Kallikrein

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Kallikrein

  • human kallikrein
  • plasma kallikrein
  • tissue kallikrein

  • Terms modified by Kallikrein

  • kallikrein activity
  • kallikrein inhibitor

  • Selected Abstracts


    Kallikrein 4 is expressed in malignant mesothelioma,Further evidence for the histogenetic link between mesothelial and epithelial cells

    DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Ben Davidson M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze Kallikrein 4 protein (hK4) expression in effusions and solid tumors of patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma (MM) and compare hK4 expression in MM with that in breast and ovarian adenocarcinomas. Sections from 65 MM (21 effusions, 44 solid tumors) and 63 breast carcinomas (28 effusions, 35 solid tumors) were stained for hK4 using immunohistochemistry. Results were compared with our previously published data for 284 ovarian carcinomas (181 effusions, 103 solid tumors). Expression of hK4 was detected in 26/65 (40%) MM and 52/63 (83%) breast carcinomas. Ovarian carcinoma showed staining values that were comparable to those in breast carcinoma (expression of hK4 in 144/181; 80% effusions and 85/103; 83% solid tumors). As opposed to our previous findings in ovarian carcinoma, hK4 expression was higher in solid tumors when compared with to effusions in both MM (P = 0.013) and breast carcinoma (P = 0.002). Comparative analysis of the three tumor types showed significantly higher expression in ovarian and breast adenocarcinomas when compared with MM (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hK4 is frequently expressed in MM, with higher levels detected in solid tumors, although its expression is more limited than in gynecological adenocarcinomas. The presence of hK4 in MM, a non-hormonally regulated tumor, provides further support to the histogenetic link between mesothelial and epithelial cells. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:80,84. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    How do enamelysin and kallikrein 4 process the 32-kDa enamelin?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 2006
    Yasuo Yamakoshi
    The activities of two proteases , enamelysin (MMP-20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) , are necessary for dental enamel to achieve its high degree of mineralization. We hypothesize that the selected enamel protein cleavage products which accumulate in the secretory-stage enamel matrix do so because they are resistant to further cleavage by MMP-20. Later, they are degraded by KLK4. The 32-kDa enamelin is the only domain of the parent protein that accumulates in the deeper enamel. Our objective was to identify the cleavage sites of 32-kDa enamelin that are generated by proteolysis with MMP-20 and KLK4. Enamelysin, KLK4, the major amelogenin isoform (P173), and the 32-kDa enamelin were isolated from developing porcine enamel. P173 and the 32-kDa enamelin were incubated with MMP-20 or KLK4 for up to 48 h. Then, the 32-kDa enamelin digestion products were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized by Edman sequencing, amino acid analysis, and mass spectrometry. Enamelysin cleaved the 32-kDa enamelin only after it was deglycosylated. Kallikrein 4 digestion of the 32-kDa enamelin generated nine major cleavage products, six of which were successfully characterized. After 12 h of digestion with KLK4, all of the 32-kDa enamelin had been cleaved, but some cleavage products persisted after 48 h of digestion. [source]


    An experimental strategy for quantitative analysis of the humoral immune response to prostate cancer antigens using natural protein microarrays

    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, Issue 5 2007
    Sara Forrester
    Abstract The identification of human tumor antigens has potential utility in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. We demonstrate here a complete strategy to profile immunoreactivity and identify tumor antigens from proteins derived from tumor cell lines. Microarrays of proteins produced from 2-D LC fractionation of prostate tumor cell-line lysates were used to profile immunoreactivity in the sera of prostate cancer patients and control subjects. Cancer-associated immunoreactivity to distinct groups of chromatography fractions was present in about 50% of the patients, with greater immunoreactivity present in patients with non-organ-confined cancer than in patients with organ-confined cancer. We grouped the immunoreactive fractions by similarities in elution order and patterns of immunoreactivity to guide and interpret the MS analysis of selected fractions, which was used to identify the proteins that may be responsible for the immunoreactivity. As a complementary method to further characterize and validate the immunoreactivity of the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, we demonstrate the use of focused microarrays of recombinant proteins. Disease-associated immunoreactivity was confirmed for one of the identified proteins, human Kallikrein 11. These results demonstrate a practical approach to screening, identifying, and validating immunoreactive proteins that could be applied to diverse studies on humoral immune responses. [source]


    Kallikrein 4 is a potential mediator of cellular interactions between cancer cells and osteoblasts in metastatic prostate cancer

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2007
    Jin Gao
    Abstract BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PCa) and bone cell interactions are critical in the metastatic phase. Kallikrein 4 (KLK4/hK4) is expressed in both PCa and mineralized tissues. We determined if KLK4/hK4 expression was associated with, and influenced by, the bone environment of metastatic PCa. METHODS Immunohistochemistry, in vitro co-culture, cell migration, and attachment assays. RESULTS hK4 was localized to tumor cells and osteoblasts in bone metastases. KLK4/hK4 increased in LNCaP and PC3 cells co-cultured with SaOs2 cells; SaOs2 KLK4/hK4 was unchanged. Co-culture did not affect cell proliferation but altered alkaline phosphatase activity/mRNA levels in SaOs2 cells. KLK4 -transfected PC3 cells had increased migration towards SaOs2 conditioned medium and greater attachment to the bone-matrix proteins, collagens I and IV. CONCLUSIONS hK4 expression and interaction with both tumor cells and osteoblasts suggests a role for hK4 in PCa bone metastasis. Whether this observation is unique to bone metastasis or reflects a role for hK4 in PCa metastasis generally is yet to be established. Prostate 67: 348,360, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    16 Kallikrein 15 (KLK15) in prostate cancer: in silico analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism verification

