Kelvin Probe Microscopy (kelvin + probe_microscopy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy on Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Blends

Klára Maturová
Abstract Here, correlated AFM and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy measurements with sub-100,nm resolution on the phase-separated active layer of polymer-fullerene (MDMO-PPV:PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar cells in the dark and under illumination are described. Using numerical modeling a fully quantitative explanation for the contrast and shifts of the surface potential in dark and light is provided. Under illumination an excess of photogenerated electrons is present in both the donor and acceptor phases. From the time evolution of the surface potential after switching off the light the contributions of free and trapped electrons can be identified. Based on these measurements the relative 3D energy level shifts of the sample are calculated. Moreover, by comparing devices with fine and coarse phase separation, it is found that the inferior performance of the latter devices is, at least partially, due to poor electron transport. [source]

The assessment of microscopic charging effects induced by focused electron and ion beam irradiation of dielectrics

Marion A. Stevens-Kalceff
Abstract Energetic beams of electrons and ions are widely used to probe the microscopic properties of materials. Irradiation with charged beams in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) systems may result in the trapping of charge at irradiation induced or pre-existing defects within the implanted microvolume of the dielectric material. The significant perturbing influence on dielectric materials of both electron and (Ga+) ion beam irradiation is assessed using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) is an advanced SPM technique in which long-range Coulomb forces between a conductive atomic force probe and the silicon dioxide specimen enable the potential at the specimen surface to be characterized with high spatial resolution. KPM reveals characteristic significant localized potentials in both electron and ion implanted dielectrics. The potentials are observed despite charge mitigation strategies including prior coating of the dielectric specimen with a layer of thin grounded conductive material. Both electron- and ion-induced charging effects are influenced by a delicate balance of a number of different dynamic processes including charge-trapping and secondary electron emission. In the case of ion beam induced charging, the additional influence of ion implantation and nonstoichiometric sputtering from compounds is also important. The presence of a localized potential will result in the electromigration of mobile charged defect species within the irradiated volume of the dielectric specimen. This electromigration may result in local modification of the chemical composition of the irradiated dielectric. The implications of charging induced effects must be considered during the microanalysis and processing of dielectric materials using electron and ion beam techniques. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Electrical Scanning Probe Microscopy on Active Organic Electronic Devices

Liam S. C. Pingree
Abstract Polymer- and small-molecule-based organic electronic devices are being developed for applications including electroluminescent displays, transistors, and solar cells due to the promise of low-cost manufacturing. It has become clear that these materials exhibit nanoscale heterogeneities in their optical and electrical properties that affect device performance, and that this nanoscale structure varies as a function of film processing and device-fabrication conditions. Thus, there is a need for high-resolution measurements that directly correlate both electronic and optical properties with local film structure in organic semiconductor films. In this article, we highlight the use of electrical scanning probe microscopy techniques, such as conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and similar variants to elucidate charge injection/extraction, transport, trapping, and generation/recombination in organic devices. We discuss the use of these tools to probe device structures ranging from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and thin-film transistors (TFT), to light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and organic photovoltaics. [source]

Charge Trapping at the Dielectric of Organic Transistors Visualized in Real Time and Space,


Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy demonstrates that water-induced charge trapping at the SiO2 dielectric , visualized in real time and space , is responsible for the commonly observed gate-bias-induced threshold-voltage shift in organic field-effect transistors. When a bias is applied to the electrodes, charges are injected onto the SiO2 (see background of the figure). When the contacts are grounded, the charges are released again (foreground picture). [source]