Ka BP (ka + bp)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Palaeomonsoon variability in the southern fringe of the Badain Jaran Desert, China, since 130 ka BP

Quanzhou Gao
Abstract Taking the Chagelebulu Stratigraphic Profile as a typical example, a comprehensive study has been conducted to elucidate the palaeoclimatic and geomorphic evolution patterns in the southern fringe of the Badain Jaran Desert, which were found to be complex and polycyclic in the past 130 ka. However, the fluctuating magnitude is not as remarkable as that in the eastern China sandy region. The shift in climate from interglacial to glacial and the uplift process of the Qinghai,Xizang Plateau are the two leading forces driving the evolution of the climate and desert landforms in this area. Seventeen cycles of cold, dry and warm, humid climatic stages were recognized in the Upper Pleistocene Series of the profile. The sharp uplift of the Qinghai,Xizang Plateau superimposed a cool and arid climatic trend in this area. As a result of the climatic changes, the desert in this area has undergone multiple stages of expansion and contraction since 130 ka bp. The middle Holocene Epoch and the early stage of the Late Pleistocene Period were the main periods when the sand dunes became stabilized, and the early and late phases of the Holocene Epoch and late phase of the Pleistocene Epoch were the main periods when the previously stabilized sand dunes became mobile. The late phase of the Pleistocene Epoch was the most mobile stage, when the aeolian sand activities formed the essential geomorphic pattern of the Badain Jaran Desert. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mapping the geochemistry of the northern Rub' Al Khali using multispectral remote sensing techniques

Kevin White
Abstract Spatial variations in sand sea geochemistry relate to mixing of different sediment sources and to variations in weathering. Due to problems of accessibility, adequate spatial coverage cannot be achieved using field surveys alone. However, maps of geochemical composition produced from remotely sensed data can be calibrated against limited field data and the results extrapolated over large, inaccessible areas. This technique is applied to part of the Rub' Al Khali in the northern United Arab Emirates. Trend surface analysis of the results suggests that the sand sea at this location can be modelled as an east,west mixing zone of two spectral components: terrestrial reddened quartz sands and marine carbonate sands. Optical dating of these sediments suggests that dune emplacement occurred rapidly around 10 ka BP, when sea level was rising rapidly. The spatial distribution of mineralogical components suggests that this phase of dune emplacement resulted from coastal dune sands being driven inland during marine transgression, thereby becoming mixed with rubified terrestrial sands. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cosmogenic 10BE Age Constraints for The Wester Ross Readvance Moraine: Insights Into British Ice-Sheet Behaviour

Jeremy D. Everest
This study presents the first absoluteage constraints from a palaeo-ice-sheet margin in western Scotland. Cosmogenic 10Be from four Lewisian gneiss boulders on the Gairloch Moraine in NW Scotland have yielded reliable exposure ages. Three of these dates, taken from a single moraine ridge, cluster around c. 15.5,18 ka BP, with a weighted mean of 16.3 ± 1.6 ka BP. These findings indicate that the last British Ice Sheet had retreated to the present-day coastline in NW Scotland by this time. It is suggested that the Wester Ross Readvance represents an ice-sheet oscillation during, or in the immediate aftermath of, Heinrich Event 1 (c. 17,18 ka BP). [source]

Late-glacial remains of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Shropshire, UK: stratigraphy, sedimentology and geochronology of the Condover site

J. D. Scourse
Abstract In 1986 remains of an adult woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach), were discovered at Norton Farm Pit, Condover, south of Shrewsbury, UK. Preliminary stratigraphical investigations indicated that this individual dated to the Devensian Late-glacial Interstadial, then the first evidence for survival of mammoth in Britain following the Last Glacial Maximum. Initial radiocarbon analysis confirmed this interpretation. Subsequent excavations in 1987/1988 recovered the remains of a further three juvenile mammoth individuals. All of these remains were found in the spoil heaps of overburden (ex situ) and their true stratigraphical context had to be reconstructed from the remnants surviving in the Pit. The 1987/1988 excavations enabled stratigraphical investigation of the site and submission of samples for radiocarbon (14C) dating, including the use of ultrafiltration pretreatment for bone samples, with the aims of reconstructing the geological and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the site and the sedimentary context of the unstratified mammoth remains. These results are presented here. This investigation indicates that the woolly mammoth remains at Condover derive from a dead-ice landscape dominated by eskers, kames and kettle-hole basins, and that the sedimentary sequence in which the mammoth remains were found forms the infilling of a kettle-hole basin. The sedimentary infilling and formation of the kettle-hole basin through ice block melt-induced subsidence were syngenetic. 14C determinations indicate that basin infill was initiated prior to Greenland Interstadial 1, and probably in Greenland Stadial 2 i.e. before 14.7,ka BP and that it continued until the early Holocene, around 8,ka BP. The sedimentological and 14C data indicate that the unstratified mammoth remains can be attributed to a dark grey clayey sandy silt (Unit C1), which accumulated during the earlier part of Greenland Interstadial 1 (14 to 14.5,ka BP) within an actively subsiding slow-flowing, beaded, fluvial network characterized by channels and pools/lakes, and with relatively shallow marginal slopes. The sedimentary architecture indicates survival of the buried ice block into Greenland Interstadial 1 and final melting only towards the end of the Interstadial at ca. 12.65,ka BP. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sediment provenance of late Quaternary morainic, fluvial and loess-like deposits in the southwestern Verkhoyansk Mountains (eastern Siberia) and implications for regional palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