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2006
    M.A. KEDDA
    Introduction:, Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Caucasian men and there is strong evidence that kallikreins are part of an enzymatic cascade pathway activated in this disease. Altered KLK15 expression has been associated with cancer progression and grade and we postulate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the KLK15 gene, will alter gene expression and will be associated with prostate cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Materials and Methods:, We have used in silico prediction of function of wildtype and variant promoter sequences through assessment of hormone receptor elements and transcription factor binding sites; as well as prediction of likely splice variants through genomic, splicing and EST databases and web sites, and multiple sequence alignment packages. We have also used PCR and sequence analysis to further characterise the promoter region of the gene. Results:,In silico analysis of the KLK15 gene has identified the following: two putative promoter regions, two putative androgen response elements (AREs) and four putative estrogen response elements (EREs); two clusters of cis elements; and 109 SNPs. Forty-seven SNPs alter transcription factor sites (22 gain sites), 20 gain/increase probability of an ERE and three alter nuclear hormone receptor binding sites. Three new EST clones have been identified by analysis of gene expression in CGAP databases and suggest a new KLK15 splice variant, with a different start site. Conclusion:, We have identified a number of new SNPs in the KLK15 gene, which may be functionally important and, in collaboration with the Queensland Cancer Fund (ProsCan Study), we will further investigate the association of these SNPs with prostate cancer risk and prognosis. [source]


    Identification of rat urinary glycoproteome captured by three lectins using gel and LC-based proteomics

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2008
    Pyong-Gon Moon
    Abstract Many different types of urine proteome studies have been done, but urine glycoprotein studies are insufficient. Therefore, we studied the glycoproteins from rat urine, which could be used to identify biomarkers in an animal model. First, urinary proteins were prepared by using the dialysis and lyophilizing methods from rat urine. Glycoproteins enriched with lectin affinity purification, concanavalin A, jacalin and wheat germ agglutinin from the urinary proteins were separated by means of reverse-phase fast protein LC (FPLC) or 1-D PAGE. Each FPLC fraction and 1-D PAGE gel band were trypsin-digested and analyzed by means of nanoLC-MS/MS. LC-MS/MS analyses were carried out by using linear ion trap MS. A total of 318 rat urinary glycoproteins were identified from the FPLC fractions and gel bands; approximately 90% of identified proteins were confirmed as glycoproteins in Swiss-Prot. Many glycoproteins, known as biomarkers, including C-reactive protein, uromodulin, amyloid beta A4 protein, alpha-1-inhibitor 3, vitamin D-binding protein, kallikrein 3 and fetuin-A were identified in this study. By studying urinary glycoproteins collected from rat, these results may help to assist in identifying urinary biomarkers regarding various types of disease models. [source]


    How do enamelysin and kallikrein 4 process the 32-kDa enamelin?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 2006
    Yasuo Yamakoshi
    The activities of two proteases , enamelysin (MMP-20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) , are necessary for dental enamel to achieve its high degree of mineralization. We hypothesize that the selected enamel protein cleavage products which accumulate in the secretory-stage enamel matrix do so because they are resistant to further cleavage by MMP-20. Later, they are degraded by KLK4. The 32-kDa enamelin is the only domain of the parent protein that accumulates in the deeper enamel. Our objective was to identify the cleavage sites of 32-kDa enamelin that are generated by proteolysis with MMP-20 and KLK4. Enamelysin, KLK4, the major amelogenin isoform (P173), and the 32-kDa enamelin were isolated from developing porcine enamel. P173 and the 32-kDa enamelin were incubated with MMP-20 or KLK4 for up to 48 h. Then, the 32-kDa enamelin digestion products were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized by Edman sequencing, amino acid analysis, and mass spectrometry. Enamelysin cleaved the 32-kDa enamelin only after it was deglycosylated. Kallikrein 4 digestion of the 32-kDa enamelin generated nine major cleavage products, six of which were successfully characterized. After 12 h of digestion with KLK4, all of the 32-kDa enamelin had been cleaved, but some cleavage products persisted after 48 h of digestion. [source]


    Levels of pre-kallikrein in resting and stimulated human parotid and submandibular saliva

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 5 2001
    Carol A. Francis
    Salivary tissue kallikrein is stored in an active form in human salivary glands. Pre-kallikrein has been demonstrated in mixed saliva, but it is not clear if the various salivary glands contribute equally. This study set out to determine if pre-kallikrein is present in human parotid and submandibular salivas at rest, whether levels change during stimulation, and to compare the pattern of pre-kallikrein and kallikrein secretion with that of total protein. Resting and citric acid-stimulated parotid and submandibular, and gum-stimulated parotid saliva samples were collected from 6 healthy subjects. Salivary flows were determined gravimetrically. Total protein concentration and kallikrein enzymic activity were assayed using standard techniques. Pre-kallikrein was assayed following trypsinisation of duplicate samples. Pre-kallikrein was present in parotid and submandibular ductal saliva. Proportions of pre-kallikrein and active kallikrein were similar in salivas secreted at rest and during stimulation, and both outputs mirrored protein output in both major glands. Gum-stimulated parotid saliva showed lower activity than resting, and no differences were seen between resting and stimulated submandibular samples. [source]


