Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by kV

  • kv channel
  • kv cm
  • kv voltage

  • Selected Abstracts

    Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of fractions from kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia Kola in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus rats

    O. A. Adaramoye
    In the search for natural hypoglycaemic agents as alternatives to synthetic ones that are expensive and not easily accessible, and to justify the use of Garcinia kola seeds in traditional African medicine to treat diabetes, the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of fractions from kolaviron (KV) (a Garcinia kola seed extract) were investigated in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. KV, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seed, was separated by thin-layer chromatography into three fractions; Fraction I (FI), Fraction II (FII) and Fraction III (FIII) with RF values of 0.48, 0.71 and 0.76, respectively. In normoglycaemic rats, KV, FI and FII administered at a dose of 100 mg kg,1 body weight elicited significant (P < 0.05) hypoglycaemic activity within 4 h of oral administration. Precisely, KV, FI and FII decreased blood glucose levels of normoglycaemic rats by 66%, 50% and 61%, respectively, when compared with controls 30 min after oral administration of the extracts. In hyperglycaemic rats, KV, FI and FII significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood sugar levels in STZ-diabetic rats within 4 h of oral administration. Furthermore, KV alone produced a significant (P < 0.05) anti-diabetic effect from day 3 to day 7 of oral intubation of STZ-diabetic rats. In addition, the extracts showed favourable effect on the plasma lipid profile of STZ-diabetic rats, and also decreased significantly (P < 0.05) the STZ-induced increase in the activity of microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products. This study confirms the anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidaemic effects of KV in STZ-diabetic rats. These observed effects of KV are attributed to two of its fractions, FI and FII, with RF values of 0.48 and 0.71, respectively. [source]

    New Expression Profiles of Voltage-gated Ion Channels in Arteries Exposed to High Blood Pressure

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 4 2002
    Robert H. Cox
    The diameters of small arteries and arterioles are tightly regulated by the dynamic interaction between Ca2+ and K+ channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Calcium influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels induces vasoconstriction, whereas the opening of K+ channels mediates hyperpolarization, inactivation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and vasodilation. Three types of voltage-sensitive ion channels have been highly implicated in the regulation of resting vascular tone. These include the L-type Ca2+ (CaL) channels, voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, and high-conductance voltage- and Ca2+ -sensitive K+ (BKCa) channels. Recently, abnormal expression profiles of these ion channels have been identified as part of the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and other vasospastic diseases. An increasing number of studies suggest that high blood pressure may trigger cellular signaling cascades that dynamically alter the expression profile of arterial ion channels to further modify vascular tone. This article will briefly review the properties of CaL, KV, and BKCa channels, present evidence that their expression profile is altered during systemic hypertension, and suggest potential mechanisms by which the signal of elevated blood pressure may result in altered ion channel expression. A final section will discuss emerging concepts and opportunities for the development of new vasoactive drugs, which may rely on targeting disease-specific changes in ion channel expression as a mechanism to lower vascular tone during hypertensive diseases. [source]

    Electrophysiological effects of endothelin-1 and their relationship to contraction in rat renal arterial smooth muscle

    Luisa C Betts
    The electophysiological effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and their relationship to contraction remain unclear in the renal circulation. Using endotheliumdenuded arteries from the main branch of the renal artery proximal to the kidney of the rat, we have examined its effects on tension and conducted parallel patch-clamp measurements using freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from this tissue. Pharmacological experiments revealed that ET-1 produced constriction of renal arteries dependent on the influx of extracellular Ca2+, mediated solely through ETA receptor stimulation. Current-clamp experiments revealed that renal arterial myocytes had a resting membrane potential of ,32 mV, with the majority of cells exhibiting spontaneous transient hyperpolarizations (STHPs). Application of ET-1 produced depolarization and in those cells exhibiting STHPs, either caused their inhibition or made them occur regularly. Under voltage-clamp conditions cells were observed to exhibit spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) inhibited by iberiotoxin. Application of voltage-ramps revealed an outward current activated at ,,30 mV, sensitive to both 4-AP and TEA. Taken together these results suggest that renal arterial myocytes possess both delayed rectifying K+ (KV) and Ca2+ -activated K+ (BKCa) channels. Under voltage-clamp, ET-1 attenuated the outward current and reduced the magnitude and incidence of STOCs: effects mediated solely as a consequence of ETA receptor stimulation. Thus, in conclusion, activation of ETA receptors by ET-1 causes inhibition of KV and BKCa channel activity, which could promote and/or maintain membrane depolarization. This effect is likely to favour L-type Ca2+ channel activity providing an influx pathway for extracellular Ca2+ essential for contraction. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 130, 787,796; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703377 [source]

    Potassium-transporting proteins in skeletal muscle: cellular location and fibre-type differences