Steffen Popp
Abstract A provenance analysis of late Quaternary deposits from tributaries of the Aldan and Lena rivers in Central Yakutia (eastern Siberia) was carried out using analysis of heavy minerals and clay mineralogy. Cluster analysis revealed one assemblage that is characterized by relatively high proportions of amphibole, orthopyroxene and garnet as well as pedogenic clay minerals, reflecting a sediment provenance from the wide catchment area of the Lena and Aldan rivers. In contrast, the three other clusters are dominated by stable heavy minerals with varying amounts of clinopyroxene, apatite and garnet, as well as high percentages of illite and chlorite that are indicative of source rocks of the Verkhoyansk Mountains. Glacial moraines reveal the local mountain source signal that is overprinted by the Lena-Aldan signal in the oldest moraines by reworking processes. Alluvial sediments in the Verkhoyansk Foreland show a clear Lena source signal through intervals of the middle and late Pleistocene, related to a stream course closer to the mountains at that time. Loess-like cover sediments are characterized by the dominant Lena provenance with increasing proportions of local mountain sources towards the mountain valleys. Aeolian sands in an alluvial terrace section at the mountain margin covering the time between 30,ka and 10,ka BP reflect temporarily dominant inputs of aeolian materials from the Lena Plains. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater systems in Daying and Qicun geothermal fields, Xinzhou Basin, Shanxi, China

Dongmei Han
Abstract The conceptual hydrogeological model of the low to medium temperature Daying and Qicun geothermal fields has been proposed, based on hydrochemical characteristics and isotopic compositions. The two geothermal fields are located in the Xinzhou basin of Shanxi, China and exhibit similarities in their broad-scale flow patterns. Geothermal water is derived from the regional groundwater flow system of the basin and is characterized by Cl·SO4 -Na type. Thermal water is hydrochemically distinct from cold groundwater having higher total dissolved solids (TDS) (>0·8 g/l) and Sr contents, but relatively low Ca, Mg and HCO3 contents. Most shallow groundwater belongs to local flow systems which are subject to evaporation and mixing with irrigation returns. The groundwater residence times estimated by tritium and 14C activities indicate that deep non-thermal groundwater (130,160 m) in the Daying region range from modern (post-1950s) in the piedmont area to more than 9·4 ka BP (Before Present) in the downriver area and imply that this water belong to an intermediate flow system. Thermal water in the two geothermal fields contains no detectable active 14C, indicating long residence times (>50 ka), consistent with this water being part of a large regional flow system. The mean recharge elevation estimated by using the obtained relationship Altitude (m) = , 23·8 × ,2H (, ) , 121·3, is 1980 and 1880 m for the Daying and Qicun geothermal fields, respectively. The annual infiltration rates in the Daying and Qicun geothermal fields can be estimated to be 9029 × 103 and 4107 × 103 m3/a, respectively. The variable 86Sr/87Sr values in the thermal and non-thermal groundwater in the two fields reflect different lithologies encountered along the flow path(s) and possibly different extents of water-rock interaction. Based on the analysis of groundwater flow systems in the two geothermal fields, hydrogeochemical inverse modelling was performed to indicate the possible water-rock interaction processes that occur under different scenarios. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Carnivores and their prey in the Wezmeh Cave (Kermanshah, Iran): a Late Pleistocene refuge in the Zagros

M. Mashkour
Abstract Wezmeh Cave is located on the northeastern edge of the Islamabad plain, a high intermontane valley in the western-central Zagros. In 1999 a disturbed but large faunal assemblage was recovered from this site. The abundant and extremely diverse faunal spectra present at Wezmeh Cave has highlighted the importance of this assemblage. Carnivore remains constitute the bulk of the assemblage; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has the highest number of identified specimens followed by spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), felids (lion, leopard, lynx/caracal and wildcat), mustelids (badger, polecat, marten) and viverrids (mongoose). Artiodactyls (bovid, cervid, suid), equids, rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sp.) and small animals (Cape hare, porcupine, tortoise, snake, birds) are also present. According to U-series dating, the site was occupied from around 70 ka BP through to sub-recent periods by carnivores. Amongst this rich assemblage, a human fossil tooth was also found and dated by non-invasive spectrometry gamma dating to 20,25 ka BP. A preliminary zooarchaeological and taphonomic study shows that Wezmeh Cave was used by multiple carnivore species, a unique phenomenon in the Zagros Mountains in particular and southwest Asia in general. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Identification of arid phases during the last 50,cal. ka BP from the Fuentillejo maar-lacustrine record (Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field, Spain),

