Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Knockout

  • conditional knockout
  • double knockout
  • gene knockout
  • genetic knockout
  • receptor knockout

  • Terms modified by Knockout

  • knockout allele
  • knockout animals
  • knockout experiment
  • knockout model
  • knockout models
  • knockout mouse
  • knockout mouse model
  • knockout mouse models
  • knockout mutant
  • knockout mutation
  • knockout phenotype
  • knockout strain
  • knockout studies
  • knockout system

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2010
    ABSTRACT The sae operon is a key regulator in Staphylococcus aureus, which is known as an important infective and toxigenic bacterial pathogen. For the exploration of virulence factors expressed in the secreted exoprotein fraction are being controlled by sae operon, the relationship between the sae locus and exoproteins was investigated in this study. The homologous recombination vector pBT2,sae was constructed and the sae deletion mutant strain was successfully obtained. The results showed that the sae locus played an important role in the production of thermonucleases and other exoproteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different exoprotein profiles between parent strain and mutant strain, in which three bands were visibly weakened. The results revealed that sae locus was involved in the regulation on exoproteins, some of which play a known fundamental role in the virulence of S. aureus. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study presents that knocking out the sae gene locus in a specific Staphylococcus aureus strain results in reduced thermonuclease action, and also in reduced levels of proteins in the vicinity of 42 and 32 kDa molecular weight in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels, indicating that their production is dependent on the sae locus. Practically, these proteins are associated with virulence traits, and with the pathogen's response to the environment and in potential hosts, which could be helpful for understanding the pathogenicity of S. aureus and also for further studies on the role of selected genes in the pathogenicity of S. aureus. [source]

    Loss of steroidogenic factor 1 alters cellular topography in the mouse ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

    Aline M. Davis
    Abstract Knockout (KO) mice lacking the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) exhibit marked structural abnormalities of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). In this study, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the VMH abnormalities. To trace SF-1-expressing neurons, we used a SF-1/enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgene. Although the total numbers of eGFP-positive cells in wild-type (WT) and SF-1 KO mice were indistinguishable, cells that normally localize precisely within the VMH were scattered more diffusely in adjacent regions in SF-1 KO mice. This abnormal distribution is likely due to the loss of SF-1 expression in VMH neurons rather than secondary effects of deficient steroidogenesis, as redistribution also was seen in mice with a CNS-specific KO of SF-1. Thus, the absence of SF-1 alters the distribution of cells that normally form the VMH within the mediobasal hypothalamus. Consistent with this model, the hypothalamic expression patterns of the transcription factors islet-1 and nkx2.1 also were displaced in SF-1 KO mice. Independent of gene expression, birthdate analyses further suggested that cells with earlier birthdates were affected more severely by the loss of SF-1 than were later born cells. We conclude that the absence of SF-1 causes major changes in cellular arrangement within and around the developing VMH that result from altered cell migration. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 60: 424,436, 2004 [source]

    Potent and Selective Inhibition of Human Cathepsin K Leads to Inhibition of Bone Resorption In Vivo in a Nonhuman Primate

    George B. Stroup
    Abstract Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease that plays an essential role in osteoclast-mediated degradation of the organic matrix of bone. Knockout of the enzyme in mice, as well as lack of functional enzyme in the human condition pycnodysostosis, results in osteopetrosis. These results suggests that inhibition of the human enzyme may provide protection from bone loss in states of elevated bone turnover, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. To test this theory, we have produced a small molecule inhibitor of human cathepsin K, SB-357114, that potently and selectively inhibits this enzyme (Ki = 0.16 nM). This compound potently inhibited cathepsin activity in situ, in human osteoclasts (inhibitor concentration [IC]50 = 70 nM) as well as bone resorption mediated by human osteoclasts in vitro (IC50 = 29 nM). Using SB-357114, we evaluated the effect of inhibition of cathepsin K on bone resorption in vivo using a nonhuman primate model of postmenopausal bone loss in which the active form of cathepsin K is identical to the human orthologue. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) was used to render cynomolgus monkeys estrogen deficient, which led to an increase in bone turnover. Treatment with SB-357114 (12 mg/kg subcutaneously) resulted in a significant reduction in serum markers of bone resorption relative to untreated controls. The effect was observed 1.5 h after the first dose and was maintained for 24 h. After 5 days of dosing, the reductions in N-terminal telopeptides (NTx) and C-terminal telopeptides (CTx) of type I collagen were 61% and 67%, respectively. A decrease in serum osteocalcin of 22% was also observed. These data show that inhibition of cathepsin K results in a significant reduction of bone resorption in vivo and provide further evidence that this may be a viable approach to the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. [source]