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    M. Kristensen
    Abstract Potassium (K+) displacement in skeletal muscle may be an important factor in the development of muscle fatigue during intense exercise. It has been shown in vitro that an increase in the extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]e) to values higher than approx. 10 mm significantly reduce force development in unfatigued skeletal muscle. Several in vivo studies have shown that [K+]e increases progressively with increasing work intensity, reaching values higher than 10 mm. This increase in [K+]e is expected to be even higher in the transverse (T)-tubules than the concentration reached in the interstitium. Besides the voltage-sensitive K+ (Kv) channels that generate the action potential (AP) it is suggested that the big-conductance Ca2+ -dependent K+ (KCa1.1) channel contributes significantly to the K+ release into the T-tubules. Also the ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channel participates, but is suggested primarily to participate in K+ release to the interstitium. Because there is restricted diffusion of K+ to the interstitium, K+ released to the T-tubules during AP propagation will be removed primarily by reuptake mediated by transport proteins located in the T-tubule membrane. The most important protein that mediates K+ reuptake in the T-tubules is the Na+,K+ -ATPase ,2 dimers, but a significant contribution of the strong inward rectifier K+ (Kir2.1) channel is also suggested. The Na+, K+, 2Cl, 1 (NKCC1) cotransporter also participates in K+ reuptake but probably mainly from the interstitium. The relative content of the different K+ -transporting proteins differs in oxidative and glycolytic muscles, and might explain the different [K+]e tolerance observed. [source]

    Episodic ataxia type 1 mutations in the KCNA1 gene impair the fast inactivation properties of the human potassium channels Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.1 and Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.2

    Paola Imbrici
    Abstract Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by constant muscle rippling movements (myokymia) and episodic attacks of ataxia. Several heterozygous point mutations have been found in the coding sequence of the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNA1 (hKv1.1), which alter the delayed-rectifier function of the channel. Shaker -like channels of different cell types may be formed by unique hetero-oligomeric complexes comprising Kv1.1, Kv1.4 and Kv,1.x subunits. Here we show that the human Kv,1.1 and Kv,1.2 subunits modulated the functional properties of tandemly linked Kv1.4-1.1 wild-type channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by (i) increasing the rate and amount of N-type inactivation, (ii) slowing the recovery rate from inactivation, (iii) accelerating the cumulative inactivation of the channel and (iv) negatively shifting the voltage dependence of inactivation. To date, the role of the human Kv1.4-1.1, Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.1 and Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.2 channels in the aetiopathogenesis of EA1 has not been investigated. Here we also show that the EA1 mutations E325D, V404I and V408A, which line the ion-conducting pore, and I177N, which resides within the S1 segment, alter the fast inactivation and repriming properties of the channels by decreasing both the rate and degree of N-type inactivation and by accelerating the recovery from fast inactivation. Furthermore, the E325D, V404I and I177N mutations shifted the voltage dependence of the steady-state inactivation to more positive potentials. The results demonstrate that the human Kv,1.1 and Kv,1.2 subunits regulate the proportion of wild-type Kv1.4-1.1 channels that are available to open. Furthermore, EA1 mutations alter heteromeric channel availability which probably modifies the integration properties and firing patterns of neurones controlling cognitive processes and body movements. [source]

    Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals

    Ruth E. Brooke
    Abstract Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05,0.5 mm), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25,150 nm) and Penitrem A (100 nm), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-µm 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05,1 µm. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ. [source]

    Enhancement of neuronal outward delayed rectifier K+ current by human monocyte-derived macrophages

    GLIA, Issue 14 2009
    Dehui Hu
    Abstract Macrophages are critical cells in mediating the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders and enhancement of neuronal outward potassium (K+) current has implicated in neuronal apoptosis. To understand how activated macrophages induce neuronal dysfunction and injury, we studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes-derived macrophage (MDM) on neuronal outward delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) and resultant change on neuronal viability in primary rat hippocampal neuronal culture. Bath application of LPS-stimulated MDM-conditioned media (MCM) enhanced neuronal IK in a concentration-dependentmanner, whereas non-stimulated MCM failed to alter neuronal IK. The enhancement of neuronal IK was repeated in a macrophage-neuronal co-culture system. The link of stimulated MCM (MCM(+))-associated enhancement of IK to MCM(+)-induced neuronal injury, as detected by PI/DAPI (propidium iodide/4,,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining and MTT assay, was demonstrated by experimental results showing that addition of IK blocker tetraethylammonium to the culture protected hippocampal neurons from MCM(+)-associated challenge. Further investigation revealed elevated levels of Kv 1.3 and Kv 1.5 channel expression in hippocampal neurons after addition of MCM(+) to the culture. These results suggest that during brain inflammation macrophages, through their capacity of releasing bioactive molecules, induce neuronal injury by enhancing neuronal IK and that modulation of Kv channels is a new approach to neuroprotection. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Recharge Through a Regional Till Aquitard: Three-Dimensional Flow Model Water Balance Approach

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2000
    Richard E. Gerber
    In southern Ontario, vertical leakage through a regionally extensive till is the primary source of recharge to underlying aquifers used for domestic and municipal water supply. Since leakage is largely controlled by the bulk hydraulic conductivity (K) of the aquitard, accurate estimates of K are necessary to quantify the resource. Considerable controversy exists regarding estimates of K for this aquitard, which vary according to the scale of the test method. For the till matrix, estimates from core samples and slug tests consistently range from 10,11 to 10,10 m/s. Isotopic evidence (3H), on the other hand, indicates that nonmatrix structures such as sand lenses, erosional surfaces, joints, and fractures significantly enhance till permeability. This is confirmed by slug test, pump test, recharge, and water balance studies, which show that K varies over seven orders of magnitude (10,12 to 10,5 m/s). To provide a regional estimate of bulk K and a reliable estimate of vertical recharge through the Northern Till, a numerical ground water flow model was constructed for the Duffins and Petticoat Creek drainage hasin. The model was calibrated to measurements of hydraulic head and estimates and measurements of base flow throughout the basin. This model demonstrates that the vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) for the Northern Till ranges from 5 × 10,10 to 5 × 10,9 m/s, values that are up to 2.5 orders of magnitude greater than matrix K estimates. Regional recharge through the Northern Till is estimated to range from 30 to 35 mm/a. [source]