Juana Vegas
Abstract Geochemical (element analysis, molecular analysis of organic compounds), physical, palynological, mineralogical and sedimentary facies analysis were performed to characterise the sedimentary record in Fuentillejo maar-lake in the Central Spanish Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava, in order to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic processes which controlled vegetation patterns and deposition of different sedimentary facies. The upper 20,m of core FUENT-1 show variations in clastic input, water chemistry, vegetation and organic fraction sources in the lake throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The temporal framework provided by 14C accelerator mass spectrometry dating allows assigning the sequence to the last 50,cal. ka BP. Arid phases identified in the FUENT-1 sequence are correlated to Heinrich events (HE) and to stadials of the Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) cycles. Siliciclastic facies with high magnetic susceptibility values, high Juniperus pollen content, a low Paq index (aquatic macrophysics proxy index), a decrease in the relative percentage of the n -C27 and an increase in the n -C31 alkanes are indicative of arid and colder climatic events related to HE 2, HE 1 and the Younger Dryas (YD). Similar short cold and arid phases during the Holocene were identified at 9.2,8.6, 7.5,7 and 5.5,5,cal. ka BP. In dolomite,mud facies, the pollen data show an increase in the herbs component, mainly , Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ephedra , steppe taxa; a low Paq index, a decrease in the relative percentage of the n -C27 alkane and an increase in the n -C31 alkane are also observed. This facies was probably the result of lower lake levels and more saline,alkaline conditions, which can be interpreted as linked to arid,warm periods. These warm and arid phases were more frequent during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and the interstadials of MIS 2. HE 4, HE 2, HE 1 and the YD in core FUENT-1 were immediately followed by increases of warm steppe pollen assemblages that document rapid warming similar to the D/O cycles but do not imply increasing humidity in the area. Fuentillejo hydrology is controlled by changes in the atmospheric and oceanic systems that operated on the North Atlantic region at millennial scale during the last 50,cal. ka BP. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A multi-proxy palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic record within full glacial lacustrine deposits, western Tennessee, USA,

David A. Grimley
Abstract The Fulton Section, along the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, USA, is a 1,km continuous exposure (,20,m vertically) of Quaternary fluvial and lacustrine deposits, inset within Eocene sediments and buried by thick loess. Fossiliferous slackwater lake sediments record maximum aggradation during the last two major glaciations, with deposition between ca. 190,140,ka and 24, 18 14C ka BP, based on amino acid and radiocarbon chronology, respectively. During the onset of full glacial conditions (ca. 24,22 14C ka BP), a relatively permanent shallow lake environment is indicated by ostracods, aquatic molluscs, and both pollen and macrofossils of aquatic plants. By 21.8 14C ka BP, increasing emergent plants, amphibious gastropods (Pomatiopsis) and heavier ,18O compositions suggest marsh-like conditions in a periodically drying lake. The surrounding uplands consisted of Picea,Pinus woodlands mixed with cool-temperate hardwoods (e.g. Quercus, Populus, Carya), grasses and herbs. More open conditions ensued ca. 20 14C ka BP, with loess and slopewash gradually infilling the former lake by 18 14C ka BP. Modern analogue analyses of ostracods and palaeontological evidence imply a full glacial climate similar to today's mixed-boreal zone in central Minnesota, USA, about 9°C cooler in mean annual temperature than present-day western Tennessee. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ice caps existed throughout the Lateglacial Interstadial in northern Scotland,

Tom Bradwell
Abstract We constrain, in detail, fluctuations of two former ice caps in NW Scotland with multibeam seabed surveys, geomorphological mapping and cosmogenic 10Be isotope analyses. We map a continuous sequence of 40 recessional moraines stretching from ,10,km offshore to the Wester Ross mountains. Surface-exposure ages from boulders on moraine ridges in Assynt and the Summer Isles region show that substantial, dynamic, ice caps existed in NW Scotland between 13 and 14,ka BP. We interpret this as strong evidence that large active glaciers probably survived throughout the Lateglacial Interstadial, and that during the Older Dryas period (ca. 14,ka BP) ice caps in NW Scotland were thicker and considerably more extensive than in the subsequent Younger Dryas Stadial. By inference, we suggest that Lateglacial ice-cap oscillations in Scotland reflect the complex interplay between changing temperature and precipitation regimes during this climatically unstable period (ca. 15,11,ka BP). © Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) copyright 2008. Reproduced with the permission of NERC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evidence for regionally wet conditions before the LGM in southeast Australia: OSL ages from a large palaeochannel in the Lachlan Valley,

