Knockout Studies (knockout + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Knockout Studies

  • gene knockout studies

  • Selected Abstracts

    Tulp3 is a critical repressor of mouse hedgehog signaling

    Don A. Cameron
    Abstract Precise regulation of the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) and modulation of the Shh signaling pathway is required for proper specification of cell fate within the developing limbs and neural tube, and resultant tissue morphogenesis. Tulp3 (tubby-like protein 3) is a protein of unknown function which has been implicated in nervous system development through gene knockout studies. We demonstrate here that mice lacking the Tulp3 gene develop abnormalities of both the neural tube and limbs consistent with improper regulation of Shh signaling. Tulp3,/, embryos show expansion of Shh target gene expression and display a ventralization of neural progenitor cells in the caudal neural tube. We further show that Tulp3,/,/Shh,/, compound mutant embryos resemble Tulp3 mutants, and express Shh target genes in the neural tube and limbs which are not expressed in Shh,/, embryos. This work uncovers a novel role for Tulp3 as a negative regulatory factor in the Hh pathway. Developmental Dynamics 238:1140,1149, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Zebrafish KLF4 is essential for anterior mesendoderm/pre-polster differentiation and hatching

    Melissa R. Gardiner
    Abstract Gene knockout studies of Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) in mice have shown essential roles in organogenesis. A screen for KLF family members in zebrafish identified many KLFs. One of these, zebrafish KLF4 (zKLF4) is the homologue of neptune, a Xenopus laevis KLF. zKLF4 is expressed from approximately 80% epiboly a patch of dorsal/anterior mesendodermal cells called the pre-polster and, subsequently, in the polster and hatching gland. Here we investigate the function of zKLF4 using morpholino-based antisense oligonucleotides. Knockdown of zKLF4 resulted in complete absence of hatching gland formation and subsequent hatching in zebrafish. In addition, there was early knockdown of expression of the pre-polster/anterior mesendoderm markers CatL, cap1, and BMP4. These results indicate zKLF4 is expressed within the pre-polster, an early mesendodermal site, and that it plays a critical role in the differentiation of these cells into hatching gland cells. Developmental Dynamics 234:992,996, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease

    G. Pasterkamp
    Abstract The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates an innate immune response after recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Evidence is accumulating that TLRs, and particularly TLR4, are important players in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease. Not only exogenous ligands but also endogenous ligands that are expressed during arterial injury are recognized by TLR4. Mouse knockout studies and epidemiological studies of human TLR4 polymorphisms have demonstrated that the TLR4 might play a role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. This review will summarize the latest progression in research on the role of TLR4 in arterial occlusive disease In addition, the potential of intervention in TLR4 signalling to influence progression of atherosclerotic disease is discussed. [source]

    Interpretation of knockout experiments: the congenic footprint

    L. C. Schalkwyk
    In gene targeting experiments, the importance of genetic background is now widely appreciated, and knockout alleles are routinely backcrossed onto a standard inbred background. This produces a congenic strain with a substantial segment of embryonic stem (ES)-cell-derived chromosome still flanking the knockout allele, a phenomenon often neglected in knockout studies. In cholecystokynin 2 (Cckbr) knockout mice backcrossed with C57BL/6, we have found a clear ,congenic footprint' of expression differences in at least 10 genes across 40 Mb sequence flanking the Cckbr locus, each of which is potentially responsible for aspects of the ,knockout' phenotype. The expression differences are overwhelmingly in the knockout-low direction, which may point to a general phenomenon of background dependence. This finding emphasizes the need for caution in using gene knockouts to attribute phenotypic effects to genes. This is especially the case when the gene is of unknown function or the phenotype is unexpected, and is a particular concern for large-scale knockout and phenotypic screening programmes. However, the impact of genetic background should not be simply viewed as a potential confound, but as a unique opportunity to study the broader responses of a system to a specific (genetic) perturbation. [source]

    Fine mapping of a sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal locus on mouse chromosome 11

    H. M. Hood
    We have established that there is a considerable amount of common genetic influence on physiological dependence and associated withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic drugs including alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates and inhalants. We previously mapped two loci responsible for 12 and 9% of the genetic variance in acute alcohol and pentobarbital withdrawal convulsion liability in mice, respectively, to an approximately 28-cM interval of proximal chromosome 11. Here, we narrow the position of these two loci to a 3-cM interval (8.8 Mb, containing 34 known and predicted genes) using haplotype analysis. These include genes encoding four subunits of the GABAA receptor, which is implicated as a pivotal component in sedative-hypnotic dependence and withdrawal. We report that the DBA/2J mouse strain, which exhibits severe withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic drugs, encodes a unique GABAA receptor ,2 subunit variant compared with other standard inbred strains including the genetically similar DBA/1J strain. We also demonstrate that withdrawal from zolpidem, a benzodiazepine receptor agonist selective for ,1 subunit containing GABAA receptors, is influenced by a chromosome 11 locus, suggesting that the same locus (gene) influences risk of alcohol, benzodiazepine and barbiturate withdrawal. Our results, together with recent knockout studies, point to the GABAA receptor ,2 subunit gene (Gabrg2) as a promising candidate gene to underlie phenotypic differences in sedative-hypnotic physiological dependence and associated withdrawal episodes. [source]

