Kainic Acid (kainic + acid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Glutamate AMPA/kainate receptors, not GABAA receptors, mediate estradiol-induced sex differences in the hypothalamus

Brigitte J. Todd
Abstract Sex differences in brain morphology underlie physiological and behavioral differences between males and females. During the critical perinatal period for sexual differentiation in the rat, gonadal steroids act in a regionally specific manner to alter neuronal morphology. Using Golgi-Cox impregnation, we examined several parameters of neuronal morphology in postnatal day 2 (PN2) rats. We found that in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) and in areas just dorsal and just lateral to the VMN that there was a sex difference in total dendritic spine number (males greater) that was abolished by treating female neonates with exogenous testosterone. Dendritic branching was similarly sexually differentiated and hormonally modulated in the VMN and dorsal to the VMN. We then used spinophilin, a protein that positively correlates with the amount of dendritic spines, to investigate the mechanisms underlying these sex differences. Estradiol, which mediates most aspects of masculinization and is the aromatized product of testosterone, increased spinophilin levels in female PN2 rats to that of males. Muscimol, an agonist at GABAA receptors, did not affect spinophilin protein levels in either male or female neonates. Kainic acid, an agonist at glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptors, mimicked the effect of estradiol in females. Antagonizing AMPA/kainate receptors with NBQX prevented the estradiol-induced increase in spinophilin in females but did not affect spinophilin level in males. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007 [source]

Use of Chronic Epilepsy Models in Antiepileptic Drug Discovery: The Effect of Topiramate on Spontaneous Motor Seizures in Rats with Kainate-induced Epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2005
Heidi L. Grabenstatter
Summary:,Purpose: Potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are typically screened on acute seizures in normal animals, such as those induced in the maximal electroshock and pentylenetet-razole models. As a proof-of-principle test, the present experiments used spontaneous epileptic seizures in kainate-treated rats to examine the efficacy of topiramate (TPM) with a repeated-measures, crossover protocol. Methods: Kainic acid was administered in repeated low doses (5 mg/kg) every hour until each Sprague,Dawley rat experienced convulsive status epilepticus for >3 h. Six 1-month trials (n = 6,10 rats) assessed the effects of 0.3,100 mg/kg TPM on spontaneous seizures. Each trial involved six pairs of TPM and saline-control treatments administered as intraperitoneal injections on alternate days with a recovery day between each treatment day. Data analysis included a log transformation to compensate for the asymmetric distribution of values and the heterogeneous variances, which appeared to arise from clustering of seizures. Results: A significant effect of TPM was observed for 12 h (i.e., two 6-h periods) after a 30-mg/kg injection, and full recovery from the drug effect was complete within 43 h. TPM exerted a significant effect at doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, and the effects of TPM (0.3,100 mg/kg) were dose dependent. Conclusions: These data suggest that animal models with spontaneous seizures, such as kainate- and pilocarpine-treated rats, can be used efficiently for rapid testing of AEDs with a repeated-measures, crossover protocol. Furthermore, the results indicate that this design allows both dose,effect and time-course-of-recovery studies. [source]

Alterations in cerebral metabolism by the neurotoxin kainic acid studied by 13C MRS

E. Olstad
Kainic acid is a potent agonist at the kainate subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, and functional kainate receptors have not only been demonstrated on neurons but also on glial cells in culture. Kainic acid injections are used to induce limbic seizures in rodents. When combined with injections of [1-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]acetate followed by analyses of forebrain extracts using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and HPLC information about glial neuronal interaction can be obtained. Using kainic acid treatment and 24 h later injection of 13C label a significant increase in label derived from [1,2-13C]acetate was observed in glutamine and glutamate. Label derived from [1-13C]glucose was unchanged in most metabolites, however, a decrease was observed in [2-13C]GABA. It should be noted that only astrocytes are able to utilize acetate as a substrate, whereas acetyl CoA derived from glucose is metabolized predominantly in the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results indicate that turnover of metabolites was increased predominantly in astrocytes whereas glutamatergic neurons were not affected. However, GABAergic neurons showed decreased GABA labelling, possibly due to reduced GABA release 24 h after kainic acid injection. Taken together with results obtained 2 weeks after kainic acid injection, it can be suggested that increased astrocytic activity one day after epileptic seizures results, subsequently, in an increased amino acid turnover in neurons. Cell culture work was also performed, results will be presented at the meeting. [source]

Reduced metabolites mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone in the adult rat hippocampus.

The synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is not neuroprotective
Abstract The ovarian hormone progesterone is neuroprotective in different experimental models of neurodegeneration. In the nervous system, progesterone is metabolized to 5,-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) by the enzyme 5,-reductase. DHP is subsequently reduced to 3,,5,-tetrahydroprogesterone (THP) by a reversible reaction catalyzed by the enzyme 3,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In this study we have analyzed whether progesterone metabolism is involved in the neuroprotective effect of the hormone in the hilus of the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats injected with kainic acid, an experimental model of excitotoxic cell death. Progesterone increased the levels of DHP and THP in plasma and hippocampus and prevented kainic-acid-induced neuronal loss. In contrast to progesterone, the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Provera) did not increase DHP and THP levels and did not prevent kainic-acid-induced neuronal loss. The administration of the 5,-reductase inhibitor finasteride prevented the increase in the levels of DHP and THP in plasma and hippocampus as a result of progesterone administration and abolished the neuroprotective effect of progesterone. Both DHP and THP were neuroprotective against kainic acid. However, the administration of indomethacin, a 3,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, blocked the neuroprotective effect of both DHP and THP, suggesting that both metabolites are necessary for the neuroprotective effect of progesterone. In conclusion, our findings indicate that progesterone is neuroprotective against kainic acid excitotoxicity in vivo while the synthetic progestin MPA is not and suggest that progesterone metabolism to its reduced derivatives DHP and THP is necessary for the neuroprotective effect of the hormone. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

Protective effects of naloxone in two-hit seizure model

EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2010
Lu Yang
Summary Purpose:, Early life status epilepticus (SE) could enhance the vulnerability of the immature brain to a second SE in adulthood (two-hit seizure model). Naloxone has been proved to possess inflammation inhibitory effects in nervous system. This study was designed to evaluate the dose-dependent protective effects of naloxone in kainic acid (KA),induced two-hit seizure model. Methods:, After KA-induced SE at postnatal day 15 (P15), Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline or different doses (1.92, 3.84, 5.76, and 7.68 mg/kg) of naloxone continuously for 12 h. De novo synthesis of cytokines (interleukin-1, [IL-1,], S100B) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 12 h after P15 SE. Glial activation states were analyzed by western blotting of glial markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], S100B, Iba1) both at 12 h after P15 SE and at P45. After a second SE at P45, cognitive deteriorations were evaluated by Morris water tests and neuron injuries were evaluated by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Results:, Naloxone reduced IL-1, synthesis and microglial activation most potently at a dose of 3.84 mg/kg. Attenuation of S100B synthesis and astrocyte activation were achieved most dramatically by naloxone at a dose of 5.76 mg/kg, which is equal to the most powerful dose in ameliorating cognitive injuries and neuron apoptosis after second SE. Conclusions:, Naloxone treatment immediately after early life SE could dose-dependently reduce cytokine production, glial activation, and further lower the vulnerability of immature brains to a second hit in adulthood. [source]

Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity during kainic acid,induced limbic cortical seizures in rats

EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2009
Harumi Hotta
Summary We sought to define changes in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity that occur during seizures. We studied kainic acid,induced limbic cortical seizures in urethane-anesthetized rats using cardiac sympathetic nerve, blood pressure, and electrocardiography (ECG) recordings. We studied changes in ventilation rate before and during seizures. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was increased during limbic cortical seizures. The modest increases were similar to changes induced by nitroprusside infusion. The normal relation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity to ventilation rate was lost during seizure activity. Changes in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity caused by changes in ventilation rate became unpredictable, and could be extreme. We conclude that the modest changes in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity contribute to the predominantly parasympathetic effects on the heart during limbic cortical seizures and periods of asphyxia. Further, ventilation rate changes might be associated with large sudden increases or decreases in cardiac sympathetic outflow during seizures. [source]

Causal Links between Brain Cytokines and Experimental Febrile Convulsions in the Rat

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2005
James G. Heida
Summary:,Purpose: Despite the prevalence of febrile convulsions (FCs), their pathophysiology has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that components of the immune response, particularly the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and its naturally occurring antagonist interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) may play a role in the genesis of FC. Methods: Postnatal day 14 rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 ,g/kg, i.p.) followed by a subconvulsant dose of kainic acid (1.75 mg/kg, i.p.). Brains were harvested at and 2 h after onset of FCs to measure brain levels of IL-1, and IL-1ra. Separate groups of animals were given intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of IL-1,, or IL-1ra in an attempt to establish a causal relation between the IL-1,/IL-1ra system and FCs. Results: Animals with FCs showed increased IL-1, in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but not in the cortex compared with noFC animals that also received LPS and kainic acid. This increase was first detected in the hippocampus at onset of FCs. No detectable difference in IL-1ra was found in brain regions examined in either group. When animals were treated with IL-1, ICV, a dose-dependant increase was noted in the proportion of animals that experienced FCs, whereas increasing doses of IL-1ra, given to separate groups of animals, were anticonvulsant. Conclusions: Our results suggest that excessive amounts of IL-1, may influence the genesis of FCs. This may occur by overproduction of IL-1,, or by alteration in the IL-1,/IL-1ra ratio in the brain after an immune challenge. [source]

Seizures in the Developing Brain Cause Adverse Long-term Effects on Spatial Learning and Anxiety