    Multiple Kv1.5 targeting to membrane surface microdomains,

    Ramón Martínez-Mármol
    Surface expression of voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv) has a pivotal role in leukocyte physiology. Although little is known about the physiological role of lipid rafts, these microdomains concentrate signaling molecules and their ion channel substrates. Kv1.3 associates with Kv1.5 to form functional channels in macrophages. Different isoform stoichiometries lead to distinct heteromeric channels which may be further modulated by targeting the complex to different membrane surface microdomains. Kv1.3 targets to lipid rafts, whereas Kv1.5 localization is under debate. With this in mind, we wanted to study whether heterotetrameric Kv1.5-containing channels target to lipid rafts. While in transfected HEK-293 cells, homo- and heterotetrameric channels targeted to rafts, Kv1.5 did not target to rafts in macrophages. Therefore, Kv1.3/Kv1.5 hybrid channels are mostly concentrated in non-raft microdomains. However, LPS-induced activation, which increases the Kv1.3/Kv1.5 ratio and caveolin, targeted Kv1.5 back to lipid rafts. Moreover, Kv1.5 did not localize to low-buoyancy fractions in L6E9 skeletal myoblasts, which also coexpress both channels, heart membranes or cardiomyocyes. Coexpression of a Cav3DGV -mutant confined Kv1.5 to Cav3DGV -vesicles of HEK cells. Contrarily, coexpression of Kv,2.1 impaired the Kv1.5 targeting to raft microdomains in HEK cells. Our results indicate that Kv1.5 partnership interactions are underlying mechanisms governing channel targeting to lipid rafts. J. Cell. Physiol. 217: 667,673, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differential distribution of voltage-gated potassium channels Kv 1.1,Kv1.6 in the rat retina during development

    M. Höltje
    Abstract The discharge behavior of neurons depends on a variable expression and sorting pattern of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels that changes during development. The rodent retina represents a neuronal network whose main functions develop after birth. To obtain information about neuronal maturation we analyzed the expression of subunits of the Kv1 subfamily in the rat retina during postnatal development using immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. At postnatal day 5 (P5) all the ,-subunits of Kv1.1,Kv1.6 channels were found to be expressed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), most of them already at P1 or P3. Their expression upregulates postnatally and the pattern and distribution change in an isoform-specific manner. Additionally Kv1 channels are found in the outer and inner plexiform layer (OPL, IPL) and in the inner nuclear layer (INL) at different postnatal stages. In adult retina the Kv 1.3 channel localizes to the inner and outer segments of cones. In contrast, Kv1.4 is highly expressed in the outer retina at P8. In adult retina Kv1.4 occurs in rod inner segments (RIS) near the connecting cilium where it colocalizes with synapse associated protein SAP 97. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy we showed a differential localization of Kv1.1-1.6 to cholinergic amacrine and rod bipolar cells of the INL of the adult retina. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Solubilization of hydrophobic drugs by methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polycaprolactone diblock copolymer micelles: Theoretical and experimental data and correlations

    Kevin Letchford
    Abstract The solubilization of five model hydrophobic drugs by a series of micelle-forming, water-soluble methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polycaprolactone diblock copolymers (MePEG-b-PCL) with varying methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MePEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL) block lengths was investigated. Variation of the feed weight ratio of MePEG to caprolactone resulted in the synthesis of copolymers with predictable block lengths. The micelle diameter and pyrene partition coefficient (Kv) were directly related to the PCL block length whereas the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were inversely related to the PCL block length. The aqueous solubilities of the model hydrophobic drugs, indomethacin, curcumin, plumbagin, paclitaxel, and etoposide were increased by encapsulation within the micelles. Drug solubilization was directly related to the compatibility between the solubilizate and PCL as determined by the Flory,Huggins interaction parameter (,sp). Furthermore, the concentration of solubilized drug was also directly related to the PCL block length. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 97:1179,1190, 2008 [source]

    Comparison of micelles formed by amphiphilic star block copolymers prepared in the presence of a nonmetallic monomer activator

    Hoon Hyun
    Abstract In this article, we describe the synthesis of PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ester monomers initiated at the hydroxyl end group of the core poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) using HCl Et2O as a monomer activator. The ROP of ,-caprolactone (CL), trimethylene carbonate (TMC), or 1,4-dioxan-2-one (DO) was performed to synthesize PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers with one, two, four, and eight arms. The PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers were obtained in quantitative yield, had molecular weights close to the theoretical values calculated from the molar ratio of ester monomers to PEG, and exhibited monomodal GPC curves. The crystallinity of the PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers was determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Copolymers with a higher arm number had a higher tendency toward crystallization. The crystallinity of the PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers also depended on the nature of the polyester block. The CMCs of the PEG- b -PCL star block copolymers, determined from fluorescence measurements, increased with increasing arm number. The CMCs of the four-arm star block copolymers with different polyester segments increased in the order 4a-PEG- b -PCL < 4a-PEG- b -PDO < 4a-PEG- b -PLGA < 4a-PEG- b -PTMC, suggesting a relationship between CMC and star block copolymer crystallinity. The partition equilibrium constant, Kv, which is an indicator of the hydrophobicity of the micelles of the PEG-polyester star block copolymers in aqueous media, increased with decreasing arm number and increasing crystallinity. A key aspect of the present work is that we successfully prepared PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers by a metal-free method. Thus, unlike copolymers synthesized by ROP using a metal as the monomer activator, our copolymers do not contain traces of metals and hence are more suitable for biomedical applications. Moreover, we confirmed that the PEG- b -polyester star block copolymers form micelles and hence may be potential hydrophobic drug delivery vehicles. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 2084,2096, 2008 [source]