    A Gene Knockout Corroborates the Integral Function of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein in Retinoid Metabolism

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 8 2000
    Joseph L. Napoli Ph.D.
    Continually expanding evidence has moved inexorably toward establishing key functions for cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) in retinoid metabolism. These experimental data integrate into a model of CRBP as a chaperone that protects retinol from the cellular milieu and interacts with certain retinoid-metabolizing enzymes. Mutant mice with an inactivated CRBP gene show decreased liver retinyl ester storage, a shorter elimination half-life of liver retinoids, and predisposition to vitamin A deficiency. No morphologic phenotype was observed until vitamin A was exhausted. Although the mechanisms underlying diminished vitamin A in the CRBP-null mice have not been elucidated, the observations support the model of CRBP as a chaperone of retinoid metabolism. [source]

    Knockout of major leaf ferredoxin reveals new redox-regulatory adaptations in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Ingo Voss
    Ferredoxins are the major distributors for electrons to the various acceptor systems in plastids. In green tissues, ferredoxins are reduced by photosynthetic electron flow in the light, while in heterotrophic tissues, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADPH) generated in the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway (OPP) is the reductant. We have used a Ds -T-DNA insertion line of Arabidopsis thaliana for the gene encoding the major leaf ferredoxin (Fd2, At1g60950) to create a situation of high electron pressure in the thylakoids. Although these plants (Fd2-KO) possess only the minor fraction of leaf Fd1 (At1g10960), they grow photoautotrophically on soil, but with a lower growth rate and less chlorophyll. The more oxidized conditions in the stroma due to the formation of reactive oxygen species are causing a re-adjustment of the redox state in these plants that helps them to survive even under high light. Redox homeostasis is achieved by regulation at both, the post-translational and the transcriptional level. Over-reduction of the electron transport chain leads to increased transcription of the malate-valve enzyme NADP-malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and the oxidized stroma leads to an increased transcription of the OPP enzyme glucose-6-P dehydrogenase. In isolated spinach chloroplasts, oxidized conditions give rise to a decreased activation state of NADP-MDH and an activation of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase even in the light. In Fd2-KO plants, NADPH-requiring antioxidant systems are upregulated. These adjustments must be caused by plastid signals, and they prevent oxidative damage under rather severe conditions. [source]

    Role of Protease Activated Receptor 2 in Experimental Acute Lung Injury and Lung Fibrosis

    Xiao Su
    Abstract Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is widely-distributed (lung, liver, kidney, etc.) and expressed by variety of cells (i.e. leukocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblast). PAR2 may participate in many pathological processes, such as, inflammation, injury, as well as fibrosis. Therefore, in this study, we tested whether PAR2 would exert a role in acid-induced acute lung injury, E. coli pneumonia, bleomycin-induced acute lung injury and fibrosis. Acid, E. coli, or bleomycin were intratracheally instilled into the lungs of both wildtype and PAR2 knockout mice to detect differences in pulmonary edema, lung vascular permeability, lung fibrosis, and other parameters. Knockout of PAR2 did not affect the extent of pulmonary edema and lung vascular permeability in acid-induced acute lung injury. Also, both activation of PAR2 in the airspaces of the lung and deletion of PAR2 did not alter the magnitude of pulmonary edema and lung vascular permeability in E. coli pneumonia. Finally, PAR2 deficiency did not affect the severity of lung inflammation and lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced acute lung injury and lung fibrosis models. Thus, PAR2 does not appear to play a critical role in the pathogeneses of experimental acid-induced acute lung injury, E. coli pneumonia, and bleomycin-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Anat Rec, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Toll-like Receptor 2 Knockout Reduces Lung Inflammation During Pneumocystis Pneumonia but has No Effect on Phagocytosis of Pneumocystis Organisms by Alveolar Macrophages