Justine Kemp
Abstract Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques have been used to obtain the first ages on Late Pleistocene channels in the Lachlan Valley, southeastern Australia. Two OSL ages from channel sand and overlying source-bordering dune sand indicate that large sinuous channels, with bankfull discharges six to eight times greater than the present river, were fully established by 34,ka BP. This conclusion is consistent with regional lake level and geomorphic evidence of cool, pluvial conditions that preceded the last glacial maximum (LGM), providing new information on a long-standing palaeohydrological problem caused by the apparent synchroneity of large river systems and regional aridity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Palaeoclimate signals as inferred from stable-isotope composition of ground ice in the Verkhoyansk foreland, Central Yakutia

Steffen Popp
Abstract Ice-rich permafrost deposits and their isotopic composition were studied at four sites in the western foreland of the Verkhoyansk Mountains, Central Yakutia. The isotopic composition of ice wedges formed in alluvial and loess-like sediments generally reflects the palaeoclimate of winter conditions. The middle Weichselian Ice Complex developed around 41,ka,14C BP during a period with colder winters than today. Similarly severe conditions are reflected in the late Weichselian Ice Complex from around 20,ka to 13,ka,14C BP. The transition to the Holocene is characterised by increases of 5, and 35, in ,18O and ,D, respectively. This warming is documented in wedge ice, which grew between 8.5 and 4.5,ka BP. Towards the late Holocene and sub-recent times, a climatic deterioration is recorded, reflected by lighter isotopic composition of ice wedges, which developed between 1.2,ka and 0.7,ka,14C BP. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thermal-contraction-crack networks as evidence for late-Pleistocene permafrost in Inner Mongolia, China

J. Vandenberghe
Abstract Numerous wedges on the Ordos Plateau show typical characteristics of periglacial sand wedges that enable them to be distinguished from desiccation cracks in clayey illuviation soil horizons. The sand wedges are organized in two generations of polygonal networks. The older generation is a large-scale network with a diameter of 8 to 9,m and wedge depths up to more than 2,m. The younger generation has a mean diameter of 3 to 4,m and is formed within the large networks. It consists of shallow (0.6 to 1,m deep) but relatively wide wedges. In contrast to the typical sand wedges that form within continuous permafrost, the shallow wedges formed probably as ,ground wedges' by seasonal freezing. Ice wedges and cryoturbations developed only rarely, and exclusively in the most humid areas. Thermal-contraction cracking occurred mainly between 26 and 20,ka BP, indicating mean annual temperatures at least 13°C lower than present. Before and after that period mean annual temperatures were at least 7 to 8.5° lower than today. The presence of these periglacial phenomena show that the southern limit of continuous permafrost in Inner Mongolia occurred south of 38°N during the Last Glacial Maximum. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Palaeoclimate reconstruction on Big Lyakhovsky Island, north Siberia,hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in ice wedges

Hanno Meyer
Abstract Late Quaternary permafrost deposits on Big Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Islands, Russian Arctic) were studied with the aim of reconstructing the palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions of northern Siberia. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses are presented for six different generations of ice wedges as well as for recent ice wedges and precipitation. An age of about 200 ka BP was determined for an autochtonous peat layer in ice-rich deposits by U/Th method, containing the oldest ice wedges ever analysed for hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. The palaeoclimatic reconstruction revealed a period of severe winter temperatures at that time. After a gap in the sedimentation history of several tens of thousands of years, ice-wedge growth was re-initiated around 50 ka BP by a short period of extremely cold winters and rapid sedimentation leading to ice-wedge burial and characteristic ice-soil wedges (,polosatics'). This corresponds to the initial stage for the Late Weichselian Ice Complex, a peculiar cryolithogenic periglacial formation typical of the lowlands of northern Siberia. The Ice Complex ice wedges reflect cold winters and similar climatic conditions as around 200 ka BP. With a sharp rise in ,18O of 6, and ,D of 40,, the warming trend between Pleistocene and Holocene ice wedges is documented. Stable isotope data of recent ice wedges show that Big Lyakhovsky Island has never been as warm in winter as today. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Depositional environments and chronology of Late Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation in the central North Sea

BOREAS, Issue 3 2010
Graham, A.G.C., Lonergan, L. & Stoker, M.S. 2010: Depositional environments and chronology of Late Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation in the central North Sea. Boreas, Vol. 39, pp. 471,491. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2010.00144.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Geological constraints on ice-sheet deglaciation are essential for improving the modelling of ice masses and understanding their potential for future change. Here, we present a detailed interpretation of depositional environments from a new 30-m-long borehole in the central North Sea, with the aim of improving constraints on the history of the marine Late Pleistocene British,Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Seven units characterize a sequence of compacted and distorted glaciomarine diamictons, which are overlain by interbedded glaciomarine diamictons and soft, bedded to homogeneous marine muds. Through correlation of borehole and 2D/3D seismic observations, we identify three palaeoregimes. These are: a period of advance and ice-sheet overriding; a phase of deglaciation; and a phase of postglacial glaciomarine-to-marine sedimentation. Deformed subglacial sediments correlate with a buried suite of streamlined subglacial bedforms, and indicate overriding by the SE,NW-flowing Witch Ground ice stream. AMS 14C dating confirms ice-stream activity and extensive glaciation of the North Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum, between c. 30 and 16.2 14C ka BP. Sediments overlying the ice-compacted deposits have been reworked, but can be used to constrain initial deglaciation to no later than 16.2 14C ka BP. A re-advance of British ice during the last deglaciation, dated at 13.9 14C ka BP, delivered ice-proximal deposits to the core site and deposited glaciomarine sediments rapidly during the subsequent retreat. A transition to more temperate marine conditions is clear in lithostratigraphic and seismic records, marked by a regionally pervasive iceberg-ploughmarked erosion surface. The iceberg discharges that formed this horizon are dated to between 13.9 and 12 14C ka BP, and may correspond to oscillating ice-sheet margins during final, dynamic ice-sheet decay. [source]