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2004
Umit Sayin
Summary:,Purpose: Seizures in the developing brain cause less macroscopic structural damage than do seizures in adulthood, but accumulating evidence shows that seizures early in life can be associated with persistent behavioral and cognitive impairments. We previously showed that long-term spatial memory in the eight-arm radial-arm maze was impaired in rats that experienced a single episode of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus during early development (postnatal days (P) 1,14). Here we extend those findings by using a set of behavioral paradigms that are sensitive to additional aspects of learning and behavior. Methods: On P1, P7, P14, or P24, rats underwent status epilepticus induced by intraperitoneal injections of age-specific doses of KA. In adulthood (P90,P100), the behavioral performance of these rats was compared with that of control rats that did not receive KA. A modified version of the radial-arm maze was used to assess short-term spatial memory; the Morris water maze was used to evaluate long-term spatial memory and retrieval; and the elevated plus maze was used to determine anxiety. Results: Compared with controls, rats with KA seizures at each tested age had impaired short-term spatial memory in the radial-arm maze (longer latency to criterion and more reference errors), deficient long-term spatial learning and retrieval in the water maze (longer escape latencies and memory for platform location), and a greater degree of anxiety in the elevated plus maze (greater time spent in open arms). Conclusions: These findings provide additional support for the concept that seizures early in life may be followed by life-long impairment of certain cognitive and behavioral functions. These results may have clinical implications, favoring early and aggressive control of seizures during development. [source]

High-frequency Oscillations after Status Epilepticus: Epileptogenesis and Seizure Genesis

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2004
Anatol Bragin
Summary:,Purpose: To investigate the temporal relation between high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the dentate gyrus and recurrent spontaneous seizures after intrahippocampal kainite-induced status epilepticus. Methods: Recording microelectrodes were implanted bilaterally in different regions of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. A guide cannula for microinjection of kainic acid (KA) was implanted above the right posterior CA3 area of hippocampus. After recording baseline electrical activity, KA (0.4 ,g/0.2 ,l) was injected. Beginning on the next day, electrographic activity was recorded with video monitoring for seizures every day for 8 h/day for ,30 days. Results: Of the 26 rats studied, 19 revealed the appearance of sharp-wave activity and HFOs in the frequency range of 80 to 500 Hz in the dentate gyrus ipsilateral to the KA injection. In the remaining seven rats, no appreciable activity was noted in this frequency range. In some rats with recurrent seizures, HFOs were in the ripple frequency range (100,200 Hz); in others, HFOs were in the fast ripple frequency range (200,500 Hz), or a mixture of both oscillation frequencies was found. The time of detection of the first HFOs after status epilepticus varied between 1 and 30 days, with a mean of 6.3 2.0 (SEM). Of the 19 rats in which HFO activity appeared, all later developed recurrent spontaneous seizures, whereas none of the rats without HFOs developed seizures. The sooner HFO activity was detected after status epilepticus, the sooner the first spontaneous seizure occurred. A significant inverse relation was found between the time to the first HFO detection and the subsequent rate of spontaneous seizures. Conclusions: A strong correlation was found between a decreased time to detection of HFOs and an increased rate of spontaneous seizures, as well as with a decrease in the duration of the latent period between KA injection and the detection of spontaneous seizures. Two types of HFOs were found after KA injection, one in the frequency range of 100 to 200 Hz, and the other, in the frequency range of 200 to 500 Hz, and both should be considered pathological, suggesting that both are epileptogenic. [source]

Seizure Suppression by Adenosine A1 Receptor Activation in a Mouse Model of Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2003
Nicolette Gouder
Summary: Purpose: Because of the high incidence of pharmacoresistance in the treatment of epilepsy (20,30%), alternative treatment strategies are needed. Recently a proof-of-principle for a new therapeutic approach was established by the intraventricular delivery of adenosine released from implants of engineered cells. Adenosine-releasing implants were found to be effective in seizure suppression in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, activation of the adenosine system was applied as a possible treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Methods: A mouse model for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy was used, in which recurrent spontaneous seizure activity was induced by a single intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA; 200 ng in 50 nl). Results: After injection of the selective adenosine A1 -receptor agonist, 2-chloro- N6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA; either 1.5 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.), epileptic discharges determined in EEG recordings were completely suppressed for a period of ,3.5 h after the injections. Seizure suppression was maintained when 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT), a non,brain-permeable adenosine-receptor antagonist, was coinjected systemically with CCPA. In contrast, systemic injection of carbamazepine or vehicle alone did not alter the seizure pattern. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that activation of central adenosine A1 receptors leads to the suppression of seizure activity in a mouse model of drug-resistant epilepsy. We conclude that the local delivery of adenosine into the brain is likely to be effective in the control of intractable seizures. [source]

Epilepsy-induced Changes in Signaling Systems of Human and Rat Postsynaptic Densities

