Kenyon Cells (kenyon + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Visual experience and age affect synaptic organization in the mushroom bodies of the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis

Sara Mae Stieb
Abstract Desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis undergo an age-related polyethism from interior workers involved in brood care and food processing to short-lived outdoor foragers with remarkable visual navigation capabilities. The quick transition from dark to light suggests that visual centers in the ant's brain express a high degree of plasticity. To investigate structural synaptic plasticity in the mushroom bodies (MBs),sensory integration centers supposed to be involved in learning and memory,we immunolabeled and quantified pre- and postsynaptic profiles of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the visual (collar) and olfactory (lip) input regions of the MB calyx. The results show that a volume increase of the MB calyx during behavioral transition is associated with a decrease in MG numbers in the collar and, less pronounced, in the lip. Analysis of tubulin-positive profiles indicates that presynaptic pruning of projection neurons and dendritic expansion in intrinsic Kenyon cells are involved. Light-exposure of dark-reared ants of different age classes revealed similar effects. The results indicate that this structural synaptic plasticity in the MB calyx is primarily driven by visual experience rather than by an internal program. This is supported by the fact that dark-reared ants age-matched to foragers had MG numbers comparable to those of interior workers. Ants aged artificially for up to 1 year expressed a similar plasticity. These results suggest that the high degree of neuronal plasticity in visual input regions of the MB calyx may be an important factor related to behavior transitions associated with division of labor. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 408,423, 2010 [source]

Dopamine modulation of the In vivo acetylcholine response in the Drosophila mushroom body

Vitold Tsydzik
Abstract Olfactory sensory information in Drosophila is transmitted through antennal lobe projections to Mushroom Body neurons (Kenyon cells) by means of cholinergic synapses. Application of acetylcholine (ACh) and odors produce significant increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in these neurons. Behavioral studies show that Kenyon cell activity is modulated by dopaminergic inputs and this modulation is thought to be the basis for an olfactory conditioned response. However, quantitative assessment of the synaptic inputs to Kenyon cells is currently lacking. To assess neuronal activity under in vivo conditions, we have used the endogenously-expressed camgaroo reporter to measure [Ca2+]i in these neurons. We report here the dose-response relationship of Kenyon cells for ACh and dopamine (DA). Importantly, we also show that simultaneous application of ACh and DA results in a significant decrease in the response to ACh alone. In addition, we show inhibition of the ACh response by cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This is the first quantitative assessment of the effects of these two important transmitters in this system, and it provides an important basis for future analysis of the cellular mechanisms of this well established model for associative olfactory learning. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]

Identification of a novel gene, Mblk-1, that encodes a putative transcription factor expressed preferentially in the large-type Kenyon cells of the honeybee brain

Hideaki Takeuchi
Abstract Mushroom bodies (MBs) are considered to be involved in higher-order sensory processing in the insect brain. To identify the genes involved in the intrinsic function of the honeybee MBs, we searched for genes preferentially expressed therein, using the differential display method. Here we report a novel gene encoding a putative transcription factor (Mblk-1) expressed preferentially in one of two types of intrinsic MB neurones, the large-type Kenyon cells, which makes Mblk-1 a candidate gene involved in the advanced behaviours of honeybees. A putative DNA binding motif of Mblk-1 had significant sequence homology with those encoded by genes from various animal species, suggesting that the functions of these proteins in neural cells are conserved among the animal kingdom. [source]

Developmental and adult expression of semaphorin 2a in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus,

Kristen R. Maynard
Abstract Developmental guidance cues act to direct growth cones to their correct targets in the nervous system. Recent experiments also demonstrate that developmental cues are expressed in the adult mammalian nervous system, although their function in the brain is not yet clear. The semaphorin gene family has been implicated in the growth of dendrites and axons in a number of different species. While the expression of semaphorin and its influence on tibial pioneer neurons in the developing limb bud have been well characterized in the grasshopper, the expression of semaphorin 2a (sema2a) has not been explored in the adult insect. In this study we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate and gene-specific primers to clone part of the secreted form of sema2a from Gryllus bimaculatus. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that sema2a mRNA and protein expression patterns in the embryonic cricket were similar to that seen in the grasshopper. We also showed that tibial neuron development in crickets was comparable to that described in grasshopper. An examination of both developing and adult cricket brains showed that sema2a mRNA and protein were expressed in the Kenyon cells in mushroom bodies, an area involved in learning and memory. Sema2a expression was most obvious near the apex of the mushroom body in a region surrounding the neurogenic tip, which produces neurons throughout the life of the cricket. We discuss the role of neurogenesis in learning and memory and the potential involvement of semaphorin in this process. J. Comp. Neurol. 503:169,181, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Three-dimensional average-shape atlas of the honeybee brain and its applications

Robert Brandt
Abstract The anatomical substrates of neural nets are usually composed from reconstructions of neurons that were stained in different preparations. Realistic models of the structural relationships between neurons require a common framework. Here we present 3-D reconstructions of single projection neurons (PN) connecting the antennal lobe (AL) with the mushroom body (MB) and lateral horn, groups of intrinsic mushroom body neurons (type 5 Kenyon cells), and a single mushroom body extrinsic neuron (PE1), aiming to compose components of the olfactory pathway in the honeybee. To do so, we constructed a digital standard atlas of the bee brain. The standard atlas was created as an average-shape atlas of 22 neuropils, calculated from 20 individual immunostained whole-mount bee brains. After correction for global size and positioning differences by repeatedly applying an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm, a sequence of average label images was created. The results were qualitatively evaluated by generating average gray-value images corresponding to the average label images and judging the level of detail within the labeled regions. We found that the first affine registration step in the sequence results in a blurred image because of considerable local shape differences. However, already the first nonrigid iteration in the sequence corrected for most of the shape differences among individuals, resulting in images rich in internal detail. A second iteration improved on that somewhat and was selected as the standard. Registering neurons from different preparations into the standard atlas reveals 1) that the m-ACT neuron occupies the entire glomerulus (cortex and core) and overlaps with a local interneuron in the cortical layer; 2) that, in the MB calyces and the lateral horn of the protocerebral lobe, the axon terminals of two identified m-ACT neurons arborize in separate but close areas of the neuropil; and 3) that MB-intrinsic clawed Kenyon cells (type 5), with somata outside the calycal cups, project to the peduncle and lobe output system of the MB and contact (proximate) the dendritic tree of the PE1 neuron at the base of the vertical lobe. Thus the standard atlas and the procedures applied for registration serve the function of creating realistic neuroanatomical models of parts of a neural net. The Honeybee Standard Brain is accessible at J. Comp. Neurol. 492:1,19, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]