Kamchatka Peninsula (kamchatka + peninsula)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Surface Heat Balance and Spatially Distributed Ablation Modelling at Koryto Glacier, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

Keiko Konya
Abstract To investigate the characteristics of ablation at Koryto Glacier, a mountain glacier under maritime climate in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, we made field observations from August to early September 2000. At a site near the equilibrium line, the 31-day average net radiation, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were 43, 59 and 31 W,2, respectively. We developed a new distributed ablation model, which only needs measurements of air temperature and global radiation at one site. Hourly ablation rates at this site obtained by the energy balance method are related to measured air temperature and global radiation by linear multiple regression. A different set of multiple regression coefficients is fitted for snow and ice surfaces. Better estimates of ablation rate can be obtained by this approach than by other temperature index models. These equations are then applied to each grid cell of a digital elevation model to estimate spatially distributed hourly melt. Air temperature is extrapolated using a constant temperature lapse rate and global radiation is distributed considering topographic effects. The model enables us to calculate the hourly spatial distribution of ablation rates within the glacier area and could well provide a realistic simulation of ablation over the whole glacier. [source]

Biodiversity and biogeography of the islands of the Kuril Archipelago

Theodore W. Pietsch
Abstract Aim Based on seven consecutive seasons of biotic survey and inventory of the terrestrial and freshwater plants and animals of the 30 major islands of the Kuril Archipelago, a description of the biodiversity and an analysis of the biogeography of this previously little known part of the world are provided. Location The Kuril Archipelago, a natural laboratory for investigations into the origin, subsequent evolution, and long-term maintenance of insular populations, forms the eastern boundary of the Okhotsk Sea, extending 1200 km between Hokkaido, Japan, and the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. A chain of more than 56 islands, the system is only slightly smaller than the Hawaiian Islands, covering an area of 15,600 km2 and providing 2409 km of coastline. Methods Collections of whole specimens of plants and animals, as well as tissue samples for future molecular studies, were made by teams of scientists from Russia, Japan, and the USA, averaging 34 people for each of the seven annual summer expeditions (1994,2000). Floral and faunal similarities between islands were evaluated by using Sorensen's coefficient of similarity. The similarity matrix resulting from pair-wise calculations was then subjected to UPGMA cluster analysis. Results Despite the relatively small geographical area of all islands combined, the Kuril Island biota is characterized by unusually high taxonomic diversity, yet endemism is very low. An example of a non-relict biota, it originated from two primary sources: a southern source, the Asian mainland by way of Sakhalin and Hokkaido, and a northern source by way of Kamchatka. The contribution of the southern source biota to the species diversity of the Kurils was considerably greater than the northern one. Main conclusion The Bussol Strait, lying between Urup and Simushir in the central Kurils, is the most significant biogeographical boundary within the Archipelago. Of lesser importance are two transitional zones, the De Vries Strait or ,Miyabe Line', which passes between Iturup and Urup in the southern Kurils, and the fourth Kuril Strait, between Onekotan and Paramushir in the northern Kurils. [source]

Skins of desire: poetry and identity in Koriak women's gift exchange

Petra Rethmann
Koriak women in the northern Kamchatka peninsula in the Russian Far Bast offer gifts of handworked reindeer fur and leather to entice men to become their sweethearts. Examining two love stories involving reindeer herding Koriak women and men, I explore the meaning of the gift as an embodied metaphor that arouses desire and creates seductive subjectivities. Focusing on sewers' creativity, I situate my analysis within a wider discussion on aesthetics and gift exchange to explore the poetic dimensions of the gift. In a final outlook, I ask about the significance of fur production and exchange for Koriak identity formation, [gift exchange, aesthetics, poetry, indigeneity, Koriak, Russia] [source]