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2003
Ursula Wyneken
Summary: ,Purpose: To study seizure-induced changes in signaling proteins present in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) isolated from human epileptic neocortex and from rat cortex in which seizures were induced by injection of kainic acid. Methods: We performed Western blot analysis of signaling proteins in PSDs isolated from cortical tissue. Results: Seizures induce a strong upregulation of TrkB, the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whereas components of the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-receptor complex are downregulated in both human and rat PSDs. Conclusions: These data show that long-term changes in PSD composition occur as a consequence of epileptic seizure activity. [source]

Status Epilepticus,Induced Neuronal Loss in Humans Without Systemic Complications or Epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2000
Denson G. Fujikawa
Summary: Purpose: To determine the regional distribution of neuronal damage caused strictly by status epilepticus (SE) without systemic complications, underlying brain pathology, or a history of preexisting epilepsy. Methods: The medical records and electroencephalograms (EEGs) of three deceased patients who developed SE in the hospital were reviewed. Their brains were formalin-fixed, and 17 brain regions were selected, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Alternate sections were stained with either hematoxylin and eosin and cresyl violet to determine the extent of neuronal loss and gliosis or glial fibrillary astrocytic protein to confirm the extent of astrocytic proliferation. Results: The three patients died 11 to 27 days after the onset of focal motor SE; none had hypotension, hypoxemia, hypoglycemia, or significant hyperthermia. Two patients had no prior seizures and no underlying brain pathology. The third patient, who had leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, had one seizure 2 months before the onset of SE. The duration of SE was 8.8 hours to 3 days. EEGs showed unilateral temporal lobe sharp-wave discharges in one patient and independent temporal lobe sharp-wave discharges bilaterally in the other two patients. In addition to widespread neuronal loss and reactive gliosis in the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, and Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, we report for the first time periamygdaloid (piriform) and entorhinal cortical damage occurring acutely after SE in humans. Conclusions: In the absence of systemic complications or preexisting epilepsy, SE produces neuronal loss in a distribution similar to that from domoic acid-induced SE in humans and from kainic acid- and pilocarpine-induced SE in rats. [source]

MAP-kinase-activated protein kinase 2 expression and activity is induced after neuronal depolarization

Tobias Thomas
Abstract Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase (MK)2 is one of several downstream targets of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and has a well documented role in inflammation. Here, we describe a possible new function of MK2. We show that triggering depolarization by potassium chloride or increasing the cellular cAMP by forskolin treatment led to elevated levels of expression and activity of mouse MK2. In both treatments, the kinase inhibitor H89 completely prevented the up-regulation of MK2 at the transcript level. By the use of different cell lines we demonstrated that the induction of MK2 expression is characteristic of neuronal cells and is absent in fibroblasts, macrophages and kidney cells. In vivo, induction of a status epilepticus by systemic administration of the chemoconvulsant kainic acid resulted in markedly reduced neurodegeneration in the pyramidal layer of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and hilus of MK2-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Together, our data suggest a possible role of MK2 in the cellular response after neuronal depolarization, in particular in excitotoxicity. [source]

Impact of S100B on local field potential patterns in anesthetized and kainic acid-induced seizure conditions in vivo

Seiichi Sakatani
Abstract S100B is a calcium-binding protein predominantly expressed in astrocytes. Previous studies using gene-manipulated animals have suggested that the protein has a role in synaptic plasticity and learning. In order to assess the physiological roles of the protein in active neural circuitry, we recorded spontaneous neural activities from various layers of the neocortex and hippocampus in urethane-anesthetized S100B knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) control mice. Typical local field oscillation patterns including the slow (0.5,2 Hz) oscillations in the neocortex, theta (3,8 Hz) and sharp wave-associated ripple (120,180 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampus were observed in both genotypes. Comparisons of the frequency, power and peak amplitude have shown that these oscillatory patterns were virtually indistinguishable between WT and KO. When seizure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid, a difference between WT and KO appeared in the CA1 radiatum local field potential pattern, where seizure events were characterized by prominent appearance of hyper-synchronous gamma band (30,80 Hz) activity. Although both genotypes developed seizures within 40 min, the gamma amplitude was significantly smaller during the development of seizures in KO mice. Our results suggest that deficiency of S100B does not have a profound impact on spontaneous neural activity in normal conditions. However, when neural activity was sufficiently raised, activation of S100B-related pathways may take effect, resulting in modulation of neural activities. [source]

Electrical and neurotransmitter activity of mature neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells by Sox-1 lineage selection and directed differentiation