    Selective Knockout of Gold Active Sites,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 17 2010
    Maria Nowicka Dr.
    Radikal-Kur: Die Behandlung der Oberflächen von Goldelektroden mit Hydroxylradikalen senkt die Geschwindigkeitskonstanten ks für den Elektronentransfer bei elektrochemischen Reaktionen mit radikalischen Intermediaten beträchtlich (siehe Bild). Diese Beobachtung lässt sich durch das selektive Ausschalten aktiver Goldzentren mit teilweise gefüllten d-Orbitalen erklären. [source]

    The Lansdowne "Peace Letter" of 1917 and the Prospect of Peace by Negotiation with Germany

    Douglas Newton
    In late November 1917, Lord Lansdowne, one of the most senior of British Unionist politicians, wrote a letter to the editor of the Daily Telegraph. The letter asked for the war aims of the Entente and the USA to be "coordinated" and suggested that a moderate revision of war aims might bring a negotiated peace nearer. The letter appeared to ally Lansdowne with the British Radicals, who had been close to President Wilson (until April 1917), and had argued for a negotiated peace to end the war since the autumn of 1916. The letter was ferociously denounced by the Northcliffe press, and by many of Lansdowne's Unionist colleagues. It was supposedly a "plea for surrender" and "a national misfortune". Nevertheless, it touched off a series of new departures in the search for a negotiated settlement: House's visit to the inter Allied Conference in December, the Labour War Aims Memorandum, Lloyd George's Caxton Hall speech, Wilson's Fourteen Points Address, and the beginning of a public parley with the Central Powers in the replies of Hertling and Czernin in January 1918. The paper examines the possibilities for a negotiated peace during the winter of 1917,1918, that is, in the period between the publication of Lansdowne's famous letter and the sudden Versailles "Knockout Blow" Declaration of February 1918 which rejected out of hand any prospect of negotiation. The paper examines Wilson's ambiguous position in this debate, and in particular the evolution of moderate opinion inside Germany in reaction to these events. The paper suggests the unfortunate enfeeblement of moderate opinion in Germany in the face of the apparent triumph of "knockout blow" opinion in the Entente camp. [source]

    Knockout of ,1 - and ,2 -adrenoceptors attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis

    H Kiriazis
    Background and purpose: The role of ,-adrenoceptors in heart disease remains controversial. Although ,-blockers ameliorate the progression of heart disease, the mechanism remains undefined. We investigated the effect of ,-adrenoceptors on cardiac hypertrophic growth using ,1 - and ,2 -adrenoreceptor knockout and wild-type (WT) mice. Experimental approach: Mice were subjected to aortic banding or sham surgery, and their cardiac function was determined by echocardiography and micromanometry. Key results: At 4 and 12 weeks after aortic banding, the left ventricle:body mass ratio was increased by 80,87% in wild-type mice, but only by 15% in knockouts, relative to sham-operated groups. Despite the blunted hypertrophic growth, ventricular function in knockouts was maintained. WT mice responded to pressure overload with up-regulation of gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic growth factors, and with severe cardiac fibrosis. All these effects were absent in the knockout animals. Conclusion and implications: Our findings of a markedly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis following pressure overload in this knockout model emphasize that ,-adrenoceptor signalling plays a central role in cardiac hypertrophy and maladaptation following pressure overload. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 153, 684,692; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707622; published online 14 January 2008 [source]

    Glucose-induced inhibition: how many ionic mechanisms?

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    D. Burdakov
    Abstract Sensing of sugar by specialized ,glucose-inhibited' cells helps organisms to counteract swings in their internal energy levels. Evidence from several cell types in both vertebrates and invertebrates suggests that this process involves sugar-induced stimulation of plasma membrane K+ currents. However, the molecular composition and the mechanism of activation of the underlying channel(s) remain controversial. In mouse hypothalamic neurones and neurosecretory cells of the crab Cancer borealis, glucose stimulates K+ currents displaying leak-like properties. Yet knockout of some of the candidate ,leak' channel subunits encoded by the KCNK gene family so far failed to abolish glucose inhibition of hypothalamic cells. Moreover, in other tissues, such as the carotid body, glucose-stimulated K+ channels appear to be not leak-like but voltage-gated, suggesting that glucose-induced inhibition may engage multiple types of K+ channels. Other mechanisms of glucose-induced inhibition, such as hyperpolarization mediated by opening of Cl, channels and depolarization block caused by closure of KATP channels have also been proposed. Here we review known ionic and pharmacological features of glucose-induced inhibition in different cell types, which may help to identify its molecular correlates. [source]