    Activation of hepatocyte growth factor activator zymogen (pro-HGFA) by human kallikrein 1-related peptidases

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Shoichiro Mukai
    Hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) is a serine protease and a potent activator of prohepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (pro-HGF/SF), a multifunctional growth factor that is critically involved in tissue morphogenesis, regeneration, and tumor progression. HGFA circulates as a zymogen (pro-HGFA) and is activated in response to tissue injury. Although thrombin is considered to be an activator of pro-HGFA, alternative pro-HGFA activation pathways in tumor microenvironments remain to be identified. In this study, we examined the effects of kallikrein 1-related peptidases (KLKs), a family of extracellular serine proteases, on the activation of pro-HGFA. Among the KLKs examined (KLK2, KLK3, KLK4 and KLK5), we identified KLK4 and KLK5 as novel activators of pro-HGFA. Using N-terminal sequencing, the cleavage site was identified as the normal processing site, Arg407,Ile408. The activation of pro-HGFA by KLK5 required a negatively charged substance such as dextran sulfate, whereas KLK4 could process pro-HGFA without dextran sulfate. KLK5 showed more efficient pro-HGFA processing than KLK4, and was expressed in 50% (13/25) of the tumor cell lines examined. HGFA processed by these KLKs efficiently activated pro-HGF/SF, and led to cellular scattering and invasion in vitro. The activities of both KLK4 and KLK5 were strongly inhibited by HGFA inhibitor type 1, an integral membrane Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that inhibits HGFA and other pro-HGF/SF-activating proteases. These data suggest that KLK4 and KLK5 mediate HGFA-induced activation of pro-HGF/SF within tumor tissue, which may thereafter trigger a series of events leading to tumor progression via the MET receptor. [source]


    Development of recombinant inhibitors specific to human kallikrein 2 using phage-display selected substrates

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2004
    Sylvain M. Cloutier
    The reactive site loop of serpins undoubtedly defines in part their ability to inhibit a particular enzyme. Exchanges in the reactive loop of serpins might reassign the targets and modify the serpin,protease interaction kinetics. Based on this concept, we have developed a procedure to change the specificity of known serpins. First, reactive loops are very good substrates for the target enzymes. Therefore, we have used the phage-display technology to select from a pentapeptide phage library the best substrates for the human prostate kallikrein hK2 [Cloutier, S.M., Chagas, J.R., Mach, J.P., Gygi, C.M., Leisinger, H.J. & Deperthes, D. (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 2747,2754]. Selected substrates were then transplanted into the reactive site loop of ,1-antichymotrypsin to generate new variants of this serpin, able to inhibit the serine protease. Thus, we have developed some highly specific ,1-antichymotrypsin variants toward human kallikrein 2 which also show high reactivity. These inhibitors might be useful to help elucidate the importance of hK2 in prostate cancer progression. [source]


    A human-specific mutation leads to the origin of a novel splice form of neuropsin (KLK8), a gene involved in learning and memory,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 10 2007
    Zhi-xiang Lu
    Abstract Neuropsin (kallikrein 8, KLK8) is a secreted-type serine protease preferentially expressed in the central nervous system and involved in learning and memory. Its splicing pattern is different in human and mouse, with the longer form (type II) only expressed in human. Sequence analysis suggested a recent origin of type II during primate evolution. Here we demonstrate that the type II form is absent in nonhuman primates, and is thus a human-specific splice form. With the use of an in vitro splicing assay, we show that a human-specific T to A mutation (c.71,127T>A) triggers the change of splicing pattern, leading to the origin of a novel splice form in the human brain. Using mutation assay, we prove that this mutation is not only necessary but also sufficient for type II expression. Our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism for the creation of novel proteins through alternative splicing in the central nervous system during human evolution. Hum Mutat 28(10), 978,984, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Evaluation of molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen and human kallikrein 2 in predicting biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 3 2009
    Sven Wenske
    Abstract Most pretreatment risk-assessment models to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer rely on total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical stage, and biopsy Gleason grade. We investigated whether free PSA (fPSA) and human glandular kallikrein-2 (hK2) would enhance the predictive accuracy of this standard model. Preoperative serum samples and complete clinical data were available for 1,356 patients who underwent RP for localized prostate cancer from 1993 to 2005. A case-control design was used, and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between preoperative predictors and BCR after RP. We constructed multivariable models with fPSA and hK2 as additional preoperative predictors to the base model. Predictive accuracy was assessed with the area under the ROC curve (AUC). There were 146 BCR cases; the median follow up for patients without BCR was 3.2 years. Overall, 436 controls were matched to 146 BCR cases. The AUC of the base model was 0.786 in the entire cohort; adding fPSA and hK2 to this model enhanced the AUC to 0.798 (p = 0.053), an effect largely driven by fPSA. In the subgroup of men with total PSA ,10 ng/ml (48% of cases), adding fPSA and hK2 enhanced the AUC of the base model to a similar degree (from 0.720 to 0.726, p = 0.2). fPSA is routinely measured during prostate cancer detection. We suggest that the role of fPSA in aiding preoperative prediction should be investigated in further cohorts. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Toxic effect of blood components on perinatal rat subventricular zone cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in culture

