaviour in wound healing and neoplasia. [source]

    Functional characterization of T cells differentiated in vitro from bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells of psoriatic patients with family history

    Kaiming Zhang
    Please cite this paper as: Functional characterization of T cells differentiated in vitro from bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells of psoriatic patients with family history. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e128,e135. Abstract Background:, The strong but complex genetic background suggests that inherent and intrinsic rather than exogenous factors have a key role in immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. It is reasonable to speculate that the dysfunctional activity of psoriatic T cells may partly originate from the abnormal haematopoietic cells. Objectives:, To test if T cells originated from haematopoietic progenitor cells in psoriasis patients display functional alternations similar to previously reported abnormalities of circulating T cells. Methods:, Bone marrow CD34+ haematopoietic cells were isolated from psoriatic patients with family history and healthy subjects, and differentiated into T cells in vitro in the thymic stromal co-culture system. These cells were further subjected to functional comparisons such as in vitro proliferation, secretion of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-8 and IFN,,, and inducing the production of C-myc, Bcl-xL, and Ki67 proteins in human keratinocytes. Results:, While bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from both patients and healthy volunteers developed into mature T cells within weeks in the thymic environment in vitro, the differentiated T cells from psoriatic patients showed higher proliferation and stronger capacity to secret TH1 cytokines in response to streptococcal superantigen. The differentiated T cells from psoriatic patients, but not from normal controls, induced overexpression of C-myc and Ki67, but not Bcl-XL, in keratinocytes. Conclusions:, T cells differentiated from CD34+ cells of psoriatic patients, but not normal controls, are functionally similar to psoriatic circulating T cells, suggesting that the dysfunctional activity of T cells in psoriatic patients can be traced back to the early development of haematopoietic cells. [source]

    About the cutaneous targets of bexarotene in CTCL patients

    Anne Chantal Knol
    Please cite this paper as: About the cutaneous targets of bexarotene in CTCL patients. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e299,e301. Abstract:, There are several approved therapies for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). The retinoids are one of the major biologic response modifiers used in CTCL, producing good response rates but few complete responses. Bexarotene has been demonstrated to act on malignant T-cells by inducing their apoptosis, but nothing is known about its role on keratinocytes and Langerhans cells. Immunohistochemical analysis using CD1a, HLA-DR, ICAM-1 (activation markers), CD95 and CD40 (apoptosis markers) was conducted on frozen sections of bexarotene-exposed cutaneous explants and skin biopsy specimens from patients treated with bexarotene. None of the studied markers was significantly modulated both on cutaneous explants and on skin biopsy specimens after treatment with bexarotene, compared to controls. Langerhans cells and keratinocytes do not appear to play a central role in the therapeutic control of CTCL by bexarotene therapy. The main bexarotene's target thus remains T-cells by inducing their apoptosis, a mechanism that is different from the other retinoids used in CTCL. [source]

    Gene expression demonstrates increased resilience toward harmful inflammatory stimuli in the proliferating epidermis of human skin wounds

    K. Markus Roupé
    Please cite this paper as: Gene expression demonstrates increased resilience toward harmful inflammatory stimuli in the proliferating epidermis of human skin wounds. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e329,e332. Abstract:, We examined the epidermal gene expression during the proliferative phase of wound healing. Matrix metalloproteases were the group of proteases most prominently up-regulated in skin wounds, whereas serine protease inhibitors were the most strongly up-regulated protease inhibitors. Furthermore, we found down-regulation of genes involved in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. This together with the up-regulation of inhibitors of leukocyte serine proteases likely represents a protective step to ensure survival of keratinocytes in the inflammatory wound environment. The down-regulation of proapoptotic genes in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was not accompanied by a down-regulation of receptors indicating that the keratinocytes in skin wounds did not become less responsive to external stimuli. Examining the transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of the most differentially expressed genes between normal skin and skin wounds a significant overrepresentation of binding sites were found for STAT-5, SRY and members of the FOXO-family of transcription factors. [source]

    Exploration of the functional hierarchy of the basal layer of human epidermis at the single-cell level using parallel clonal microcultures of keratinocytes

    Nicolas O. Fortunel
    Please cite this paper as: Exploration of the functional hierarchy of the basal layer of human epidermis at the single-cell level using parallel clonal microcultures of keratinocytes. Experimental Dermatology 2010. Abstract:, The basal layer of human epidermis contains both stem cells and keratinocyte progenitors. Because of this cellular heterogeneity, the development of methods suitable for investigations at a clonal level is dramatically needed. Here, we describe a new method that allows multi-parallel clonal cultures of basal keratinocytes. Immediately after extraction from tissue samples, cells are sorted by flow cytometry based on their high integrin-,6 expression and plated individually in microculture wells. This automated cell deposition process enables large-scale characterization of primary clonogenic capacities. The resulting clonal growth profile provided a precise assessment of basal keratinocyte hierarchy, as the size distribution of 14-day-old clones ranged from abortive to highly proliferative clones containing 1.7 × 105 keratinocytes (17.4 cell doublings). Importantly, these 14-day-old primary clones could be used to generate three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis with the progeny of a single cell. In long-term cultures, a fraction of highly proliferative clones could sustain extensive expansion of >100 population doublings over 14 weeks and exhibited long-term epidermis reconstruction potency, thus fulfilling candidate stem cell functional criteria. In summary, parallel clonal microcultures provide a relevant model for single-cell studies on interfollicular keratinocytes, which could be also used in other epithelial models, including hair follicle and cornea. The data obtained using this system support the hierarchical model of basal keratinocyte organization in human interfollicular epidermis. [source]