    The calcium-conducting ion channel transient receptor potential canonical 6 is involved in macrophage inflammatory protein-2-induced migration of mouse neutrophils,

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    N. Damann
    Abstract Aim:, The role of the calcium-conducting ion channel transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) in macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) induced migration of mouse neutrophils was investigated. Methods:, Neutrophil granulocytes isolated from murine bone marrow of wild-type (TRPC6+/+) and TRPC6 knockout (TRPC6,/,) mice were tested for the presence of TRPC6 channel expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions and immunocytochemistry. The effect of different stimuli (e.g. MIP-2, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanin) on migration of isolated neutrophils was tested by two-dimensional (2D) migration assays, phalloidin staining and intracellular calcium imaging. Results:, We found that neutrophil granulocytes express TRPC6 channels. MIP-2 induced fast cell migration of isolated neutrophils in a 2D cell-tracking system. Strikingly, MIP-2 was less potent in neutrophils derived from TRPC6,/, mice. These cells showed less phalloidin-coupled fluorescence and the pattern of cytosolic calcium transients was altered. Conclusions:, We describe in this paper for the first time a role for transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in migration of native lymphocytes as a new paradigm for the universal functional role of TRPs. Our data give strong evidence that TRPC6 operates downstream to CXC-type Gq -protein-coupled chemokine receptors upon stimulation with MIP-2 and is crucial for the arrangement of filamentous actin in migrating neutrophils. This is a novel cell function of TRP channel beyond their well-recognized role as universal cell sensors. [source]

    Chondrocyte-specific Smad4 gene conditional knockout results in hearing loss and inner ear malformation in mice

    Shi-Ming Yang
    Abstract Smad4 is the central intracellular mediator of transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) signaling, which plays crucial roles in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system. Conventional Smad4 gene knockout results in embryonic lethality, precluding its use in studies of the role of Smad4 in inner ear development. We used chondrocyte-specific Smad4 knockout mice (Smad4Co/Co) to investigate the function of Smad4 in inner ear development. Smad4Co/Co mice were characterized by a smaller cochlear volume, bone malformation, and abnormalities of the osseous spiral lamina and basilar membrane. The development of the hair cells was also abnormal, as evidenced by the disorganized stereocilia and reduced density of the neuronal processes beneath the hair cells. Auditory function tests revealed the homozygous Smad4Co/Co mice suffered from severe sensorineural hearing loss. Our results suggest that Smad4 is required for inner ear development and normal auditory function in mammals. Developmental Dynamics, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Localization of Lutheran, a novel laminin receptor, in normal, knockout, and transgenic mice suggests an interaction with laminin ,5 in vivo

    Casey L. Moulson
    Abstract Laminins are major components of all basement membranes. One laminin that has garnered particular interest, due to its widespread expression pattern and importance during development, is the laminin ,5 chain. In vitro studies have suggested that the Lutheran blood group glycoprotein/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu), an Ig superfamily transmembrane protein, is a receptor for laminins containing the ,5 chain. However, there are no in vivo studies showing that these proteins are capable of interacting in tissues. We have isolated the mouse ortholog of Lu and characterized its expression and localization in mouse tissues. Lu was primarily found on the basal surface of epithelial cells and on muscle cells adjacent to basement membranes containing laminin ,5. In addition, there was both a dramatic reduction in the basal concentration of Lu in mice lacking laminin ,5, and a significant increase in Lu protein in transgenic mice overexpressing laminin ,5. Together, these data provide the first in vivo evidence for an interaction between Lu and laminin ,5 and support the hypothesis that Lu is a laminin ,5 receptor. We propose that laminin ,5 is involved in concentrating Lu on the basal surface of epithelial cells. This may be one mechanism by which basement membrane signals are transmitted to the cell. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dorothy Hodgkin Lecture 2008 Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) revisited: a new therapeutic target for obesity,diabetes?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
    P. R. Flatt
    Abstract There is increasing realization that gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has actions outside of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Most significant is the presence of functional GIP receptors on adipocytes and the appreciation that GIP, secreted strongly in response to fat ingestion, plays a role in the translation of excessive amounts of dietary fat into adipocyte tissue stores. Such effects open up the possibility of exploiting GIP receptor antagonism for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. This is borne out by studies in high-fat-fed mice or ob/ob mice with either genetic knockout of GIP receptor or chemical ablation of GIP action using the GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro3)GIP. By causing preferential oxidation of fat, blockade of GIP signalling clears triglyceride deposits from liver and muscle, thereby respectively restoring mechanisms for suppression of hepatic glucose output and cellular glucose uptake. Further studies are needed to determine the applicability of this research to human obesity,diabetes. However, proof of concept is provided by emerging evidence that rapid cure of diabetes in grossly obese subjects undergoing Roux-en-Y bypass surgery is mediated in part by surgical bypass of GIP-secreting K-cells in the upper small intestine. [source]