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2009
    Packiasamy A. R. Juliet
    Abstract The germinal matrix of human brain gives rise to oligodendrocytes and astrocytes after mid-gestation. Hemorrhage in the germinal matrix of premature infants is associated with suppressed cell proliferation. We hypothesize that soluble blood constituents have an adverse effect on the proliferation of cultured rat subventricular zone (SVZ) cells and the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC). Using caspase 3 activation and lactate dehydrogenase release assays, rat plasma, serum, thrombin, and kallikrein killed SVZ cells when grown in the presence (but not absence) of platelet derived growth factor. Plasma and serum killed OPC at 1 : 1 to 1 : 100 dilutions. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay OPC proliferation was reduced by plasma, serum, thrombin and plasmin. Blood proteins also suppressed OPC migration in a concentration dependent manner. However, differentiation of OPC into myelin basic protein expressing cells was suppressed only by thrombin. We conclude that soluble blood components, particularly thrombin, have an adverse effect on maturing SVZ cells and OPC derived from newborn rat brain. [source]


    Involvement of the contact phase and intrinsic pathway in herpes simplex virus-initiated plasma coagulation

    JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Issue 5 2010
    E. S. GERSHOM
    Summary.,Background:,A hemostatic response to vascular injury is initiated by the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and amplified by the intrinsic pathway. We previously reported that purified herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) has constitutive extrinsic pathway tissue factor (TF) and anionic phospholipid on its surface derived from the host cell, and can consequently bypass strict cellular control of coagulation. Objective:,The current work addresses the hypothesis that HSV1-induced plasma coagulation also involves intrinsic pathway, factor VIII (FVIII), and upstream contact activation pathway, factor XII (FXII). Results:,HSV1-initiated clotting was accelerated when purified FVIII was added to FVIII-deficient plasma and in normal plasma attenuated by an inhibitory anti-FVIII antibody (Ab). High HSV1 concentrations predictably reduced the effect of FVIII due to the availability of excess viral TF. To further define TF-independent clotting mechanisms initiated by HSV1, the extrinsic pathway was disabled using factor VII-deficient plasma. The intrinsic pathway is triggered by activation of FXII associated with surface-bound kallikrein, which subsequently activates factor XI. Here we found that an inhibitor of activated FXII, corn trypsin inhibitor, and anti-FXII, anti-kallikrein and anti-FXI Abs inhibited HSV1-initiated clotting. HSV1-enhanced activation of purified FXII was confirmed by Western blot, but required prekallikrein. Conclusion:,The current work shows that HSV1 can trigger and amplify coagulation through the contact phase and intrinsic pathway, and suggests an additional mechanism that may contribute to vascular pathology. [source]


    The antigenic binding site(s) of antibodies to factor XII associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome

    JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Issue 5 2005
    S. L. HARRIS
    Summary., Phospholipid binding proteins, including factor XII (FXII), are known to be targeted by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPA). Factor XII antibodies (FXIIab) have been described in some patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and have been shown to lead to reduced levels of FXII. The antigenic binding site(s) and the pathophysiological effects of FXIIab are unknown. In an attempt to elucidate the binding site of these antibodies, immobilized plasma kallikrein was used to cleave FXII into its 52-kDa heavy-chain (HCFXII) and 28-kDa light-chain (LCFXII) components. Plasma samples from 12 female patients with definite APS and FXIIab were investigated for the presence of antibodies to FXII, HCFXII and LCFXII. All but one patient's plasma reacted to FXII, HCFXII and LCFXII in a similar manner. One patient gave markedly reduced positivity to HCFXII and LCFXII, suggesting that the FXIIab in this patient had a higher affinity for the intact FXII molecule. To further investigate the antigenic binding site(s) of FXII, 150 biotinylated peptides of the known FXII sequence were synthesized using a MultipinTM peptide synthesis procedure. The IgG and IgM fractions of the 12 patients' plasma were purified by affinity chromatography. The synthesized peptides were captured on streptavidin plates and individual patients' purified FXIIab assayed against the peptides in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two regions were identified as possible antigenic binding site(s) for FXIIab: one in the growth factor domain and the other in the catalytic domain. [source]


    A mass spectrometry-based strategy for detecting and characterizing endogenous proteinase activities in complex biological samples

    PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 3 2008
    Sarah Robinson
    Abstract Endogenous proteinases in biological fluids such as human saliva produce a rich peptide repertoire that reflects a unique combination of enzymes, substrates, and inhibitors/activators. Accordingly, this subproteome is an interesting source of biomarkers for disease processes that either directly or indirectly involve proteolysis. However, the relevant proteinases, typically very low abundance molecules, are difficult to classify and identify. We hypothesized that a sensitive technique for monitoring accumulated peptide products in an unbiased, global manner would be very useful for detecting and profiling proteolytic activities in complex biological samples. Building on the longstanding use of 18O isotope-based approaches for the classification of proteolytic and other enzymatic processes we devised a new method for evaluating endogenous proteinases. Specifically, we showed that upon ex vivo incubation endogenous proteinases in human parotid saliva introduced 18O from isotopically enriched water into the C-terminal carboxylic groups of their peptide products. Subsequent peptide sequence determination and inhibitor profiling enabled the detection of discrete subsets of proteolytic products that were generated by different enzymes. As a proof-of-principle we used one of these fingerprints to identify the relevant activity as tissue kallikrein. We termed this technique PALeO. Our results suggest that PALeO is a rapid and highly sensitive method for globally assessing proteinase activities in complex biological samples. [source]


    Proteomics cataloging analysis of human expressed prostatic secretions reveals rich source of biomarker candidates

    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, Issue 4 2008
    Runsheng Li
    Abstract Expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) contain proteins of prostate origin that may reflect the health status of the prostate and be used as diagnostic markers for prostate diseases including prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. Despite their importance and potential applications, a complete catalog of EPS proteins is not yet available. We, therefore, undertook a comprehensive analysis of the EPS proteome using 2-D micro-LC combined with MS/MS. Using stringent filtering criteria, we identified a list of 114 proteins with at least two unique-peptide hits and an additional 75 proteins with only a single unique-peptide hit. The proteins identified include kallikrein 2 (KLK2), KLK3 (prostate-specific antigen), KLK11, and nine cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules including CD10, CD13, CD14, CD26, CD66a, CD66c, CD 143, CD177, and CD224. To our knowledge, this list represents the first comprehensive characterization of the EPS proteome, and it provides a candidate biomarker list for targeted quantitative proteomics analysis using a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. To help prioritize candidate biomarkers, we constructed a protein,protein interaction network of the EPS proteins using Cytoscape (www.cytoscape.org), and overlaid the expression level changes from the Oncomine database onto the network. [source]


    Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and antitumor efficacy of a human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2)-activated thapsigargin prodrug

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2006
    Samuel Janssen
    Abstract BACKGROUND Prostate cancer cells secrete unique proteases such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) that represent targets for the activation of prodrugs as systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Previously, a combinatorial peptide library was screened to identify a highly active peptide substrate for hK2. The peptide was coupled to an analog of the potent cytotoxin thapsigargin, L12ADT, to generate an hK2-activated prodrug that was efficiently hydrolyzed by purified hK2, stable to hydrolysis in human and mouse plasma in vitro and selectively toxic to hK2 producing prostate cancer cells in vitro. METHODS In the current study, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, prodrug biodistribution, and antitumor efficacy studies were performed to evaluate the hK2-activated prodrug in vivo. RESULTS The single intravenous maximally tolerated dose of prodrug was 6 mg/kg (i.e., 3.67 µmole/kg) which produced peak serum concentration of ,36 µM and had a half-life of ,40 min. In addition, over a 24 hr period <0.5% of free L12ADT analog was observed in plasma. The prodrug demonstrated significant antitumor effect in vivo while it was being administered, but prolonged intravenous administration was not possible due to local toxicity to tail veins. Subcutaneous administration of equimolar doses produced lower plasma AUC compared to intravenous dosing but equivalent intratumoral levels of prodrug following multiple doses. CONCLUSIONS The hK2-activated prodrug was stable in vivo. The prodrug, however, was rapidly cleared and difficult to administer over prolonged dosing interval. Additional studies are underway to assess antitumor efficacy with prolonged administration of higher subcutaneous doses of prodrug. Second-generation hK2-activated thapsigargin prodrugs with increased half-lives and improved formulations are also under development. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Relative concentrations of hK2/PSA mRNA in benign and malignant prostatic tissue

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2005
    Susanna Lintula
    Abstract BACKGROUND Prostate-specific antigen (PSA/KLK3) and human kallikrein 2 (hK2/KLK2) belong to the human kallikrein gene family. These two highly homologous genes are specifically expressed in the prostate under androgen control. Expression of these is regulated by similar mechanisms but changes in their relative expression have been observed in prostate cancer. METHODS We determined the relative levels of PSA and hK2 mRNA in benign and malignant prostate tissue using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The mRNA of PSA and hK2 are reverse transcribed and amplified in one reaction with the same primers. RESULTS The variation in the ratio of hK2/PSA mRNA was remarkably small, the difference between the highest and lowest values being three-fold. The ratio was significantly higher in WHO grade 2 compared to normal or benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue (P,=,0.032 and P,=,0.035, respectively) and in grade 3 compared to normal or benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue (P,=,0.006 in both). CONCLUSIONS The new quantitative RT-PCR technique facilitates very accurate quantitation of the relative mRNA levels of homologous genes. Using this method we have shown that the ratio of hK2/PSA mRNA is higher in cancerous than in benign prostatic tissue. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Triggering of proteinase-activated receptor 4 leads to joint pain and inflammation in mice

