Kuroshio Current (kuroshio + current)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Climate of the seasonal cycle in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans

Igor M. Yashayaev
Abstract Time series of monthly sea-surface temperature (SST), air temperature (AT) and sea level pressure (SLP) were constructed from merged releases of the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). The time series were decomposed into seasonal and non-seasonal (short and long-term) components. The contribution of the seasonal cycle to the total variance of SST and AT exceeds 80% in the mid and in some high latitude locations and reaches its peak (>95%) in the centres of subtropical gyres. In most cases, a combination of annual and semiannual harmonics accounts for more than 95% of the seasonal variability. Amplitudes of SST and AT annual cycles are highest near the western boundaries of the oceans; annual phases of SST and AT increase toward the eastern tropical oceans, revealing a southeastern propagation of the annual cycle over the Northern Hemisphere oceans. The annual cycle of AT leads that of SST by 1,3 weeks. The largest phase differences are observed in the regions of western boundary currents in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. This is consistent with spatial patterns of integral air,sea heat fluxes. Annual phases of SST increase along the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Current. This points to the importance of signal transport by the major ocean currents. The lowest annual amplitudes of SLP are observed along the equator (0,10N) in both oceans. There are three distinct areas of high annual amplitudes of SLP in the North Pacific Ocean: Asian, Aleutian and Californian. Unlike the North Pacific, only one such area exists in the North Atlantic centred to the west of Iceland. A remarkable feature in the climate of the North Pacific is a maximum of semiannual SLP amplitudes, centred near 40N and 170W. It is also an absolute maximum in the entire Northern Hemisphere. Analysis of phases of harmonics of SLP seasonal cycle has revealed the trajectories of propagation of the annual and semiannual cycles. Analysis of semiannual to annual amplitudes ratio has revealed the regions of semiannual cycle dominance. Copyright 2001 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Temporal patterns of growth in larval cohorts of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus in a coastal nursery area

G. Plaza
Growth patterns of larval sardine Sardinops melanostictus were studied in a coastal nursery area, in southern Japan for four monthly hatch cohorts of larvae (November, December, January and February) for the 2003,2004 and 2004,2005 seasons. Laird,Gompertz models were fitted to each cohort using both total length (LT)-at-age at capture and mean LT -at-age data derived from backcalculations. In both approaches, the absolute daily growth rates (GR) and absolute daily growth rates at the inflection point (GXO) were estimated. In parallel, individual growth rates (GI) were derived from backcalculated LT (LB). Growth showed the following general common patterns irrespective of hatch month, season and methods: (1) significant Laird,Gompertz fits, (2) asymptotic growth, (3) a decrease in GR after the inflexion point, except for February for the 2003,2004 season that showed an apparent constant growth pattern, (4) six in eight cohorts showed GXO ranging from 08 to 12 mm day,1 and (5) a decreasing tendency of GI from 175 to 024 mm day,1, from first feeding through the first month of larval life. The contrasting pattern between the 2003,2004 and the 2004,2005 seasons were: (1) allometric v. logarithmic (ln) LT and otolith radius relationships, (2) low GXOv. high GXO, (3) high GRv. low GR when growth turned asymptotic, (4) low GXOv. high GXO when monthly hatch cohorts were combined and (5) LB and GI not differing among monthly hatch cohorts. The differences in growth patterns and growth rates between seasons seemed to be linked to the influx of warmer and oligotrophic waters of the Kuroshio Current that triggered an increase of 3 C in the coastal area for the 2003,2004 seasons. In the overall context, however, the high GXO, within cohorts and seasons reported in the current study, suggests that either sea surface temperature (SST) or food availability, or both are in the optimal range of preferences for S. melanostictus larvae. Consequently, nearshore coastal areas seem to be playing an important role as a nursery area for the larval stage of this species. [source]

Sea-surface temperature and salinity changes in the northwest Pacific since the Last Glacial Maximum