    Modulation of plasma lipid levels affects benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damage in tissues of two hyperlipidemic mouse models

    Daniėlle M.J. Curfs
    Abstract The role of plasma lipids in the uptake, transportation, and distribution of lipophilic carcinogens like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the effects of dietary-modulated plasma lipids on B[a]P-induced DNA damage in several organs of two hyperlipidemic mouse models. Male apolipoprotein E (ApoE)*3-Leiden (n = 22) and ApoE knockout (ApoE-KO) mice (n = 20) were fed a high-fat cholesterol (HFC) diet or low-fat cholesterol (LFC; standard mouse chow) diet for 3 weeks, after which the animals were exposed to a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg bw B[a]P or vehicle and killed 4 days later. Plasma lipids were determined and DNA adducts were measured in aorta, heart, lung, liver, brain, and stomach. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were increased in all animals on a HFC diet, whereas a decrease of triglycerides was seen only in the ApoE-KO mice. In ApoE-KO mice on a normal diet, DNA-adduct levels were highest in aorta (10.8 ± 1.4 adducts/108 nucleotides), followed by brain (7.8 ± 1.3), lung (3.3 ± 0.7), heart (3.1 ± 0.6), liver (1.5 ± 0.2) and stomach (1.2 ± 0.2). In the ApoE*3-Leiden mice, adduct levels were equally high in aorta, heart, and lung (4.6 ± 0.7, 5.0 ± 0.5 and 4.6 ± 0.4, respectively), followed by stomach (2.7 ± 0.4), brain (2.3 ± 0.2), and liver (1.7 ± 0.2). In the ApoE-KO mice, the HFC diet intervention resulted in lower adduct levels in lung (2.1 ± 0.2), heart (1.9 ± 0.2), and brain (2.9 ± 0.5), as compared with the LFC group. In contrast, a nonsignificant increase of adducts was found in aorta (13.1 ± 1.5). A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in the ApoE*3-Leiden mice. Multiple regression analysis showed that in aorta, DNA adducts were inversely related to plasma triglycerides (P = 0.004) and were also modulated by the ApoE genotype (P < 0.001). The results of the present study support further investigation into the role of dietary modulation of plasma lipids, ApoE, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on the formation of DNA adducts in chronic degenerative diseases. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 42:243,249, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Post natal oestrogen administration stimulates precocious endometrial gland development in the horse