R. J. Lang
Abstract Sx1TV2/16C is a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line in which one copy of the Sox1 gene, an early neuroectodermal marker, has been targeted with a neomycin (G418) selection cassette. A combination of directed differentiation with retinoic acid and G418 selection results in an enriched neural stem cell population that can be further differentiated into neurons. After 6,7 days post-plating (D6,7PP) most neurons readily fired tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive action potentials due to the expression of TTX-sensitive Na+ and tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ channels. Neurons reached their maximal cell capacitance after D6,7PP; however, ion channel expression continued until at least D21PP. The percentage of cells receiving spontaneous synaptic currents (s.s.c.) increased with days in culture until 100% of cells received a synaptic input by D20PP. Spontaneous synaptic currents were reduced in amplitude and frequency by TTX, or upon exposure to a Ca2+ -free, 2.5 mm Mg2+ saline. S.s.c. of rapid decay time constants were preferentially blocked by the nonNMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonists CNQX or NBQX. Ca2+ levels within ES cell-derived neurons increased in response to glutamate receptor agonists l -glutamate, AMPA, N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid and to acetylcholine, ATP and dopamine. ES cell-derived neurons also generated cationic and Cl, -selective currents in response to NMDA and glycine or GABA, respectively. It was concluded that ES-derived neurons fire action potentials, receive excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input and respond to various neurotransmitters in a manner akin to primary central neurons. [source]

Rapid and long-term alterations of hippocampal GABAB receptors in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy

Andrea Straessle
Abstract Alterations of ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor expression have been reported in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, changes in regional and cellular expression of the GABAB receptor subunits R1 (GBR1) and R2 (GBR2) were investigated in a mouse model that replicates major functional and histopathological features of TLE. Adult mice received a single, unilateral injection of kainic acid (KA) into the dorsal hippocampus, and GABAB receptor immunoreactivity was analysed between 1 day and 3 months thereafter. In control mice, GBR1 and GBR2 were distributed uniformly across the dendritic layers of CA1,CA3 and dentate gyrus. In addition, some interneurons were labelled selectively for GBR1. At 1 day post-KA, staining for both GBR1 and GBR2 was profoundly reduced in CA1, CA3c and the hilus, and no interneurons were visible anymore. At later stages, the loss of GABAB receptors persisted in CA1 and CA3, whereas staining increased gradually in dentate gyrus granule cells, which become dispersed in this model. Most strikingly, a subpopulation of strongly labelled interneurons reappeared, mainly in the hilus and CA3 starting at 1 week post-KA. In double-staining experiments, these cells were selectively labelled for neuropeptide Y. The number of GBR1-positive interneurons also increased contralaterally in the hilus. The rapid KA-induced loss of GABAB receptors might contribute to epileptogenesis because of a reduction in both presynaptic control of transmitter release and postsynaptic inhibition. In turn, the long-term increase in GABAB receptors in granule cells and specific subtypes of interneurons may represent a compensatory response to recurrent seizures. [source]

Effect of exogenous glutamate and N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid on spontaneous activity of isolated human ureter

Slobodan M Jankovic
Objectives: While the neurotransmitter role of glutamate in the gastrointestinal tract has been shown, its effects on smooth muscle of the human ureter have not previously been investigated. In our study we have investigated the effects of exogenous glutamate on the spontaneous activity of isolated human ureter, taken from 14 adult patients after nephrectomy. Methods: The segment of ureter, excised 3 cm distal from the pyeloureteral junction, was isolated in an organ bath. Both longitudinal tension and intraluminal pressure of the segment were recorded simultaneously. Results: Glutamate administered in the lumen of the isolated ureteral segments (7.8 10,7 M/L,3.5 10,2 M/L) was ineffective. When added to the isolated organ bath from the serous side of the ureteral segment, glutamate (7.9 10,6 M/L,10.6 10,3 M/L) and N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) (9.1 10,8 M/L,3.1 10,5 M/L) produced a concentration-dependent increase in spontaneous activity of the isolated preparations, while kainic acid (6.3 10,8 M/L,10.5 10,5 M/L) and (+/,)- trans -1-Aminocyclopentane- trans -1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) (7.7 10,8 M/L ,6.5 10,5 M/L) were ineffective. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that an excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates spontaneous activity of the human ureter through activation of NMDA ionotropic receptors, located on smooth muscle cells or intramural nerve fibers [source]

Plasticity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells to enhance neurogenesis in response to kainate-induced injury is lost by middle age

AGING CELL, Issue 2 2008
Bharathi Hattiangady
Summary A remarkable up-regulation of neurogenesis through increased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) is a well-known plasticity displayed by the young dentate gyrus (DG) following brain injury. To ascertain whether this plasticity is preserved during aging, we quantified DG neurogenesis in the young adult, middle-aged and aged F344 rats after kainic acid induced hippocampal injury. Measurement of new cells that are added to the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) between post-injury days 4 and 15 using 5,-bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed an increased addition of new cells in the young DG but not in the middle-aged and aged DG. Quantification of newly born neurons using doublecortin immunostaining also demonstrated a similar trend. Furthermore, the extent of ectopic migration of new neurons into the dentate hilus was dramatically increased in the young DG but was unaltered in the middle-aged and aged DG. However, there was no change in neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells following injury in all age groups. Similarly, comparable fractions of new cells that are added to the GCL after injury exhibited 5-month survival and expressed the mature neuronal marker NeuN, regardless of age or injury at the time of their birth. Thus, hippocampal injury does not adequately stimulate NSCs in the middle-aged and aged DG, resulting in no changes in neurogenesis after injury. Interestingly, rates of both neuronal fate-choice decision and long-term survival of newly born cells remain stable with injury in all age groups. These results underscore that the ability of the DG to increase neurogenesis after injury is lost as early as middle age. [source]