    The Role of K+ Channels in Determining Pulmonary Vascular Tone, Oxygen Sensing, Cell Proliferation, and Apoptosis: Implications in Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 8 2006
    ABSTRACT Potassium channels are tetrameric, membrane-spanning proteins that selectively conduct K+ at near diffusion-limited rates. Their remarkable ionic selectivity results from a highly-conserved K+ recognition sequence in the pore. The classical function of K+ channels is regulation of membrane potential (EM) and thence vascular tone. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), tonic K+ egress, driven by a 145/5 mM intracellular/extracellular concentration gradient, contributes to a EM of about ,60 mV. It has been recently discovered that K+ channels also participate in vascular remodeling by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. PASMC express voltage-gated (Kv), inward rectifier (Kir), calcium-sensitive (KCa), and two-pore (K2P) channels. Certain K+ channels are subject to rapid redox regulation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from the PASMC's oxygen-sensor (mitochondria and/or NADPH oxidase). Acute hypoxic inhibition of ROS production inhibits Kv1.5, which depolarizes EM, opens voltage-sensitive, L-type calcium channels, elevates cytosolic calcium, and initiates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Hypoxia-inhibited K+ currents are not seen in systemic arterial SMCs. Kv expression is also transcriptionally regulated by HIF-1, and NFAT. Loss of PASMC Kv1.5 and Kv2.1 contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by causing a sustained depolarization, which increases intracellular calcium and K+, thereby stimulating cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis, respectively. Restoring Kv expression (via Kv1.5 gene therapy, dichloroacetate, or anti-survivin therapy) reduces experimental PAH. Electrophysiological diversity exists within the pulmonary circulation. Resistance PASMC have a homogeneous Kv current (including an oxygen-sensitive component), whereas conduit PASMC current is a Kv/KCa mosaic. This reflects regional differences in expression of channel isoforms, heterotetramers, splice variants, and regulatory subunits as well as mitochondrial diversity. In conclusion, K+ channels regulate pulmonary vascular tone and remodeling and constitute potential therapeutic targets in the regression of PAH. [source]

    AtKC1, a conditionally targeted Shaker-type subunit, regulates the activity of plant K+ channels

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Geoffrey Duby
    Summary Amongst the nine voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) subunits expressed in Arabidopsis, AtKC1 does not seem to form functional Kv channels on its own, and is therefore said to be silent. It has been proposed to be a regulatory subunit, and to significantly influence the functional properties of heteromeric channels in which it participates, along with other Kv channel subunits. The mechanisms underlying these properties of AtKC1 remain unknown. Here, the transient (co-)expression of AtKC1, AKT1 and/or KAT1 genes was obtained in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, which lack endogenous inward Kv channel activity. Our experimental conditions allowed both localization of expressed polypeptides (GFP-tagging) and recording of heterologously expressed Kv channel activity (untagged polypeptides). It is shown that AtKC1 remains in the endoplasmic reticulum unless it is co-expressed with AKT1. In these conditions heteromeric AtKC1-AKT1 channels are obtained, and display functional properties different from those of homomeric AKT1 channels in the same context. In particular, the activation threshold voltage of the former channels is more negative than that of the latter ones. Also, it is proposed that AtKC1-AKT1 heterodimers are preferred to AKT1-AKT1 homodimers during the process of tetramer assembly. Similar results are obtained upon co-expression of AtKC1 with KAT1. The whole set of data provides evidence that AtKC1 is a conditionally-targeted Kv subunit, which probably downregulates the physiological activity of other Kv channel subunits in Arabidopsis. [source]

    Inhalational anaesthetics and n -alcohols share a site of action in the neuronal Shaw2 Kv channel

    Aditya Bhattacharji
    Background and purpose:, Neuronal ion channels are key targets of general anaesthetics and alcohol, and binding of these drugs to pre-existing and relatively specific sites is thought to alter channel gating. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this action are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neuronal Shaw2 voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel to ask whether the inhalational anaesthetic halothane and n -alcohols share a binding site near the activation gate of the channel. Experimental approach:, Focusing on activation gate mutations that affect channel modulation by n -alcohols, we investigated n -alcohol-sensitive and n -alcohol-resistant Kv channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes to probe the functional modulation by externally applied halothane using two-electrode voltage clamping and a gas-tight perfusion system. Key results:, Shaw2 Kv channels are reversibly inhibited by halothane in a dose-dependent and saturable manner (K0.5= 400 µM; nH= 1.2). Also, discrete mutations in the channel's S4S5 linker are sufficient to reduce or confer inhibition by halothane (Shaw2-T330L and Kv3.4-G371I/T378A respectively). Furthermore, a point mutation in the S6 segment of Shaw2 (P410A) converted the halothane-induced inhibition into halothane-induced potentiation. Lastly, the inhibition resulting from the co-application of n -butanol and halothane is consistent with the presence of overlapping binding sites for these drugs and weak binding cooperativity. Conclusions and implications:, These observations strongly support a molecular model of a general anaesthetic binding site in the Shaw2 Kv channel. This site may involve the amphiphilic interface between the S4S5 linker and the S6 segment, which plays a pivotal role in Kv channel activation. [source]