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Fillies completely devoid of endometrial glands (uterine gland knockout; UGKO) would make ideal experimental models in which to study the role of endometrial histotroph in embryogenesis and early fetal development in the mare. Hypothesis: Administration of a synthetic progestagen plus oestrogen to newborn filly foals and, thereafter, at regular intervals to age 6 months, would permanently suppress endometrial gland development. Methods: Nine half-sister Thoroughbred filly foals were treated, in 3 groups, with: A) the weakly active progestagen, norgestomet, administered from birth to age 6 months, in subcutaneous implant form plus oestradiol valerate and norgestomet i.m. at fortnightly intervals; B) the strongly active oral progestagen, altrenogest, administered daily from birth to age 6 months plus fortnightly injections of oestradiol valerate and norgestomet; C) nothing (untreated controls). Endometrial biopsies were recovered from all fillies at ages 6 months and 2 years to assess the degree of endometrial gland morphogenesis and to determine immunohistochemically the presence or absence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the endometrial tissues. Results: Groups B and C showed no endometrial gland development, whereas Group A fillies showed a high degree of endometrial gland development, plus strong staining for both oestrogen and progesterone receptors at age 6 months. All 9 fillies showed full normal endometrial gland morphogenesis, development and function at age 2 years. Conclusions and relevance: While the administration of a strongly active progestagen over-rode the actions of the concomitantly administered oestrogen and suppressed endometrial gland development during the period of administration, treatment with oestradiol valerate together with a weakly active progestagen, stimulated precocious endometrial gland development. Neither steroid was able to create the desired UGKO experimental model and all fillies showed normal endometrial gland development and fertility after puberty. Hence, ovarian oestrogen, not progesterone, appears to be the basic stimulus for endometrial gland morphogenesis in the horse. [source]

    Inhibition of five lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) by MK-886 decreases atherosclerosis in apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice

    J. Jawien
    Abstract Background, Recent reports point to an important role of leukotrienes in atherogenesis. Leukotrienes are produced by 5-lipoxygenase co-operating with five lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP). We hypothesized that MK-886, an inhibitor of FLAP, could attenuate the development of atherosclerosis in the atherogenic apolipoprotein E/low density lipoprotein receptor (apoE/LDLR) double knockout (DKO) mouse model. Materials and methods, Female apoE/LDLR-DKO mice at the age of 8 weeks were put on Western diet. The experimental group (n = 10) received the same diet as the control group (n = 10), but mixed with MK-886 (Merck, Rahway, NJ) at a dose of 4 µg per 100 mg of body-weight per day. At age 6 months the mice were sacrificed under anaesthesia. Results, Measured by the en face method, the percentage of area occupied by lesions in aortas in the control group was 25·15 ± 2·9%, whereas in the MK-886-treated group it was 11·16 ± 0·7% (P < 0·05). Lesion area measured by cross-section of aortic roots was 455 494 ± 29 564 µm2 in the control group versus 263 042 ± 20 736 µm2 in the MK-886-treated group (P < 0·05). The MK-886 did not change the plasma cholesterol lipoprotein profile as compared with the control mice. Finally, we show that MK-886 may increase plaque stability by decreasing the macrophage content as well as increasing the collagen and smooth-muscle cell content. Conclusions, Our results show for the first time that inhibition of FLAP by MK-886 reduces development of atherosclerosis in gene-targeted apoE/LDLR-DKO mice. [source]

    The role of ICOS in the development of CD4 T cell help and the reactivation of memory T cells

    Simmi Mahajan
    Abstract We have addressed the role of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) in the development of T cell help for B cells and in the generation, survival and reactivation of memory CD4 T cells and B cells. We find that while T cell help for all antibody isotypes (including IgG2c) is impaired in ICOS knockout (ICOS-KO) mice, the IFN-, response is little affected, indicating a defect in helper function that is unrelated to cytokine production. In addition, the ICOS-negative T cells do not accumulate in B cell follicles. Secondary (memory), but not primary, clonal proliferation of antigen-specific B cells is impaired in ICOS-KO mice, as is the generation of secondary antibody-secreting cells. Analysis of endogenous CD4 memory cells in ICOS-KO mice, using MHC class,II tetramers, reveals normal primary clonal expansion, formation of memory clones and long-term (10,wk) survival of memory cells, but defective expansion upon reactivation in vivo. The data point to a role of ICOS in supporting secondary, memory and effector T cell responses, possibly by influencing cell survival. The data also highlight differences in ICOS dependency of endogenous T cell proliferation in vivo compared to that of adoptively transferred TCR-transgenic T cells. [source]

    A CIITA-independent pathway that promotes expression of endogenous rather than exogenous peptides in immune-privileged sites