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 3 2009
    Jason J. McDougall
    Objective To investigate the role of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR-4) in mediating joint inflammation and pain in mice. Methods Knee joint blood flow, edema, and pain sensitivity (as induced by thermal and mechanical stimuli) were assessed in C57BL/6 mice following intraarticular injection of either the selective PAR-4 agonist AYPGKF-NH2 or the inactive control peptide YAPGKF-NH2. The mechanism of action of AYPGKF-NH2 was examined by pretreatment of each mouse with either the PAR-4 antagonist pepducin P4pal-10 or the bradykinin antagonist HOE 140. Finally, the role of PAR-4 in mediating joint inflammation was tested by pretreating mice with acutely inflamed knees with pepducin P4pal-10. Results PAR-4 activation caused a long-lasting increase in joint blood flow and edema formation, which was not seen following injection of the control peptide. The PAR-4,activating peptide was also found to be pronociceptive in the joint, where it enhanced sensitivity to a noxious thermal stimulus and caused mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia. The proinflammatory and pronociceptive effects of AYPGKF-NH2 could be inhibited by pepducin P4pal-10 and HOE 140. Finally, pepducin P4pal-10 ameliorated the clinical and physiologic signs of acute joint inflammation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that local activation of PAR-4 leads to proinflammatory changes in the knee joint that are dependent on the kallikrein,kinin system. We also show for the first time that PARs are involved in the modulation of joint pain, with PAR-4 being pronociceptive in this tissue. Thus, blockade of articular PAR-4 may be a useful means of controlling joint inflammation and pain. [source]


    Tissue kallikrein activity in pregnancy

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    S M Khedun
    Summary: To determine tissue kallikrein (TK) activity in black African women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; 140 women were recruited and divided into the following groups: group A , 35 preeclamptic women, group B , 35 mild to moderate hypertensive pregnant women and group C , 35 normotensive pregnant women, and group D , 35 normotensive non-pregnant healthy women. The activity of tissue kallikrein was determined from a random untimed urine sample using a selective, synthetic chro-mogenic tripeptide substrate having the sequence H-D-Val-Leu-Arg-pNA (S-2266). Urinary sodium and potassium levels was determined by flame photometry. Tissue kallikrein activity was decreased in women with preeclampsia (1.54 ± 0.95 vs 3.05 ± 0.83 ngTK/,g protein; p < 0.0001) and mild to moderate hypertensive group (2.03 ± 0.76 vs 3.05 ± 0.83 ngTK/,g protein; p < 0.0001) compared with normotensive pregnant women. There was also a significant difference in tissue kallikrein activity between the pregnancy groups (1.54 ± 0.95 vs 2.03 ± 0.76 ngTK/,g protein; p < 0.001). No difference in tissue kallikrein activity was observed between normotensive pregnant and normotensive non-pregnant healthy women (3.05 ± 0.83 vs 3.14 ± 0.88 ngTK/,g protein; p = 0.51). There was no difference in the excretion of urinary sodium and potassium in pregnancy groups compared to normotensive pregnant group. Tissue kallikrein activity is decreased in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. [source]


    Purification, crystallization and identification by X-­ray analysis of a prostate kallikrein from horse seminal plasma

    ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION D, Issue 8 2001
    Ana L. Carvalho
    The purification, crystallization and identification by X-ray diffraction analysis of a horse kallikrein is reported. The protein was purified from horse seminal plasma. Crystals belong to space group C2 and the structure was solved by the MIRAS method, with two heavy-atom derivatives of mercury and platinum. X-ray diffraction data to 1.42,Ĺ resolution were collected at the ESRF synchrotron-radiation source. [source]


    Microarray analysis of changes in renal phenotype in the ethylene glycol rat model of urolithiasis: potential and pitfalls

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2004
    Daniel H.-C.
    OBJECTIVES To investigate, in an initial study, the use of microarray analysis (MA) to develop an information base for urolithiasis. MA enables the screening of thousands of genes simultaneously making it the technique of choice for situations where the results are known, but the underlying mechanisms are not. Little is known about the pathological changes occurring in the kidney during urolithiasis and this has severely hampered efforts to develop effective therapeutics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Male rats were treated with 0.75% ethylene glycol for 2, 4 or 8 weeks; after death the kidneys were processed for RNA isolation and MA, conducted using a rat-based chip (one kidney/chip) and the results confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 21 probe sets; control, four rats; treated, five rats). Targets were defined as different by the software if the fold change (FC) was ,,2, and sorted into functional categories using a data-mining tool. The repeatability of MA was investigated by subjecting the 4-week samples to MA in two independent runs. RESULTS The results for targets with a FC of , 2 were plotted (y = 1.01x , 0.75; r2 0.84). Comparing the results obtained by RT-PCR and MA showed a good qualitative correlation for those targets having a FC of ,,5 as determined by MA. Changes in the expression of genes associated with tubule function and regulation, oxidative damage, and inflammation were the most common in the functional categories. Changes in the expression of tubule-specific markers indicated that there was damage to the proximal (,-adducin, organic anion and cation transporters, sodium-hydrogen exchange protein-isoform 3) and distal tubules (,-adducin, kallikrein) at 2 and 4 weeks. Increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein indicated that there were changes to the mitochondria and oxidative stress at 2 and 4 weeks. CONCLUSION This study shows the power of MA as an exploratory technique, and changes in the expression of several physiologically important genes whose expression has not previously been reported to be affected by hyperoxaluria or calcium oxalate crystalluria. [source]