Late Quaternary development of the southern sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet, with particular reference to the Qassimiut lobe

BOREAS, Issue 4 2004
The evolution of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet is interpreted from a synthesis of geological data and palaeoclimatic information provided by the ice-sheet cores. At the Last Glacial Maximum the ice margin would have been at the shelf break and the ice sheet was fringed by shelf ice. Virtually all of the present ice-free land was glaciated. The initial ice retreat was controlled by eustatic sea level rise and was mainly by calving. When temperatures increased, melt ablation led to further ice-margin retreat and areas at the outer coast and mountain tops were deglaciated. Retreat was interrupted by a readvance during the Neria stade that may correlate with the Younger Dryas cooling. The abrupt temperature rise at the Younger Dryas,Holocene transition led to a fast retreat of the ice margin, and after ,9 ka BP the ice sheet was smaller than at present. Expansion of the ice cover began in the Late Holocene, with a maximum generally during the Little Ice Age. The greatest changes in ice cover occurred in lowland areas, i.e. in the region of the Qassimiut lobe. The date of the historical maximum advance shows considerable spatial variability and varies between AD 1600 and the present. Local anomalous readvances are seen at possibly 7,8 ka and at c. 2 ka BP. A marked relative sea level rise is seen in the Late Holocene; this is believed to reflect a direct glacio-isostatic response to increasing ice load. [source]

ESR/OSL ages of long-debated subtill fossil-bearing marine deposits from the southern Kola Peninsula: stratigraphic implications

BOREAS, Issue 2 2004
The occurrence of sandy clay deposited in a warm marine environment just below the till of the last glaciation has created controversy about its age and stratigraphic position in the sedimentary basin of the Kola Peninsula. Data on marine microfauna, diatoms, malacofauna and pollen composition indicate that during the period when the sandy clay was deposited the climate was similar or even warmer than at present. According to 14C dates, sedimentation of the sandy clay occurred around 40 ka BP. Based on these data, some researchers have attributed these marine deposits to the third Late Pleistocene Belomorian (sensu Lavrova 1960) interglacial transgression. At the same time there are geological indications suggesting re-deposition of these subtill sediments. To solve this problem we have reinvestigated the subtill interglacial marine deposits from the Varzuga section (,66.4° N and 36.6° E). Four different marine shell species and enclosing sandy clay sediments taken from the subtill marine unit of the section were dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods at about 103 and 104 ka, respectively. The results indicate that the subtill marine deposits belong to the first Late Pleistocene Boreal transgression that, according to our previous studies of the marginal areas of the Eurasian North, has occurred in the time interval from approximately 145 to 70 ka BP. [source]

Modeling the deglaciation of the Green Bay Lobe of the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet

BOREAS, Issue 1 2004
We use a time-dependent two-dimensional ice-flow model to explore the development of the Green Bay Lobe, an outlet glacier of the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet, leading up to the time of maximum ice extent and during subsequent deglaciation (c. 30 to 8 cal. ka BP). We focus on conditions at the ice-bed interface in order to evaluate their possible impact on glacial landscape evolution. Air temperatures for model input have been reconstructed using the GRIP ,8O record calibrated to speleothem records from Missouri that cover the time periods of c. 65 to 30 cal. ka BP and 13.25 to 12.4 cal. ka BP. Using that input, the known ice extents during maximum glaciation and early deglaciation can be reproduced reasonably well. The model fails, however, to reproduce short-term ice margin retreat and readvance events during later stages of deglaciation. Model results indicate that the area exposed after the retreat of the Green Bay Lobe was characterized by permafrost until at least 14 cal. ka BP. The extensive drumlin zones that formed behind the ice margins of the outermost Johnstown phase and the later Green Lake phase are associated with modeled ice margins that were stable for at least 1000 years, high basal shear stresses (c. 100 kPa) and permafrost depths of 80,200 m. During deglaciation, basal meltwater and sliding became more important. [source]

Lateglacial landform associations at Jæren (SW Norway) and their glaci-dynamic implications