    Abstract A CIITA-independent pathway of MHC class II expression has been found in the eye and the brain, both immune-privileged sites. Although corneal endothelial cells were unable to express MHC class,II in response to IFN-, alone, these cells readily expressed MHC class,II molecules via a CIITA-independent pathway when triggered by simultaneous exposure to IFN-, and TNF-,. CIITA-independent expression of MHCclass,II molecules enabled corneal endothelial cells to present cytosolic, but not endosomal, ovalbumin (OVA) to OVA-primed T,cells. To determine whether CIITA-independentexpression of MHC class,II is relevant in vivo, minor,H-only-incompatible corneal allografts prepared from CIITA knockout (KO) mice, MHC class,II KO mice or wild-type donors were placed ineyes of normal mice. Cornea allografts from wild-type and CIITA KO mice suffered similar rejection fates, whereas far fewer class,II-deficient corneas were rejected. In addition, MHC class,II-bearing macrophages were observed in cuprizone-induced inflammatory and demyelinating brain lesions of CIITA KO mice. We conclude that class,II expression via the CIITA-independent pathway enhances the vulnerability to rejection of corneal grafts expressing minor antigens. The potential relevance of CIITA-independent MHC class,II expression at immune-privileged sites is discussed in relation to tolerance to strong autoantigens. [source]

    Differential role of IL-18 and IL-12 in the host defense against disseminated Candida albicans infection

    Abstract IFN-, plays a crucial role in the defense against infection with Candida albicans. Since IL-18 and IL-12 are strong stimuli of IFN-, production, we investigated whether endogenous IL-18 and IL-12 are involved in the host defense during disseminated candidiasis. IL-18 knockout (IL-18-/-) mice, but not IL-12-/- mice, displayed an increased mortality due to C. albicans infection, accompanied by a decreased clearance of the yeasts from the kidneys late during the course of infection. Histopathology of the organs, combined with phagocyte recruitment experiments, showed a decreased influx of monocytes at the sites of Candida infection, mainly in the IL-18-/- mice. Whereas production of the chemokine KC was decreased in both IL-18-/- and IL-12-/- mice, MIP-2 production was deficient only in IL-18-/- animals, which may explain the differences in phagocyte recruitment. In addition, although IFN-, production capacity, as a parameter of the Th1-protective immunity, was reduced by 65 to 80% in the IL-12-/- mice, this defect was even more pronounced in the IL-18-/- mice (85 to 95% downmodulation). In conclusion, the anticandidal effects of endogenous IL-18 are mediated late during the infection by assuring a proper IFN-, response and promoting the infiltration of the site of infection by monocytes. [source]

    Role of peroxynitrite in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and sensitization in mice

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Syed F. Ali
    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recently, we have reported that copper/zinc(CuZn)-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice are resistant to METH-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the role of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), susceptibility of nNOS knockout (KO) mice and sensitization to psychostimulants after neurotoxic doses of METH. Male SwissWebster mice were treated with or without 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) along with METH (5 mg/kg,ip,q 3h × 3) and were sacrificed 72 h after the last METH injection. Dopamine (DA) and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding sites were determined in striatum from saline and METH-treated animals. 7-NI completely protected against the depletion of DA, and DAT in striatum. In follow-up experiments nNOS KO mice along with appropriate control (C57BL/6N, SV129 and B6JSV129) mice were treated with METH (5 mg/kg,ip, q 3h × 3) and were sacrificed 72 h after dosing. This schedule of METH administrations resulted in only 10,20% decrease in tissue content of DA and no apparent change in the number of DAT binding sites in nNOS KO mice. However, this regime of METH resulted in a significant decrease in the content of DA as well as DAT binding sites in the wild-type animals. Pre-exposure to single or multiple doses of METH resulted in a marked locomotion sensitization in response to METH. However, the nNOS KO mice show no sensitization in response to METH after single or multiple injections of METH. Therefore, these studies strongly suggest the role of peroxynitrite, nNOS and DA system in METH-induced neurotoxicity and behavioral sensitization. [source]

    Serum or target deprivation-induced neuronal death causes oxidative neuronal accumulation of Zn2+ and loss of NAD+