    Increased activity of plasma and tissue kallikreins, plasma kininase II and salivary kallikrein in pemphigus foliaceus (fogo selvagem)

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    T.B. Rosatelli
    Summary Background, Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an autoimmune blistering disease of unknown aetiology, which is endemic in Brazil. Although the pathogenesis of PF is still unknown, proteins of the contact system have been implicated. Objectives, As the components of the kinin system may interact with those of the contact system, in this study we evaluated the plasma levels of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and low-molecular-weight kininogen (LK), and the activity of plasma kallikrein, tissue kallikrein and kininase II in plasma of patients with PF presenting with Nikolsky's sign. As kidneys and salivary glands are relevant sources of tissue kallikrein for plasma, we also evaluated urinary/salivary kallikrein and urinary kininase II activities. Methods, Fifteen patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Kininogen levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the activities of kallikreins and kininase II were determined using selective chromogenic substrates. Results, Compared with controls, plasma HK levels were decreased (P = 0·031), whereas the activities of plasma kallikrein, tissue kallikrein and kininase II in plasma, and the activity of salivary kallikrein, were increased in patients (P < 0·001 for each comparison). Plasma levels of LK and the activities of urinary kallikrein and urinary kininase II were not significantly different from controls. Conclusions, Diminished levels of HK associated with increased activities of plasma kallikrein and kininase II indicate that the kinin system is activated at the systemic level in PF. As active plasma kallikreins may act on some proteins of the contact system, it is possible that the enzyme may contribute to blister formation. The further observation of an increased tissue kallikrein activity at the systemic and saliva levels may be interpreted as a systemic reflex of skin inflammation. Whether the activation of the kinin system is a cause or a consequence of blister formation needs further clarification. [source]


    Kallikrein inhibitors limit kinin B2 antagonist-induced progression of oedematous to haemorrhagic pancreatitis in rats

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    T Griesbacher
    Background and purpose: Exocrine hyperstimulation with caerulein is an established model for oedematous acute pancreatitis. Prevention of oedema formation by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists induces a progression to a haemorrhagic course in this model. We have investigated whether increased kallikrein activity in the pancreas is responsible for vascular damage and whether this could be prevented by selective kallikrein inhibitors. Experimental approach: Caerulein was infused i.v. and vascular damage was assessed by histological evaluation and determination of haemoglobin accumulation in the tissue. In addition, oedema formation, tissue and plasma kallikrein (PK) activities and the endogenous kallikrein inhibitors ,1 -antitrypsin (,1 -AT) and ,2 -macroglobulin (,2 -M) were measured. Key results: Haemorrhagic lesions induced by icatibant in caerulein-induced pancreatitis were associated with a reduction in ,1 -AT and ,2 -M in the pancreas and a concomitant augmentation of tissue kallikrein (TK) activity. The TK inhibitor VA999024 (previously FE999024), or its combination with the PK inhibitor VA999026 (previously FE999026), inhibited oedema formation to the same extent but did not induce vascular damage. Furthermore, VA999024 inhibited TK activity. When icatibant was combined with VA999024 and VA999026, progression from oedematous to haemorrhagic pancreatitis was abolished. Conclusions and implications: Reduced oedema formation by B2 antagonists prevented influx of endogenous kallikrein inhibitors and led to an excessive activity of kallikrein in the pancreas leading to vascular damage. This can be prevented by a combined inhibition of both tissue-type and plasma-type kallikrein. Kallikrein inhibitors thus should be further evaluated for their therapeutic potential in preventing haemorrhagic lesions in acute pancreatitis. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 155, 865,874; doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.321; published online 11 August 2008 [source]


    Expression of prostate-specific antigen and androgen receptor in extramammary Paget's disease and carcinoma

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    N. Inoguchi
    Summary Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase (human kallikrein 3) produced by epithelial cells of both benign and malignant prostate tissue. In this study, PSA expression was histologically examined in tissue specimens from 34 patients with extramammary Paget's disease (EPD; 31 cases) and extramammary Paget's carcinoma (EPC; three cases), but no associated prostate carcinoma. Tumour cells positive for PSA were found in 17 of the 34 cases. Based on this finding, we examined serum PSA level in the three EPC cases. A high level of serum PSA was observed in one case of EPC, which was correlated with disease progression. Because some reports suggest that 50,80% cases of EPD/EPC express androgen receptor (AR), we also examined expression of AR. Immunohistological staining showed correlation of PSA and AR in expression. These results suggest that PSA and the androgen signalling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of EPD. [source]


    Association of kallikrein expression in nipple aspirate fluid with breast cancer risk