Interaction of 14-3-3 with Bid during seizure-induced neuronal death

Sachiko Shinoda
Abstract Seizure-induced neuronal death may involve coordinated intracellular trafficking and protein,protein interactions of members of the Bcl-2 family. The 14-3-3 proteins are known to sequester certain pro-apoptotic members of this family. BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) may contribute to seizure-induced neuronal death, although regulation by 14-3-3 has not been reported. In this study we examined whether 14-3-3 proteins interact with Bid during seizure-induced neuronal death. Brief seizures were evoked in rats by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid to elicit unilateral hippocampal CA3 neuronal death. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that although Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) constitutively bound 14-3-3, there was no interaction between Bid and 14-3-3 in control brain. Seizures triggered Bid cleavage and a commensurate increase in binding of Bid to 14-3-3 within injured hippocampus. Casein kinases I and II, which can inactivate Bid by phosphoserine/threonine modification, did not coimmunoprecipitate with Bid. The largely uninjured contralateral hippocampus did not exhibit Bid cleavage or binding of 14-3-3 to Bid. In vitro experiments confirmed that 14-3-3, is capable of binding truncated Bid, likely in the absence of phosphoserine/threonine modification. These data suggest 14-3-3 proteins may target active as well as inactive conformations of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 death agonists, highlighting novel targets for intervention in seizure-induced neuronal death. [source]

Alterations in cerebral metabolism by the neurotoxin kainic acid studied by 13C MRS

E. Olstad
Kainic acid is a potent agonist at the kainate subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, and functional kainate receptors have not only been demonstrated on neurons but also on glial cells in culture. Kainic acid injections are used to induce limbic seizures in rodents. When combined with injections of [1-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]acetate followed by analyses of forebrain extracts using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and HPLC information about glial neuronal interaction can be obtained. Using kainic acid treatment and 24 h later injection of 13C label a significant increase in label derived from [1,2-13C]acetate was observed in glutamine and glutamate. Label derived from [1-13C]glucose was unchanged in most metabolites, however, a decrease was observed in [2-13C]GABA. It should be noted that only astrocytes are able to utilize acetate as a substrate, whereas acetyl CoA derived from glucose is metabolized predominantly in the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results indicate that turnover of metabolites was increased predominantly in astrocytes whereas glutamatergic neurons were not affected. However, GABAergic neurons showed decreased GABA labelling, possibly due to reduced GABA release 24 h after kainic acid injection. Taken together with results obtained 2 weeks after kainic acid injection, it can be suggested that increased astrocytic activity one day after epileptic seizures results, subsequently, in an increased amino acid turnover in neurons. Cell culture work was also performed, results will be presented at the meeting. [source]

Poster Sessions CP07: Ions, Channels, Pumps and Transporters

A. A. Boldyrev
Stationary level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cerebellum granule cells of 12-day-old-rats was measured using three fluorescent dyes characteristic of different location within the neuronal cell: BODIPY 581/591 (for LOO.radicals), DCF-DA (for H202) and DHR123 (OH-radicals in mitochondria). When the neurons were activated by N-methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) a dose- and time-dependent rise of the fluorescent signal was registered with each of the three dyes; the former dye provided the smallest and the latter the largest response. 3-HPG, a ligand for metabotropic receptors decreases ROS fluorescence and suppressed the NMDA-induced effect. NMDA and kainic acid presented simultaneously cumulatively increased ROS levels. Ouabain, specific inhibitors of Na/K-pump induced a considerable increase in ROS fluorescence, which was decreased by 2.5,5 mm KCl, 50 mkM Vanadate or 10 mkM D-AP5, an inhibitor of NMDA-activated ionic channels. The K0.5 for activation of ROS generation by Ouabain was more than 250 mkM, which is much higher than that for inhibition of Na/K-ATPase or its rubidium pumping activity. The data show that the Na/K-pump protein regulates ROS production by NMDA-receptors and that the E1(Na) conformation of the Na/K-pump being less sensitive to ouabain may be responsible for the effects. The data illustrate functional interaction between ionotropic and metabotropic receptors and Na/K-ATPase. Acknowledgements:, Supported by DAAD, Grant 325-sm, Germany. [source]

Collapse of extracellular glutamate regulation during epileptogenesis: down-regulation and functional failure of glutamate transporter function in rats with chronic seizures induced by kainic acid