    Episodic ataxia type 1 mutations in the KCNA1 gene impair the fast inactivation properties of the human potassium channels Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.1 and Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.2

    Paola Imbrici
    Abstract Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by constant muscle rippling movements (myokymia) and episodic attacks of ataxia. Several heterozygous point mutations have been found in the coding sequence of the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNA1 (hKv1.1), which alter the delayed-rectifier function of the channel. Shaker -like channels of different cell types may be formed by unique hetero-oligomeric complexes comprising Kv1.1, Kv1.4 and Kv,1.x subunits. Here we show that the human Kv,1.1 and Kv,1.2 subunits modulated the functional properties of tandemly linked Kv1.4-1.1 wild-type channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by (i) increasing the rate and amount of N-type inactivation, (ii) slowing the recovery rate from inactivation, (iii) accelerating the cumulative inactivation of the channel and (iv) negatively shifting the voltage dependence of inactivation. To date, the role of the human Kv1.4-1.1, Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.1 and Kv1.4-1.1/Kv,1.2 channels in the aetiopathogenesis of EA1 has not been investigated. Here we also show that the EA1 mutations E325D, V404I and V408A, which line the ion-conducting pore, and I177N, which resides within the S1 segment, alter the fast inactivation and repriming properties of the channels by decreasing both the rate and degree of N-type inactivation and by accelerating the recovery from fast inactivation. Furthermore, the E325D, V404I and I177N mutations shifted the voltage dependence of the steady-state inactivation to more positive potentials. The results demonstrate that the human Kv,1.1 and Kv,1.2 subunits regulate the proportion of wild-type Kv1.4-1.1 channels that are available to open. Furthermore, EA1 mutations alter heteromeric channel availability which probably modifies the integration properties and firing patterns of neurones controlling cognitive processes and body movements. [source]

    Influence of Decreasing Solvent Polarity (1,4-Dioxane/Water Mixtures) on the Acid,Base and Copper(II)-Binding Properties of Guanosine 5,-Diphosphate,

    The acidity constants of twofold protonated guanosine 5,-diphosphate, H2(GDP),, and the stability constants of the [Cu(H;GDP)] and [Cu(GDP)], complexes were determined in H2O as well as in 30 or 50% (v/v) 1,4-dioxane/H2O by potentiometric pH titrations (25°; I=0.1M, NaNO3). The results showed that in H2O one of the two protons of H2(GDP), is located mainly at the N(7) site and the other one at the terminal , -phosphate group. In contrast, for 50% 1,4-dioxane/H2O solutions, a micro acidity-constant evaluation evidenced that ca. 75% of the H2(GDP), species have both protons phosphate-bound, because the basicity of pyridine-type N sites decreases with decreasing solvent polarity whereas the one of phosphate groups increases. In the [Cu(H;GDP)] complex, the proton and the metal ion are in all three solvents overwhelmingly phosphate-bound, and the release of this proton is inhibited by decreasing polarity of the solvent. Based on previously determined straight-line plots of log,Kvs. pK (where R represents a non-interacting residue in simple diphosphate monoesters ROP(O,)(O)OP(O)(O,)2, RDP3,), which were now extended to mixed solvents (based on analogies), it is concluded that, in all three solvents, the [Cu(GDP)], complex is more stable than expected based on the basicity of the diphosphate residue. This increased stability is attributed to macrochelate formation of the phosphate-coordinated Cu2+ with N(7) of the guanine residue. The formation degree of this macrochelate amounts in aqueous solution to ca. 75% (being thus higher than that of the Cu2+ complex of adenosine 5,-diphosphate) and in 50% (v/v) 1,4-dioxane/H2O to ca. 60%, i.e., the formation degree of the macrochelate is only relatively little affected by the change in solvent, though it needs to be emphasized that the overall stability of the [Cu(GDP)], complex increases with decreasing solvent polarity. By including previously studied systems in the considerations, the biological implications are shortly discussed, and it is concluded that Nature has here a tool to alter the structure of complexes by shifting them on a protein surface from a polar to an apolar region and vice versa. [source]

    Effects in B,doped KDP crystals irradiated with neutrons of large spectra energy

    G. Fischfeld
    Abstract The results obtained for the r63 electro-optic coefficient of B-doped and undoped KDP (KH2PO4) crystals irradiated with neutrons (including thermalized neutrons) produced by scattering of 30 Mev cyclotron protons on a target of Ta201, are presented and compared to those obtained for non-irradiated doped and undoped crystals. The B-doped (H3BO3, Na2B4O7 and Li2B4O7) crystals were obtained by the conventional growth method by temperature decrease with 1 wt % dopant concentration in solution. The thermal neutron flux was around , = 1. 1010 n/cm2 s. Pulses of ,15 ,s long, in damped oscillatory mode (V= 8 kV, ,=1.95 ,s) were used for the electro-optic measurements. A Pockels cell, a photomultiplier, a He-Ne laser (,=632.8 nm, 5 mW, linearly polarized) and a Tk 720 A oscilloscope complete the experimental setup. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Dual CD system-modified MEEKC method for the determination of clemastine and its impurities