BOREAS, Issue 3 2003
The Jæren lowland is located on the southwestern coast of Norway between a mountainous region in the east and the offshore Norwegian Channel in the west. During the Last Glacial Maximum, Jæren was in an intermediate position between an ice stream following the Norwegian Channel northwards, and westward flowing inland ice. The dynamic behaviour of the inland ice and the interaction with the ice stream are examined by means of geomorphological analysis of digital terrain models and sedimentological investigations. SW-trending drumlins were formed at Jæren below tributary ice from the inland, feeding into the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream. The presence of Rogen moraine in the central part of Jæren indicates a frozen substratum prior to their formation, and this suggests a transition to cold-based ice between the tributaries. The deglaciation of the Norwegian Channel at about 15 ka BP resulted in an unstable ice front for the inland ice sheet. The formation of Rogen moraine may be explained by a dynamic advance resulting in extensional flow and fracturing of the frozen substratum between the tributaries. The dynamic advance was followed by an early deglaciation of the coastal areas as evidenced by shallow marine sediments. Deformation of the shallow marine sand indicates a glacial readvance through the valleys formerly acting as tributaries to the ice stream. [source]

Neotectonics, sea-level changes and biological evolution in the Fennoscandian Border Zone of the southern Kattegat Sea

BOREAS, Issue 2 2002
Shallow seismic data and vibrocore information, sequence stratigraphic and faunal evidence have been used for documentation of Late Weichselian reactivation of faulting in the south central Kattegat, southern Scandinavia. The study area is situated on the Fennoscandian Border Zone, where tectonic activity has been recurrent since Early Palaeozoic time and still occurs, as shown by present earthquake activity. New data from the area south of the island of Anholt show that after deglaciation fast isostatic rebound resulted in reactivation of a NW-SE striking normal fault system. This tectonic episode is dated to a period starting shortly before 15.0 cal. ka BP and ending around 13.5 cal. ka BP, after regression had already reached a level of about 30 m b.s.l. The vertical displacement associated with the faulting was in the order of 20 m. More generally, the results support the previously reported late Weichselian sea-level highstand, which was followed by forced regression until the eustatic sea-level rise surpassed the rate of glacio-isostatic rebound in early Preboreal. Our findings further imply that drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake through the Øresund at c. 15 cal. ka BP (Bergsten & Nordberg 1992) may have been triggered by tectonic activity in this region. [source]

Late Quaternary history around Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden and Jøkelbugten, North-East Greenland

BOREAS, Issue 3 2001
Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden in North-East Greenland is at present covered by a floating glacier. Raised marine deposits in the surrounding area contain shells of marine molluscs, bones of marine mammals and pieces of driftwood. A fairly systematic sampling of such material has been conducted, followed by extensive radiocarbon dating. We suggest that the Greenland ice sheet extended onto the shelf offshore North-East Greenland during isotope stage 2, perhaps even reaching the shelf break. During the subsequent recession of the ice sheet, the entrance of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden had become ice-free by 9.7 cal. ka BP. The recession culminated between 7.7 and 4.5 cal. ka BP, during which time the fjord was glacier-free along its entire 80 km length. No dates younger than 4.5 cal. ka BP are available on marine material from the fjord, and it seems probable that the fjord has been continuously covered by the floating glacier since this time. The maximum glaciation was attained around AD 1900, after which thinning and recession took place. The marine limit increases from c. 40 m above sea level near the present margin of the Inland Ice to c. 65 m above sea level at the outer coast. These figures fit into the regional pattern of the marine limit for areas both to the south and north. The marine fauna comprise two bivalves, Macoma calcarea and Serripes groenlandicus, that may represent a southern element present during the Holocene temperature optimum. Remains of three taxa of southern extralimital terrestrial and limnic plants were dated to 5.1 cal. ka BP, and remains of another extralimital plant were dated to 8.8 and 8.5 cal. ka BP. The known Holocene time ranges of the willow Salix arctica and the lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus have been extended back to 8.8 and 6.4 cal. ka BP, respectively, providing minimum dates for their immigration to Greenland. [source]

Holocene paleoceanography of the northern Barents Sea and variations of the northward heat transport by the Atlantic Ocean

