Karyotypic Complexity (karyotypic + complexity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment by M-FISH of karyotypic complexity and cytogenetic evolution in bladder cancer in vitro

Sarah V. Williams
We carried out multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and follow-up FISH studies on a large series of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines and 2 normal urothelium,derived cell lines, several of which have not had karyotypes reported previously. M-FISH analysis, with appropriate follow-up, complements conventional cytogenetic analysis and array CGH studies, allowing a more accurate definition of karyotype. The detailed karyotypic data obtained will assist in choosing suitable cell lines for functional studies and identifies common losses, gains, breakpoints and potential fusion gene sites in TCC. We have shown changes in cell lines RT112 and DSH1 following prolonged culture, and differences in karyotype, between RT112 cultures obtained from different sources. We propose a model for the evolutionary changes leading to these differences. A comparison with the literature found other examples of differences in cell-line karyotypes between different sources. Nevertheless, several karyotypic changes were preserved between different sources of the same cell line and were also seen in more than one cell line. These may be the most important changes and include ,8p, +20, 4q,, 10p,, 16p, and breaks in 8p21. We carried out a more detailed follow-up of some regions, which showed involvement of 8p breaks and losses in 15 of 16 TCC cell lines but in neither of the normal urothelium,derived cell lines. Some changes represented distal loss, whereas others were small deletions. Further study of this region is warranted. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat/index.html. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Loss of heterozygosity analysis: Practically and conceptually flawed?

Ian P.M. Tomlinson
The Knudson "two-hit" hypothesis has provided the rationale for studies that aim to identify tumor-suppressor genes by mapping regions of allelic loss (loss of heterozygosity, LOH). Although LOH has been found in practically all types of tumors, very few such projects have been successful in identifying their tumor-suppressor targets. The prime explanation for this failure is probably that researchers have, in general, been too credulous about the two-hit hypothesis, and too willing to ignore factors such as intratumor heterogeneity, contamination by normal cells, karyotypic complexity, homozygous deletions, gene dosage changes, and polymerase chain reaction artifacts. We suggest ways of minimizing these problems. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that existing or newer methods, such as genomic microarrays and in situ single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, will solve the difficulties of LOH analysis. The future prospects for LOH studies are, as ever, uncertain. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Chromosomal rearrangements and genetic structure at different evolutionary levels of the Sorex araneus group

Abstract Robertsonian (Rb) fusions received large theoretical support for their role in speciation, but empirical evidence is often lacking. Here, we address the role of Rb rearrangements on the genetic differentiation of the karyotypically diversified group of shrews, Sorex araneus. We compared genetic structure between ,rearranged' and ,common' chromosomes in pairwise comparisons of five karyotypic taxa of the group. Considering all possible comparisons, we found a significantly greater differentiation at rearranged chromosomes, supporting the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the general genetic diversification of this group. Intertaxa structure and distance were larger across rearranged chromosomes for most of the comparisons, although these differences were not significant. This last result could be explained by the large variance observed among microsatellite-based estimates. The differences observed among the pairs of taxa analysed support the role of both the hybrid karyotypic complexity and the level of evolutionary divergence. [source]

Genetic and karyotypic structure in the shrews of the Sorex araneus group: are they independent?

Abstract The species of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) group are morphologically very similar but exhibit high levels of karyotypic variation. Here we used genetic variation at 10 microsatellite markers in a data set of 212 individuals mostly sampled in the western Alps and composed of five karyotypic taxa (Sorex coronatus, Sorex antinorii and the S. araneus chromosome races Cordon, Bretolet and Vaud) to investigate the concordance between genetic and karyotypic structure. Bayesian analysis confirmed the taxonomic status of the three sampled species since individuals consistently grouped according to their taxonomical status. However, introgression can still be detected between S. antinorii and the race Cordon of S. araneus. This observation is consistent with the expected low karyotypic complexity of hybrids between these two taxa. Geographically based cryptic substructure was discovered within S. antinorii, a pattern consistent with the different postglaciation recolonization routes of this species. Additionally, we detected two genetic groups within S. araneus notwithstanding the presence of three chromosome races. This pattern can be explained by the probable hybrid status of the Bretolet race but also suggests a relatively low impact of chromosomal differences on genetic structure compared to historical factors. Finally, we propose that the current data set (available at http://www.unil.ch/dee/page7010_en.html#1) could be used as a reference by those wanting to identify Sorex individuals sampled in the western Alps. [source]