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2010
    Serena Orlandini
    Abstract A dual system of CDs was used for the first time in MEEKC with the aim of determining clemastine and its three main related impurities in both drug substances and tablets. The addition of methyl-,-cyclodextrin and heptakis(2,6-di- O -methyl)-,-cyclodextrin to the microemulsion pseudo-stationary phase was essential to increase the resolving power of the system to obtain a baseline separation among the compounds. The best microemulsion composition was identified by mixture design and the effects of the factors concentrations of CDs and voltage were investigated by a response surface study applying a Central Composite Design. In both cases, Derringer's desirability function made it possible to find the global optimum, which corresponded to the following combination: microemulsion, 89.8% 10,mM borate buffer pH 9.2, 1.5% n -heptane and 8.7% of SDS/n -butanol in 1:2 ratio; 18,mM methyl-,-cyclodextrin, 38,mM heptakis(2,6-di- O -methyl)-,-cyclodextrin, 17,kV. By applying these conditions, the separation was completed in about 5.5,min. The method was validated following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines and was applied to a real sample of clemastine tablets. [source]

    Simultaneous determination of nine endogenous steroids in human urine by polymeric-mixed micelle capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2010
    Sabrina Flor
    Abstract A new CE system based on the use of polymeric-mixed micelles (cholic acid, SDS and the poloxamine Tetronic® 1107) was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine steroids in human urine. This method allows the baseline separation and quantitation of cortisol, androstenedione, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone, progesterone and estradiol in less than 25,min showing to be sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of these steroids in urine samples (5,45,ng/mL). The optimized electrophoretic conditions were performed using a 50,cm×75,,m capillary, 18,kV, 25°C, with 44,mM cholic acid, 10,mM SDS, 0.05%,w/v tetronic® 1107, 2.5%,v/v methanol, 2.5%,v/v tetrahydrofuran in 5,mM borate , 5,mM phosphate buffer (pH=8.0) as a background electrolyte and a dual 210/254 UV-detection. The method can simultaneously determine 0.1,120,,g/mL, which corresponds to 5,6000,ng/mL of steroids in 2,mL urine. The recoveries ranged between 82.4 and 101.5%. Due to its simplicity, speed, accuracy and reliability, the proposed method could be a potential alternative to the traditional methodologies used with clinical purposes. [source]

    Simultaneous determination of memantine and amantadine in human plasma as fluorescein derivatives by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection and its clinical application

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 11 2010
    Hsin-Hua Yeh
    Abstract A nonionic surfactant MEKC method with LIF detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of memantine, an anti-Alzheimer's disease agent, and amantadine, an anti-Parkinson's disease drug, in human plasma. Before analysis, the plasma samples were pretreated by liquid,liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, and derivatized with 6-carboxyfluorescein N -hydroxysuccinimide ester. The chemical derivatization is performed with 6-carboxyfluorescein N -hydroxysuccinimide ester in ACN , 5,mM pH 9.0 borate buffer (40:60, v/v) at 35°C for 3,h. After the derivatization reaction, hydrodynamic injection (0.5,psi, 8,s) was used to introduce the derivatized solution, and the separation was performed in borate buffer (30,mM, pH 9.5) with the nonionic surfactant Brij-35® (0.07%, w/v); the separation voltage was 6,kV. The linear ranges of the method for the determination of memantine and amantadine in human plasma were over a range of 2.0,60.0,ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.5,ng/mL (S/N=3). This method was applied successfully to monitor the concentration of memantine or amantadine in patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. [source]

    CE assay for simultaneous determination of charged and neutral impurities in dexamphetamine sulfate using a dual CD system

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 9 2010
    Sudaporn Wongwan
    Abstract A CE assay for the simultaneous determination of charged and uncharged potential impurities (1S,2S -(+)-norpseudoephedrine, 1R,2S -(,)-norephedrine, phenylacetone and phenylacetone oxime) of dexamphetamine sulfate including the stereoisomer levoamphetamine was developed and validated. The optimized background electrolyte consisted of a 50,mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3.0, containing 80,mg/mL sulfobutylether-,-CD and 25,mg/mL sulfated ,-CD. Separations were performed in 40.2/35,cm, 50 ,m id fused-silica capillaries at a temperature of 20°C and an applied voltage of ,10,kV. 1R,2S -(,)-ephedrine was used as internal standard. The assay was validated in the range of 0.05,1.0% for the related substances and in the range of 0.05,5.0% for levoamphetamine. The LOD was 0.01,0.02% depending on the analyte. The assay also allowed the separation of the E,Z-stereoisomers of phenylacetone oxime. The effect of the degree of substitution of sulfobutylether-,-CD was investigated. In commercial samples of dexamphetamine sulfate between 3.2 and 3.7% of levoamphetamine were found. Furthermore, phenylacetone and phenylacetone oxime could be observed at the LOD, indicating the synthetic origin of the investigated samples. [source]