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 4 2004
    Edward R. Sauter
    Abstract Human kallikreins (hK) 2, 3, 6 and 10 are expressed in breast and prostate tissue. hK2 and hK3 (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) are used to screen for prostate cancer. hK6 and hK10 are downregulated in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. We demonstrated that levels of PSA in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) are lower in women with breast cancer than in normal women. We hypothesize that the expression of hK2, 3, 6 and 10 are related and important in detecting breast cancer. The goals of this study are to determine the level of expression of kallikreins in NAF and serum, the association of hK2, 3, 6 and 10 in NAF, and the association of each of the kallikreins with breast cancer. In NAF from 275 women, hK3, 6 and 10 were detectable in , 90% and hK2 in 74% of samples analyzed. NAF levels were highest for hK6 and lowest for hK2, regardless of cancer and menopausal status. hK3 was detectable in 15/29 (52%) and hK2 in 0/29 serum samples collected from 6 women. hK2 and hK3 were concentrated in NAF vs. matched serum. The 4 kallikreins were associated with the exception of hK2 with hK6 or hK10. PSA levels were higher in normal pre- than postmenopausal subjects (but not women with breast cancer), whereas levels of hK2, 6 and 10 did not differ by menopausal status. hK2 and PSA were associated with both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer; hK6 and 10 were not. hK2 and PSA were more associated with pre- than postmenopausal breast cancer. Using logistic regression, PSA and menopausal status provided the best model of breast cancer prediction, with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 39%. In conclusion, 4 kallikreins are expressed in NAF. hK2 and PSA, and hK6 and hK10 are highly associated. Higher premenopausal PSA levels suggest the influence of ovarian steroids. PSA shows the most promise in aiding in the early detection of breast cancer. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Shotgun proteomic analysis of human-induced sputum

    PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 15 2006
    Ben Nicholas Dr.
    Abstract Induced sputum is a readily accessible biological fluid whose composition may alter as a consequence of disease. To date, however, the proteins that routinely populate this biofluid are largely unknown, in part due to the technical difficulties in processing such mucin-rich samples. To provide a catalogue of sputum proteins, we have surveyed the proteome of human-induced sputum (sputome). A combination of 2-D gel analysis and GeLC-MS/MS allowed a total of 191 human proteins to be confidently assigned. In addition to the expected components, several hitherto unreported proteins were found to be present, including three members of the annexin family, kallikreins 1 and 11, and peroxiredoxins 1, 2 and 5. Other sets of proteins identified included four proteins previously annotated as hypothetical or conserved hypothetical. Taken together, these data represent the first extensive survey of the proteome of induced sputum and provide a platform for future identification of biomarkers of lung disease. [source]


    16 Kallikrein 15 (KLK15) in prostate cancer: in silico analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism verification

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2006
    M.A. KEDDA
    Introduction:, Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Caucasian men and there is strong evidence that kallikreins are part of an enzymatic cascade pathway activated in this disease. Altered KLK15 expression has been associated with cancer progression and grade and we postulate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the KLK15 gene, will alter gene expression and will be associated with prostate cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Materials and Methods:, We have used in silico prediction of function of wildtype and variant promoter sequences through assessment of hormone receptor elements and transcription factor binding sites; as well as prediction of likely splice variants through genomic, splicing and EST databases and web sites, and multiple sequence alignment packages. We have also used PCR and sequence analysis to further characterise the promoter region of the gene. Results:,In silico analysis of the KLK15 gene has identified the following: two putative promoter regions, two putative androgen response elements (AREs) and four putative estrogen response elements (EREs); two clusters of cis elements; and 109 SNPs. Forty-seven SNPs alter transcription factor sites (22 gain sites), 20 gain/increase probability of an ERE and three alter nuclear hormone receptor binding sites. Three new EST clones have been identified by analysis of gene expression in CGAP databases and suggest a new KLK15 splice variant, with a different start site. Conclusion:, We have identified a number of new SNPs in the KLK15 gene, which may be functionally important and, in collaboration with the Queensland Cancer Fund (ProsCan Study), we will further investigate the association of these SNPs with prostate cancer risk and prognosis. [source]


    Increased activity of plasma and tissue kallikreins, plasma kininase II and salivary kallikrein in pemphigus foliaceus (fogo selvagem)

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    T.B. Rosatelli
    Summary Background, Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an autoimmune blistering disease of unknown aetiology, which is endemic in Brazil. Although the pathogenesis of PF is still unknown, proteins of the contact system have been implicated. Objectives, As the components of the kinin system may interact with those of the contact system, in this study we evaluated the plasma levels of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and low-molecular-weight kininogen (LK), and the activity of plasma kallikrein, tissue kallikrein and kininase II in plasma of patients with PF presenting with Nikolsky's sign. As kidneys and salivary glands are relevant sources of tissue kallikrein for plasma, we also evaluated urinary/salivary kallikrein and urinary kininase II activities. Methods, Fifteen patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Kininogen levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the activities of kallikreins and kininase II were determined using selective chromogenic substrates. Results, Compared with controls, plasma HK levels were decreased (P = 0·031), whereas the activities of plasma kallikrein, tissue kallikrein and kininase II in plasma, and the activity of salivary kallikrein, were increased in patients (P < 0·001 for each comparison). Plasma levels of LK and the activities of urinary kallikrein and urinary kininase II were not significantly different from controls. Conclusions, Diminished levels of HK associated with increased activities of plasma kallikrein and kininase II indicate that the kinin system is activated at the systemic level in PF. As active plasma kallikreins may act on some proteins of the contact system, it is possible that the enzyme may contribute to blister formation. The further observation of an increased tissue kallikrein activity at the systemic and saliva levels may be interpreted as a systemic reflex of skin inflammation. Whether the activation of the kinin system is a cause or a consequence of blister formation needs further clarification. [source]