    Tissue-specific expression of Cre recombinase from the Tgfb3 locus

    Liang-Tung Yang
    Abstract Tgfb3, a member of the TGF-, superfamily, is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally, during embryogenesis. Previous mouse knockout studies have demonstrated that Tgfb3 is absolutely required for normal palatal fusion and pulmonary development. We have generated a novel tool to ablate genes in Tgfb3 -expressing cells by targeting the promoterless Cre-pgk-Neo cassette into exon 1 of the mouse Tgfb3 gene, which generates a functionally null Tgfb3 allele. Using the Rosa26 reporter assay, we demonstrate that Cre -induced recombination was already induced at embryonal day 10 (E10) in the ventricular myocardium, limb buds, and otic vesicles. At E14, robust recombination was detected in the prefusion palatal epithelium. Deletion of the TGF-, type I receptor Alk5 (Tgfbr1) specifically in Tgfb3 expressing cells using the Tgfb3-Cre driver line lead to a cleft palate phenotype similar to that seen in conventional Tgfb3 null mutants. In addition, Alk5/ Tgfb3-Cre mice displayed hydrocephalus, and severe intracranial bleeding due to germinal matrix hemorrhage. genesis 46:112,118, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Plasmepsins as potential targets for new antimalarial therapy

    Karolina Ersmark
    Abstract Malaria is one of the major diseases in the world. Due to the rapid spread of parasite resistance to available antimalarial drugs there is an urgent need for new antimalarials with novel mechanisms of action. Several promising targets for drug intervention have been revealed in recent years. This review addresses the parasitic aspartic proteases termed plasmepsins (Plms) that are involved in the hemoglobin catabolism that occurs during the erythrocytic stage of the malarial parasite life cycle. Four Plasmodium species are responsible for human malaria; P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum. This review focuses on inhibitors of the haemoglobin-degrading plasmepsins of the most lethal species, P. falciparum; Plm I, Plm II, Plm IV, and histo-aspartic protease (HAP). Previously, Plm II has attracted the most attention. With the identification and characterization of new plasmepsins and the results from recent plasmepsin knockout studies, it now seems clear that in order to achieve high-antiparasitic activities in P. falciparum -infected erythrocytes it is necessary to inhibit several of the haemoglobin-degrading plasmepsins. Herein we summarize the structure,activity relationships of the Plm I, II, IV, and HAP inhibitors. These inhibitors represent all classes which, to the best of our knowledge, have been disclosed in journal articles to date. The 3D structures of inhibitor/plasmepsin II complexes available in the protein data bank are briefly discussed and compared. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 26, No. 5, 626,666, 2006 [source]

    The essential neutral sphingomyelinase is involved in the trafficking of the variant surface glycoprotein in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei

    Simon A. Young
    Summary Sphingomyelin is the main sphingolipid in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. In vitro and in vivo characterization of the T. brucei neutral sphingomyelinase demonstrates that it is directly involved in sphingomyelin catabolism. Gene knockout studies in the bloodstream form of the parasite indicate that the neutral sphingomyelinase is essential for growth and survival, thus highlighting that the de novo biosynthesis of ceramide is unable to compensate for the loss of sphingomyelin catabolism. The phenotype of the conditional knockout has given new insights into the highly active endocytic and exocytic pathways in the bloodstream form of T. brucei. Hence, the formation of ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum affects post-Golgi sorting and rate of deposition of newly synthesized GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein on the cell surface. This directly influences the corresponding rate of endocytosis, via the recycling endosomes, of pre-existing cell surface variant surface glycoprotein. The trypanosomes use this coupled endocytic and exocytic mechanism to maintain the cell density of its crucial variant surface glycoprotein protective coat. TbnSMase is therefore genetically validated as a drug target against African trypanosomes, and suggests that interfering with the endocytic transport of variant surface glycoprotein is a highly desirable strategy for drug development against African trypanosomasis. [source]

    Characterization of two outer membrane protein antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis that are protective in a murine lesion model

    B. C. Ross
    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key periodontal pathogen that has been implicated in the aetiology of chronic adult periodontitis. The aim of this study was to characterize two potential vaccine candidates (PG32 and PG33) identified from a previous genomic sequence analysis. Gene knockout studies suggested that these proteins play an important role in bacterial growth and are transcriptionally linked. Analysis of 14 laboratory and clinical isolates of P. gingivalis found that in all strains, both genes were present with a high level of conservation and that the two proteins were also expressed in vitro. Truncated recombinant PG32 and PG33 proteins were produced in Escherichia coli in an attempt to increase the solubility of the proteins while retaining their native conformation. While most of the truncated proteins remained insoluble, two truncated proteins showed good solubility and high levels of protection in the P. gingivalis murine lesion model and may be considered as potential vaccine candidates for further testing in models of human periodontal disease. [source]