    CEC-ESI ion trap MS of multiple drugs of abuse

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7 2010
    Zeineb Aturki
    Abstract This article describes a method for the separation and determination of nine drugs of abuse in human urine, including amphetamines, cocaine, codeine, heroin and morphine. This method was based on SPE on a strong cation exchange cartridge followed by CEC-MS. The CEC experiments were performed in fused silica capillaries (100,,m×30,cm) packed with a 3,,m cyano derivatized silica stationary phase. A laboratory-made liquid junction interface was used for CEC-MS coupling. The outlet capillary column was connected with an emitter tip that was positioned in front of the MS orifice. A stable electrospray was produced at nanoliter per minute flow rates applying a hydrostatic pressure (few kPa) to the interface. The coupling of packed CEC columns with mass spectrometer as detector, using a liquid junction interface, provided several advantages such as better sensitivity, low dead volume and independent control of the conditions used for CEC separation and ESI analysis. For this purpose, preliminary experiments were carried out in CEC-UV to optimize the proper mobile phase for CEC analysis. Good separation efficiency was achieved for almost all compounds, using a mixture containing ACN and 25,mM ammonium formate buffer at pH 3 (30:70, v/v), as mobile phase and applying a voltage of 12,kV. ESI ion-trap MS detection was performed in the positive ionization mode. A spray liquid, composed by methanol,water (80:20, v/v) and 1% formic acid, was delivered at a nano-flow rate of ,200,nL/min. Under optimized CEC-ESI-MS conditions, separation of the investigated drugs was performed within 13,min. CEC-MS and CEC-MS2 spectra were obtained by providing the unambiguous confirmation of these drugs in urine samples. Method precision was determined with RSDs values ,3.3% for retention times and ,16.3% for peak areas in both intra-day and day-to-day experiments. LODs were established between 0.78 and 3.12,ng/mL for all compounds. Linearity was satisfactory in the concentration range of interest for all compounds (r2,0.995). The developed CEC-MS method was then applied to the analysis of drugs of abuse in spiked urine samples, obtaining recovery data in the range 80,95%. [source]

    MCE enzyme immunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein using electrochemical detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2009
    Shusheng Zhang
    Abstract An MCE electrochemical enzyme immunoassay protocol for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was reported. Two antigens (Ag), CEA and AFP, were incubated simultaneously with an excess amount of horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (Ab*). The free Ab* and the Ab*,Ag complex produced in the solution were first separated through a postcolumn reaction and then traced by the enzyme substrate o -aminophenol. The 3-aminophenoxazine produced in enzyme reaction was detected with downstream amperometric detection. The separations were performed at a separation voltage of +1.4,kV and were completed in less than 60,s. The better analytical performance and distinct miniaturization/portability for MCE at less assay time and sample volume consumption was achieved. The detection limit of CEA and AFP was calculated to be 0.25 and 0.13,ng/mL, respectively. Therefore, MCE could be used as a sensitive and new tool in separation science and offered considerable promise in biological sample analysis or quick clinical diagnosis. [source]

    Determination of thyreostatics in animal feeds by CE with electrochemical detector

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2009
    Dexian Kong
    Abstract A simple, rapid, reproducible and sensitive method based on CE with electrochemical detector was developed for the simultaneous determination of five thyreostatics including 2-thiouracil (TU), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU), 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), 6-phenyl-2-thiouracil (PhTU) and methimazole (TAP) in animal feeds. A home-made wall-jet electrochemical detector with a 300,,m diameter platinum-disk-working electrode was equipped at the end of separation capillary and used to detect oxidation currents of these thyreostatics. Under the optimum experimental conditions, TU, MTU, PTU, PhTU and TAP could be well separated within 15,min at the separation voltage of 16,kV in 20,mmol/L sodium borate buffer (pH 9.2). The detection limits (S/N=3) of the five thyreostatics in animal feeds were found to be 7.6,,g/kg for TAP, 25,,g/kg for PTU, 15,,g/kg for PhTU, 18,,g/kg for TU and 20,,g/kg for MTU by the developed CE with electrochemical detector method coupled with solid-phase extraction sample pretreatment technique. [source]

    Fast derivatization of the non-protein amino acid ornithine with FITC using an ultrasound probe prior to enantiomeric determination in food supplements by EKC

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2009
    Elena Domínguez-Vega
    Abstract An EKC method for the determination of ornithine (Orn) enantiomers has been developed after a fast pre-capillary derivatization with FITC. The derivatization step was needed to provide a chemical moiety to the Orn molecule, enabling a sensitive UV detection and the interaction with the CDs used as chiral selectors. To accelerate the derivatization reaction, an ultrasound probe was used. For the development of the chiral method, the influence of different experimental conditions (type and concentration of the chiral selector, temperature, and separation voltage) was investigated. Due to the anionic nature of the analyte (FITC-Orn), five neutral CDs were employed as chiral selectors. The native ,-CD showed the highest chiral separation power, observing that a low concentration of this CD (1,mM), using a working temperature of 25°C and a separation voltage of 20,kV, enabled to obtain the highest enantioresolution for Orn and its separation from other amino acids usually present in food supplements. After optimizing the method for the preconditioning of the capillary, the analytical characteristics of the chiral method were established. Linearity, LOD and LOQ, precision, and accuracy were evaluated previously to the determination of Orn enantiomers contained in ten commercial food supplements. No interferences from other amino acids present in these samples were observed. [source]

    Two variable semi-empirical and artificial neural-network-based modeling of peptide mobilities in CZE: The effect of temperature and organic modifier concentration