Tadamichi Oba
Abstract The oxygen isotope records of both benthic and planktonic Foraminifera in five piston cores, collected from the region between the Oyashio and Kuroshio Currents near Japan, clearly show the marked latitudinal shifts of these two currents during the past 25,kyr. Under the present hydrographic condition, a clear relationship between the sea-surface temperature (SST) and oxygen isotope differences from benthic to planktonic Foraminifera is observed in this region. Using this relationship, we find decreased SSTs of 12,13C (maximum 15C) in the southernmost core site at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), indicating the Oyashio Current shifted southward. The SSTs at the southern two core sites abruptly increased more than 10C at 10,11,ka, suggesting the Kuroshio Current shifted northward over these sites at 10,11,ka. In contrast, the northern two core sites have remained under the influence of the cold Oyashio Current for the past 25,kyr. With the reasonable estimate of bottom-water temperature decrease of 2.5C at the LGM, the SSTs estimated by this new method give exactly the same SST values calculated from Mg/Ca ratio of planktonic Foraminifera, allowing palaeosea-surface salinities to be reconstructed. The result suggests that the ice volume effect was 1.0,,0.1, at the LGM. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interannual variation in spring biomass and gut content composition of copepods in the Kuroshio current, 1971,89

K. Nakata
We examined the effects of climate factors on interannual variations of copepod biomass and gut content composition in early spring in the Kuroshio and the slope water off the Pacific coast of central Japan from 1971 to 1989. The biomass trends were different for large (prosomal length , 1 mm) and small (prosomal length < 1 mm) copepods in both waters. Peaks in biomass of large copepods decreased in magnitude, and the biomass of small copepods was low around 1980. For the large copepods in the Kuroshio, 3-year running mean biomass was related to the Kuroshio meander index. The yearly mean biomass was related to diatom abundance in the gut which, in turn, was related to wind speed and temperature. The 3-year running mean biomass of large copepods in the slope water was positively related to solar radiation in March. The biomass of small copepods in both waters was negatively related to solar radiation in February, and years with high biomass of small copepods corresponded with not only the years with high abundance of larger foods (diatoms and micro-sized foods) in copepod guts, but also with the years with high abundance of the nano-sized foods. We hypothesize that nutrient supply to upper layers regulates interannual variation of biomass of large copepods in the Kuroshio. Thus, climate influences both size composition and biomass of copepods in and near the Kuroshio in early spring. [source]

Introductory perspective on the COREF Project

ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2006
Yasufumi Iryu
Abstract Coral reefs are tropic to subtropic, coastal ecosystems comprising very diverse organisms. Late Quaternary reef deposits are fossil archives of environmental, tectonic and eustatic variations that can be used to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of the tropic surface oceans. Reefs located at the latitudinal limits of coral-reef ecosystems (i.e. those at coral-reef fronts) are particularly sensitive to environmental changes , especially those associated with glacial,interglacial changes in climate and sealevel. We propose a land and ocean scientific drilling campaign in the Ryukyu Islands (the Ryukyus) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean to investigate the dynamic response of the corals and coral-reef ecosystems in this region to Late Quaternary climate and sealevel change. Such a drilling campaign, which we call the COREF (coral-reef front) Project, will allow the following three major questions to be evaluated: (i) What are the nature, magnitude and driving mechanisms of coral-reef front migration in the Ryukyus? (ii) What is the ecosystem response of coral reefs in the Ryukyus to Quaternary climate changes? (iii) What is the role of coral reefs in the global carbon cycle? Subsidiary objectives include (i) the timing of coral-reef initiation in the Ryukyus and its causes; (ii) the position of the Kuroshio current during glacial periods and its effects on coral-reef formation; and (iii) early carbonate diagenetic responses as a function of compounded variations in climate, eustacy and depositional mineralogies (subtropic aragonitic to warm-temperate calcitic). The geographic, climatic and oceanographic settings of the Ryukyu Islands provide an ideal natural laboratory to address each of these research questions. [source]