BOREAS, Issue 1 2001
Foraminiferal assemblages were studied in northern Barents Sea core ASV 880 along with oxygen and carbon isotope measurements in planktonic (N. pachyderma sin.) and benthic (E clavatum) species. AMS C-14 measurements performed on molluscs Yoldiella spp. show that this core provides a detailed and undisturbed record of Holocene climatic changes over the last 10000 calendar years. Surface and deep waters were very cold (<0°C) at the beginning of the Holocene. C. reniforme dominated the highly diverse benthic foraminiferal assemblage. From 10 to 7.8 cal. ka BP, a warming trend culminated in a temperature optimum, which developed between 7.8 and 6.8 cal. ka BP. During this optimum, the input of Atlantic water to the Barents Sea reached its maximum. The Atlantic water mass invaded the whole Franz Victoria Trough and was present from subsurface to the bottom. No bottom water, which would form through rejection of brine during winter, was present at the core depth (388 m). The water stratification was therefore greatly reduced as compared to the present. An increase in percentage of I. helenae/norcrossi points to long seasonal ice-free conditions. The temperature optimum ended rather abruptly, with the return of cold polar waters into the trough within a few centuries. This was accompanied by a dramatic reduction of the abundance of C. reniforme. During the upper Holocene, the more opportunistic species E. clavatum became progressively dominant and the water column was more stratified. Deep water in Franz Victoria Trough contained a significant amount of cold Barents Sea bottom water as it does today, while subsurface water warmed progressively until about 3.7 cal. ka BP and reached temperatures similar to those of today. These long-term climatic changes were cut by several cold events of short duration, in particular one in the middle of the temperature optimum and another, which coincides most probably with the 8.2 ka BP cold event. Both long- and short-term climatic changes in the Barents Sea are associated with changes in the flow of Atlantic waters and the oceanic conveyor belt. [source]

Early Holocene drowned lagoonal deposits from the Kattegat, southern Scandinavia

BOREAS, Issue 4 2000
Shallow seismic profiling indicated the presence of a drowned lagoon,barrier system formed during the transgression of the southern Kattegat, and investigations of core material have confirmed this. Studies of plant and animal macrofossils show that the lagoonal sediments contain a mixture of marine, brackish, lacustrine, telmatic and terrestrial taxa, and analyses of foraminifers indicate brackish-water conditions. Low oxygen isotope values obtained on shells of marine molluscs also point to lowered salinity. The lagoonal sediments are situated at depths between 24 and 35 m below present sea level. They are dated to between c. 10.5 cal. ka BP and c. 9.5 cal. ka BP, and reflect a period characterized by a moderate relative sea level rise. The lagoonal sediments are underlain by lateglacial glaciomarine clay and silt, which are separated from the Holocene deposits by an unconformity. The earliest Holocene sediments consist of littoral sand with gravel, stones and shells; these sediments were formed during the transgression of the area before the barrier island,lagoon system was developed. The lagoonal sediments are overlain by mud, which contains animal remains that indicate increasing water depths. [source]

Palaeomonsoon variability in the southern fringe of the Badain Jaran Desert, China, since 130 ka BP

Quanzhou Gao
Abstract Taking the Chagelebulu Stratigraphic Profile as a typical example, a comprehensive study has been conducted to elucidate the palaeoclimatic and geomorphic evolution patterns in the southern fringe of the Badain Jaran Desert, which were found to be complex and polycyclic in the past 130 ka. However, the fluctuating magnitude is not as remarkable as that in the eastern China sandy region. The shift in climate from interglacial to glacial and the uplift process of the Qinghai,Xizang Plateau are the two leading forces driving the evolution of the climate and desert landforms in this area. Seventeen cycles of cold, dry and warm, humid climatic stages were recognized in the Upper Pleistocene Series of the profile. The sharp uplift of the Qinghai,Xizang Plateau superimposed a cool and arid climatic trend in this area. As a result of the climatic changes, the desert in this area has undergone multiple stages of expansion and contraction since 130 ka bp. The middle Holocene Epoch and the early stage of the Late Pleistocene Period were the main periods when the sand dunes became stabilized, and the early and late phases of the Holocene Epoch and late phase of the Pleistocene Epoch were the main periods when the previously stabilized sand dunes became mobile. The late phase of the Pleistocene Epoch was the most mobile stage, when the aeolian sand activities formed the essential geomorphic pattern of the Badain Jaran Desert. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Rb/Sr record of catchment weathering response to Holocene climate change in Inner Mongolia

Zhangdong Jin
Abstract Variation in the rubidium to strontium (Rb/Sr) ratio of the loess,palaeosol sequences has been proposed to reflect the degree of pedogenesis and weathering in the northwestern region of China. To characterize the Rb/Sr ratio of the dissolved loads of a single catchment, we analysed a 12·08 m sediment core from Daihai Lake in Inner Mongolia, north China. Dating control was provided by 210Pb, 137Cs and AMS- 14C. Sequential extraction experiments were conducted to investigate the concentrations of Rb and Sr on various chemical fractions in the lake sediments. Down-core variation in the Rb/Sr ratios provides a record of Holocene weathering history. From 9 to 3·5 ka bp, accelerated chemical weathering was experienced throughout the Daihai catchment under mainly warm and humid conditions, and this reached a maximum at c. 5 ka bp. However, weathering was reduced between c. 8·25 and 7·90 ka bp, which may reflect the global 8·2 ka cooling event. After c. 2·5 ka bp, increased Rb/Sr ratios with higher frequency of fluctuations indicate reduced weathering within the Daihai catchment. The highest Rb/Sr ratios in the Little Ice Age lake sediments indicate the weakest phase of Holocene chemical weathering, resulting from a marked reduction in Sr flux into the basin. The Rb/Sr record also shows an enhancement of chemical weathering under today's climate, but its intensity is less than that of the Medieval Warm Period. Increased Rb/Sr in lake sediment corresponding to reduced catchment weathering is in striking contrast to Rb/Sr decrease in the glacial loess layers in the loess,palaeosol sequence. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stratigraphic and Morphologic Constraints on the Weichselian Glacial History of Northern Prins Karls Forland, Western Svalbard