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 5 2009
    Stefan Mittermayr
    Abstract This work was focused on investigating the effects of two separation influencing parameters in CZE, namely temperature and organic additive concentration upon the electrophoretic migration properties of model tripeptides. Two variable semi-empirical (TVSE) models and back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to predict the electrophoretic mobilities of the tripeptides with non-polar, polar, positively charged, negatively charged and aromatic R group characteristics. Previously published work on the subject did not account for the effect of temperature and buffer organic modifier concentration on peptide mobility, in spite of the fact that both were considered to be influential factors in peptide analysis. In this work, a substantial data set was generated consisting of actual electrophoretic mobilities of the model tripeptides in 30,mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C and at four different organic additive containing running buffers (0, 5, 10 and 15% MeOH) applying two electric field strengths (12 and 16,kV) to assess our mobility predicting models. Based on the Arrhenius plots of natural logarithm of mobility versus reciprocal absolute temperature of the various experimental setups, the corresponding activation energy values were derived and evaluated. Calculated mobilities by TVSE and back-propagation ANN models were compared with each other and to the experimental data, respectively. Neural network approaches were able to model the complex impact of both temperature and organic additive concentrations and resulted in considerably higher predictive power over the TVSE models, justifying that the effect of these two factors should not be neglected. [source]

    Investigating DNA migration in pulsed fields using a miniaturized FIGE system

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 23 2008
    Xiaojia Chen
    Abstract PFGE is a well-established technique for fractionation of DNA fragments ranging from kilobases to megabases in length. But many of these separations require an undesirable combination of long experiment times (often approaching tens of hours) and application of high voltages (often approaching tens of kV). Here, we present a simple miniaturized FIGE apparatus capable of separating DNA fragments up to 32.5,kb in length within 3,h using a modest applied potential of 20,V. The device is small enough to be imaged under a fluorescence microscope, permitting the migrating DNA bands to be observed during the course of the separation run. We use this capability to investigate how separation performance is affected by parameters including the ratio of forward and backward voltage, pulse time, and temperature. We also characterize the dependence of DNA mobility on fragment size N, and observe a scaling in the vicinity of N,0.5 over the size range investigated. The high speed, low power consumption, and simple design of this system may help enable future studies of DNA migration in PFGE to be performed quickly and inexpensively. [source]

    Improved workup for glycosaminoglycan disaccharide analysis using CE with LIF detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 22 2008
    Alicia M. Hitchcock
    Abstract This work describes improved workup and instrumental conditions to enable robust, sensitive glycosaminoglycan (GAG) disaccharide analysis from complex biological samples. In the process of applying CE with LIF to GAG disaccharide analysis in biological samples, we have made improvements to existing methods. These include (i) optimization of reductive amination conditions, (ii) improvement in sensitivity through the use of a cellulose cleanup procedure for the derivatization, and (iii) optimization of separation conditions for robustness and reproducibility. The improved method enables analysis of disaccharide quantities as low as 1,pmol prior to derivatization. Biological GAG samples were exhaustively digested using lyase enzymes, the disaccharide products and standards were derivatized with the fluorophore 2-aminoacridone and subjected to reversed polarity CE-LIF detection. These conditions resolved all known chondroitin sulfate (CS) disaccharides or 11 of 12 standard heparin/heparan sulfate disaccharides, using 50,mM phosphate buffer, pH 3.5, and reversed polarity at 30,kV with 0.3,psi pressure. Relative standard deviation in migration times of CS ranged from 0.1 to 2.0% over 60 days, and the relative standard deviations of peak areas were less than 3.2%, suggesting that the method is reproducible and precise. The CS disaccharide compositions are similar to those obtained by our group using tandem MS. The reversed polarity CE-LIF disaccharide analysis protocol yields baseline resolution and quantification of heparin/heparan sulfate and CS/dermatan sulfate disaccharides from both standard preparations and biologically relevant proteoglycan samples. The improved CE-LIF method enables disaccharide quantification of biologically relevant proteoglycans from small samples of intact tissue. [source]

    SPE and large-volume sample stacking in MEKC for determination of doxycycline in biological fluids: Comparison of direct injection to SPE-MEKC

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2008
    Rade Injac
    Abstract A novel and simple method has been developed for the determination of doxycycline (DOX) in biological fluids. The method is based on SPE, large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) and MEKC with UV-DAD detection. Six SPE cartridges have been used in investigation for sample clean up and pre-concentration (Supelco® LC-8, LC-18, LC-SCX, and LC-WCX, as well as StrataÔ-X and X-C). DOX was determined on a 56,cm (effective length 50,cm)×50,,m id fused-silica capillary. The BGE was 20,mM borate buffer, pH 9.3, containing 80,mM SDS and 7.5%,v/v of methanol (30,s×50,mbar), and the temperature and voltage were 25°C and 30,kV, respectively. The analytical wavelength was set at 210,nm. Under optimized conditions it is possible to determine DOX in human serum, urine, semen, tears and saliva with recovery of 97.5% (RSD 2.5%). The method was shown to be sensitive (LOD is 1,,g/L) and precise (intra-day RSD 0.2 and 2.4%; inter-days 0.4 and 3.5% for migration time and peak area, respectively). Results for developed SPE-LVSS-MEKC were compared with LVSS-MEKC method with direct sample injection. The new LVSS-MEKC method is presented as a useful technique for rapid determination without extraction procedure of DOX in human urine and serum, using 80,mM of SDS, 10%,v/v of methanol and 40,mM borate buffer (pH 9.3; 30,s×50,mbar; 25°C; 30,kV; 350,nm), but not for the other biological fluids, according to lower sensitivity of the method and because of the sample composition. [source]