Yuto Ueda
We used northern and western blotting to measure the quantity of glutamate and GABA transporters mRNA and their proteins within the hippocampal tissue of rats with epileptogenesis. Chronic seizures were induced by amygdalar injection of kainic acid 60 days before death. We found that expression of the mRNA and protein of the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 were down-regulated in the kainic acid-administered group. In contrast, EAAC-1 and GAT-3 mRNA and their proteins were increased, while GAT-1 mRNA and protein were not changed. We performed in vivo microdialysis in the freely moving state. During the interictal state, the extracellular glutamate concentration was increased, whereas the GABA level was decreased in the kainic acid group. Following potassium-induced depolarization, glutamate overflow was higher and the recovery time to the basal release was prolonged in the kainic acid group relative to controls. Our data suggest that epileptogenesis in rats with kainic acid-induced chronic seizures is associated with the collapse of extracellular glutamate regulation caused by both molecular down-regulation and functional failure of glutamate transport. [source]

Protection against kainate neurotoxicity by ginsenosides: Attenuation of convulsive behavior, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress

Eun-Joo Shin
Abstract We previously demonstrated that kainic acid (KA)-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress contributed to hippocampal degeneration and that ginsenosides attenuated KA-induced neurotoxicity and neuronal degeneration. Here, we examined whether ginsenosides affected KA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. Treatment with ginsenosides attenuated KA-induced convulsive behavior dose-dependently. KA treatment increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and decreased the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio to a greater degree in the mitochondrial fraction than in the hippocampal homogenate. KA treatment resulted in decreased Mn-superoxide dismutase expression anddiminished the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, KA treatment increased intramitochondrial Ca2+ and promoted ultrastructural degeneration in hippocampal mitochondria. Treatment with ginsenosides dose-dependently attenuated convulsive behavior and the KA-induced mitochondrial effects. Protection appeared to be more evident in mitochondria than in tissue homogenates. Collectively, the results suggest that ginsenosides prevent KA-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Kainic acid triggers oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation from striatal neural stem cells

Carolina Redondo
Abstract Glutamate is an excitatory amino acid that serves important functions in mammalian brain development through ,-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/ kainate receptor stimulation. Neural stem cells with self-renewal and multilineage potential are a useful tool to study the signals involved in the regulation of brain development. We have investigated the role played by AMPA/kainate receptors during the differentiation of neural stem cells derived from fetal rat striatum. The application of 1 and 10 ,M kainic acid increased significantly the phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), raised bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in O4-positive oligodendrocyte precursors, and increased the number of O1-positive cells in the cultures. Increased CREB phosphorylation and proliferation were prevented by the AMPA receptor antagonist 4-4(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-methyl-2-propylcarbamoyl-6,7-methylenedioxyphthalazine (SYM 2206) and by protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors. Cultures treated with 100 ,M kainic acid showed decreased proliferation, a lower proportion of O1-positive cells, and apoptosis of O4-positive cells. None of these effects were prevented by SYM 2206, suggesting that kainate receptors take part in these events. We conclude that AMPA receptor stimulation by kainic acid promotes the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors derived from neural stem cells through a mechanism that requires the activation of CREB by protein kinase A and C. In the neurons derived from these cells, either AMPA or kainate receptor stimulation produces neuritic growth and larger cell bodies. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ro5-4864, a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand, reduces reactive gliosis and protects hippocampal hilar neurons from kainic acid excitotoxicity

Sergio Veiga
Abstract The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a critical component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which is involved in the regulation of cell survival. Different forms of brain injury result in induction of the expression of the PBR in the areas of neurodegeneration, mainly in reactive glial cells. The consequences of induction of PBR expression after brain injury are unknown. To test whether PBR may be involved in the regulation of neuronal survival after injury, we have assessed the effect of two PBR ligands, Ro5-4864 and PK11195, on neuronal loss induced by kainic acid in the hippocampus. Systemic administration of kainic acid to male rats resulted in the induction of a reactive phenotype in astrocytes and microglia and in a significant loss of hilar neurons in the dentate gyrus. Administration of Ro5-4864, before the injection of kainic acid, decreased reactive gliosis in the hilus and prevented hilar neuronal loss. In contrast, PK11195 was unable to reduce reactive gliosis and did not protect hilar neurons from kainic acid. These findings suggest that the PBR is involved in control of neuronal survival and gliosis after brain injury and identify this molecule as a potential target for neuroprotective interventions. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Melatonin attenuates kainic acid-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and oxidative stress through microglial inhibition

Seung-Yun Chung
Abstract:,The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin on kainic acid (KA)-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus were evaluated in vivo. It has been suggested that the pineal secretory product, melatonin, protects neurons in vitro from excitotoxicity mediated by kainate-sensitive glutamate receptors, and from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. In this study, we injected 10 mg/kg kainate intraperitoneally (i.p.) into adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. This results in selective neuronal degeneration accompanied by intense microglial activation and triggers DNA damage in the hippocampus. We tested the in vivo efficacy of melatonin in preventing KA-induced neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus. Melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 20 min before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 hr after KA administration. Rats were killed 72 hr later and their hippocampi were examined for evidence of DNA damage (in situ dUTP end-labeling, i.e. TUNEL staining), cell viability (hematoxylin and eosin staining), and microglial (isolectin-B4 histochemistry) and astroglial responses (glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry), as well as lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal immunohistochemistry). A cumulative dose of 10 mg/kg melatonin attenuates KA-induced neuronal death, lipid peroxidation, and microglial activation, and reduces the number of DNA breaks. A possible mechanism for melatonin-mediated neuroprotection involves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The present data suggest that melatonin is potentially useful in the treatment of acute brain pathologies associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage such as epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. [source]

Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists: Discovery and approaches to rational design

Lennart Bunch
Abstract (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all,to our knowledge,published KA receptor agonists. In total, over 100 compounds are described by means of chemical structure and available pharmacological data. With this perspective review, it is our intention to ignite and stimulate inspiration for future design and synthesis of novel subtype selective KA receptor agonists. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 29, No. 1, 3,28, 2009 [source]

Competitive AMPA receptor antagonists

Daniela Catarzi
Abstract Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where it is involved in the physiological regulation of different processes. It has been well established that excessive endogenous Glu is associated with many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as cerebral ischaemia, epilepsy, amiotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. These data have consequently added great impetus to the research in this field. In fact, many Glu receptor antagonists acting at the N -methyl- D -aspartic acid (NMDA), 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), and/or kainic acid (KA) receptors have been developed as research tools and potential therapeutic agents. Ligands showing competitive antagonistic action at the AMPA type of Glu receptors were first reported in 1988, and the systemically active 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) was first shown to have useful therapeutic effects in animal models of neurological disease in 1990. Since then, the quinoxaline template has represented the backbone of various competitive AMPA receptor antagonists belonging to different classes which had been developed in order to increase potency, selectivity and water solubility, but also to prolong the "in vivo" action. Compounds that present better pharmacokinetic properties and less serious adverse effects with respect to the others previously developed are undergoing clinical evaluation. In the near future, the most important clinical application for the AMPA receptor antagonists will probably be as neuroprotectant in neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy, for the treatment of patients not responding to current therapies. The present review reports the history of competitive AMPA receptor antagonists from 1988 up to today, providing a systematic coverage of both the open and patent literature. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Nitric oxide donor increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during kainic acid-induced seizures in newborn rabbits

Yukito Takei
Abstract Background: We investigated the hypothesis that sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, increased the cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures in newborn rabbits. Methods: After KA administration (i.v. 12 mg/kg) to induce seizures, either 1.2 mg/kg SNP (SNP group, i.v., n = 6) or 1 mL normal saline (vehicle group, i.v., n = 6) was given. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb), total hemoglobin (t-Hb), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalography (EEG) were continuously monitored throughout the experiment, lasting at least 60 min after the KA administration. Results: The value for rCBF was greatly increased during seizures in the SNP group than in the vehicle group. The values for oxy-Hb and t-Hb were significantly increased, and deoxy-Hb was significantly decreased. There were ameliorations of cerebral oxygenation in the SNP group during the acute phase of seizures in the neonatal animals, compared with the vehicle group. There were no significant differences in the MABP, HR, arterial blood gases, rectal and brain temperatures, blood hemoglobin concentrations, blood glucose levels, the latencies to first abnormal discharges in EEG, the total sum of the duration of abnormal discharges in EEG and the incidences of subclinical electric status epileptics between the two groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that the treatment with SNP contributed to the increases in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation, and that EEG abnormalities were unchanged by the treatment with SNP during neonatal seizures. [source]

Downregulation of tonic GABA currents following epileptogenic stimulation of rat hippocampal cultures

Jin-shun Qi
Deficits in GABAergic inhibitory transmission are a hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy and have been replicated in animal and tissue culture models of epilepsy. GABAergic inhibition comprises phasic and tonic inhibition that is mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, respectively. We have recently demonstrated that chronic stimulation with cyclothiazide (CTZ) or kainic acid (KA) induces robust epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report a downregulation of tonic GABA inhibition after chronic epileptogenic stimulation of rat hippocampal cultures. Chronic pretreatment of hippocampal neurons with CTZ or KA resulted in a marked reduction in GABAergic inhibition, as shown by a significant decrease in whole-cell GABA currents and in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Interestingly, synaptically localized GABAA receptors remained relatively stable, as evidenced by the unaltered amplitude of mIPSCs, as well as the unchanged punctate immunoreactivity of ,2 subunit-containing postsynaptic GABAA receptors. In contrast, tonic GABA currents, assessed either by a GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline or a selective extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP, were significantly reduced following epileptogenic stimulation. These results reveal a novel form of neural plasticity, that epileptogenic stimulation can selectively downregulate extrasynaptic GABAA receptors while leaving synaptic GABAA receptors unchanged. Thus, in addition to synaptic alteration of GABAergic transmission, regulation of tonic inhibition may also play an important role during epileptogenesis. [source]