Torbjörn Andersson
Uncertainty remains if ice,free marginal areas existed on the west coast of Svalbard during the Late Weichselian. Field mapping and correlation to well dated raised beach sequences on nearby Brøggerhalvøya reveal the existence of two generations of raised beach deposits on northern Prins Karls Forland. Distinct beach ridges rise up to the inferred Late Weichselian marine limit at 18 m a.s.l. Discontinuous pre,Late Weichselian beach deposits rise from the Late Weichselian marine limit up to approximately 60 m a.s.l. Expansion of local glaciers during the Late Weichselian is indicated by the limited distribution of a till that overlies parts of the older beach sequence. Stratigraphic data and chronological control indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment before 50 ka bp. Correlation to stratigraphic sites on western Svalbard suggests deposition at c. 70 ±10 ka. Glaciotectonic structures disclose expansion of local glaciers into the For,landsundet basin during stage 4 or late stage 5 high relative sea level. Palaeotemperature estimates derived from amino acid ratios indicate that during the time interval c. 70 to 10 ka the area was exposed to cold subaerial temperatures with low rates of racemization. Pedogenesis and frost,shattered clasts at the contact between c. 70 ka deposits and Holocene deposits further indicate a prolonged period of subaerial polar desert conditions during this time interval. The evidence suggests that the Barents Sea ice sheet did not extend across northern Prins Karls Forland during the Weichselian. It is inferred that during the Late Weichselian, ice was drained throughout the major fjords on the west coast of Svalbard and that relatively large marginal areas experienced polar desert conditions and minor expansions of local glaciers. [source]

Patterns and determinants of shorebird species richness in the circumpolar Arctic

Sara S. Henningsson
Abstract Aim, The intention with this study was first to investigate and describe the broad-scale geographical patterns of species richness of breeding shorebirds (Charadriiformes; families: Charadriidae, Scolopacidae and Haematopodidae) throughout the arctic tundra biome. Secondly, after compensating for the positive relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and species richness, the relative importance of additional ecological and historical variables for species richness was investigated. The main variables considered are NPP, length of snow- and ice-free season, accessibility of regions depending on migratory flyway systems, tundra area at Pleistocene (120 and 20,18 ka bp) and Holocene (8 ka bp) times, and tundra area at present. Methods, Information on shorebird species breeding distributions was compiled from distribution atlases and species accounts. The breeding distributions of shorebirds with ranges partly or completely in the Arctic (a total of 50 species) were mapped in ArcView 3.2 to create a raster grid layer of shorebird species richness at a 1° latitude × longitude resolution. The total and mean species richness value was calculated per each 10° of longitude sector of the Arctic. The relationships between species richness and the different climatic and environmental variables were analysed on the basis of this sector-wise division of the arctic tundra. The influence of each variable on species richness was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses (multivariate linear regression and general linear model). Results, We found that patterns of breeding shorebird species richness in the Arctic tundra biome are to a large degree determined by the NPP, the length of the snow- or ice-free season, the diversity of migratory flyways, as well as the historical extent of tundra habitat area during the maximum cooling of the last glacial period. Essentially, two main regions are distinguishable in the circumpolar Arctic regarding shorebird community richness. These are a species-rich Beringia-centred region and a species-poor Atlantic-centred region. Main conclusions, The underlying explanations to these major trends may primarily be attributed to factors that operate at present through accessibility of areas from contemporary migration flyways, as well as processes that operated in the past during and after the last glacial cycle. The most prominent influence on the shorebird diversity was found for NPP in combination with the diversity of migratory flyways. These flyways provide the links between breeding and wintering resources, often separated by huge distances, and the geographical and ecological conditions associated with the shorebirds' migration seem to be of particular importance for their breeding diversity in different sectors of circumpolar tundra. [source]


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2005
Solar variability and volcanic activity strongly interact with climate and the environment. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (micro-XRF) to an annually laminated Alpine stalagmite confirmed that annual laminae result from hydrological variability and changes in the duration of soil microbial degradation. The latter is modulated by solar variability. At the centennial timescale, growth rate and solar activity appear to be correlated with temperature change, with low temperatures at solar minima. By combining micro-XRF and absorption spectroscopy techniques (XANES), we also found that speleothems are a new archive of aerosol sulphate related to volcanic activity. Peaks in S-concentration from c. 5.2 to 5.0 ka bp in an Alpine stalagmite suggest that multiple volcanic sulphate aerosol emissions enhanced Mid-Holocene summer cooling, thus favouring the preservation of the Alpine Iceman mummy in a persistent ice casket. [source]