Kv4 Channels (kv4 + channel)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Light and electron microscopic analysis of KChIP and Kv4 localization in rat cerebellar granule cells

Brian W. Strassle
Abstract Potassium channels are key determinants of neuronal excitability. We recently identified KChIPs as a family of calcium binding proteins that coassociate and colocalize with Kv4 family potassium channels in mammalian brain (An et al. [2000] Nature 403:553). Here, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and multilabel immunofluorescence labeling, together with transmission electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, to examine the subcellular distribution of KChIPs and Kv4 channels in adult rat cerebellum. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed on 40-,m free-floating sections using a diaminobenzidine labeling procedure. Multilabel immunofluorescence staining was performed on free-floating sections and on 1-,m ultrathin cryosections. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed using an immunoperoxidase pre-embedding labeling procedure. By light microscopy, immunoperoxidase labeling showed that Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIPs 1, 3, and 4 (but not KChIP2) were expressed at high levels in cerebellar granule cells (GCs). Kv4.2 and KChIP1 were highly expressed in GCs in rostral cerebellum, whereas Kv4.3 was more highly expressed in GCs in caudal cerebellum. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that KChIP1 and Kv4.2 are concentrated in somata of cerebellar granule cells and in synaptic glomeruli that surround synaptophysin-positive mossy fiber axon terminals. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that KChIP1 and Kv4.2 immunoreactivity is concentrated along the plasma membrane of cerebellar granule cell somata and dendrites. In synaptic glomeruli, KChIP1 and Kv4.2 immunoreactivity is concentrated along the granule cell dendritic membrane, but is not concentrated at postsynaptic densities. Taken together, these data suggest that A-type potassium channels containing Kv4.2 and KChIP1, and perhaps also KChIP3 and 4, play a critical role in regulating postsynaptic excitability at the cerebellar mossy-fiber/granule cell synapse. J. Comp. Neurol. 484:144,155, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Regulation of Kv channel expression and neuronal excitability in rat medial nucleus of the trapezoid body maintained in organotypic culture

Huaxia Tong
Principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) express a spectrum of voltage-dependent K+ conductances mediated by Kv1,Kv4 channels, which shape action potential (AP) firing and regulate intrinsic excitability. Postsynaptic factors influencing expression of Kv channels were explored using organotypic cultures of brainstem prepared from P9,P12 rats and maintained in either low (5 mm, low-K) or high (25 mm, high-K) [K+]o medium. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were made after 7,28 days in vitro. MNTB neurons cultured in high-K medium maintained a single AP firing phenotype, while low-K cultures had smaller K+ currents, enhanced excitability and fired multiple APs. The calyx of Held inputs degenerated within 3 days in culture, having lost their major afferent input; this preparation of calyx-free MNTB neurons allowed the effects of postsynaptic depolarisation to be studied with minimal synaptic activity. The depolarization caused by the high-K aCSF only transiently increased spontaneous AP firing (<2 min) and did not measurably increase synaptic activity. Chronic depolarization in high-K cultures raised basal levels of [Ca2+]i, increased Kv3 currents and shortened AP half-widths. These events relied on raised [Ca2+]i, mediated by influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and release from intracellular stores, causing an increase in cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Block of VGCCs or of CREB function suppressed Kv3 currents, increased AP duration, and reduced Kv3.3 and c- fos expression. Real-time PCR revealed higher Kv3.3 and Kv1.1 mRNA in high-K compared to low-K cultures, although the increased Kv1.1 mRNA was mediated by a CREB-independent mechanism. We conclude that Kv channel expression and hence the intrinsic membrane properties of MNTB neurons are homeostatically regulated by [Ca2+]i -dependent mechanisms and influenced by sustained depolarization of the resting membrane potential. [source]

Contribution of Kv4 channels toward the A-type potassium current in murine colonic myocytes

Gregory C. Amberg
A rapidly inactivating K+ current (A-type current; IA) present in murine colonic myocytes is important in maintaining physiological patterns of slow wave electrical activity. The kinetic profile of colonic IA resembles that of Kv4-derived currents. We examined the contribution of Kv4 ,-subunits to IA in the murine colon using pharmacological, molecular and immunohistochemical approaches. The divalent cation Cd2+ decreased peak IA and shifted the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation to more depolarized potentials. Similar results were observed with La3+. Colonic IA was sensitive to low micromolar concentrations of flecainide (IC50= 11 ,M). Quantitative PCR indicated that in colonic and jejunal tissue, Kv4.3 transcripts demonstrate greater relative abundance than transcripts encoding Kv4.1 or Kv4.2. Antibodies revealed greater Kv4.3-like immunoreactivity than Kv4.2-like immunoreactivity in colonic myocytes. Kv4-like immunoreactivity was less evident in jejunal myocytes. To address this finding, we examined the expression of K+ channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs), which act as positive modulators of Kv4-mediated currents. Qualitative PCR identified transcripts encoding the four known members of the KChIP family in isolated colonic and jejunal myocytes. However, the relative abundance of KChIP transcript was 2.6-fold greater in colon tissue than in jejunum, as assessed by quantitative PCR, with KChIP1 showing predominance. This observation is in accordance with the amplitude of the A-type current present in these two tissues, where colonic myocytes possess densities twice that of jejunal myocytes. From this we conclude that Kv4.3, in association with KChIP1, is the major molecular determinant of IA in murine colonic myocytes. [source]

Characterization of the A-type potassium current in murine gastric antrum

Gregory C. Amberg
A-type currents are rapidly inactivating potassium currents that operate at subthreshold potentials. A-type currents have not been reported to occur in the phasic muscles of the stomach. We used conventional voltage-clamp techniques to identify and characterize A-type currents in myocytes isolated from the murine antrum. A-type currents were robust in these cells, with peak current densities averaging 30 pA pF,1 at 0 mV. These currents underwent rapid inactivation with a time constant of 83 ms at 0 mV. Recovery from inactivation at ,80 mV was rapid, with a time constant of 252 ms. The A-type current was blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and was inhibited by flecainide, with an IC50 of 35 ,M. The voltage for half-activation was ,26 mV, while the voltage of half-inactivation was ,65 mV. There was significant activation and incomplete inactivation at potentials positive to ,60 mV, which is suggestive of sustained current availability in this voltage range. Under current-clamp conditions, exposure to 4-AP or flecainide depolarized the membrane potential by 7-10 mV. In intact antral tissue preparations, flecainide depolarized the membrane potential between slow waves by 5 mV; changes in slow waves were not evident. The effect of flecainide was not abolished by inhibiting enteric neurotransmission or by blocking delayed rectifier and ATP-sensitive K+ currents. Transcripts encoding Kv4 channels were detected in isolated antral myocytes by RT-PCR. Immunocytochemistry revealed intense Kv4.2- and Kv4.3-like immunoreactivity in antral myocytes. These data suggest that the A-type current in murine antral smooth muscle cells is likely to be due to Kv4 channels. This current contributes to the maintenance of negative resting membrane potentials. [source]