    Christian T. Sheline
    Abstract Trophic deprivation-mediated neuronal death is important during development, after acute brain or nerve trauma, and in neurodegeneration. Serum deprivation (SD) approximates trophic deprivation in vitro, and an in vivo model is provided by neuronal death in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) after ablation of the visual cortex (VCA). Oxidant-induced intracellular Zn2+ release ([Zn2+]i) from metallothionein-3 (MT-III), mitochondria or ,protein Zn2+', was implicated in trophic deprivation neurotoxicity. We have previously shown that neurotoxicity of extracellular Zn2+ required entry, increased [Zn2+]i, and reduction of NAD+ and ATP levels causing inhibition of glycolysis and cellular metabolism. Exogenous NAD+ and sirtuin inhibition attenuated Zn2+ neurotoxicity. Here we show that: (1) Zn2+ is released intracellularly after oxidant and SD injuries, and that sensitivity to these injuries is proportional to neuronal Zn2+ content; (2) NAD+ loss is involved , restoration of NAD+ using exogenous NAD+, pyruvate or nicotinamide attenuated these injuries, and potentiation of NAD+ loss potentiated injury; (3) neurons from genetically modified mouse strains which reduce intracellular Zn2+ content (MT-III knockout), reduce NAD+ catabolism (PARP-1 knockout) or increase expression of an NAD+ synthetic enzyme (Wlds) each had attenuated SD and oxidant neurotoxicities; (4) sirtuin inhibitors attenuated and sirtuin activators potentiated these neurotoxicities; (5) visual cortex ablation (VCA) induces Zn2+ staining and death only in ipsilateral LGNd neurons, and a 1 mg/kg Zn2+ diet attenuated injury; and finally (6) NAD+ synthesis and levels are involved given that LGNd neuronal death after VCA was dramatically reduced in Wlds animals, and by intraperitoneal pyr vate or nicotinamide. Zn2+ toxicity is involved in serum and trophic deprivation-induced neuronal death. [source]

    Mu opioid receptor modulation of somatodendritic dopamine overflow: GABAergic and glutamatergic mechanisms

    V. I. Chefer
    Abstract Mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of somatodendritic dopamine neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was investigated using conventional microdialysis in freely moving rats and mice. Reverse dialysis of the MOR agonist DAMGO (50 and 100 ,m) into the VTA of rats produced a concentration-dependent increase in dialysate dopamine concentrations. Basal dopamine overflow in the VTA was unaltered in mice lacking the MOR gene. However, basal ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA) overflow in these animals was significantly increased, whereas glutamate overflow was decreased. Intra-VTA perfusion of DAMGO into wild-type (WT) mice increased dopamine overflow. GABA concentrations were decreased, whereas glutamate concentrations in the VTA were unaltered. Consistent with the loss of MOR, no effect of DAMGO was observed in MOR knockout (KO) mice. These data provide the first direct demonstration of tonically active MOR systems in the VTA that regulate basal glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in this region. We hypothesize that increased GABAergic neurotransmission following constitutive deletion of MOR is due to the elimination of a tonic inhibitory influence of MOR on GABAergic neurons in the VTA, whereas decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission in MOR KO mice is a consequence of intensified GABA tone on glutamatergic neurons and/or terminals. As a consequence, somatodendritic dopamine release is unaltered. Furthermore, MOR KO mice do not exhibit the positive correlation between basal dopamine levels and the glutamate/GABA ratio observed in WT mice. Together, our findings indicate a critical role of VTA MOR in maintaining an intricate balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs to dopaminergic neurons. [source]

    The maintenance of specific aspects of neuronal function and behavior is dependent on programmed cell death of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus

    Woon Ryoung Kim
    Abstract A considerable number of new neurons are generated daily in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus, but only a subset of these survive, as many adult-generated neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD). However, the significance of PCD in the adult brain for the functionality of DG circuits is not known. Here, we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of Bax -knockout (Bax -KO) mice in which PCD of post-mitotic neurons is prevented. The continuous increase in DG cell numbers in Bax -KO mice resulted in the readjustment of afferent and efferent synaptic connections, represented by age-dependent reductions in the dendritic arborization of DG neurons and in the synaptic contact ratio of mossy fibers with CA3 dendritic spines. These neuroanatomical changes were associated with reductions in synaptic transmission and reduced performance in a contextual fear memory task in 6-month-old Bax -KO mice. These results suggest that the elimination of excess DG neurons via Bax -dependent PCD in the adult brain is required for the normal organization and function of the hippocampus. [source]

    GluR3 subunit regulates sleep, breathing and seizure generation

    Hendrik W. Steenland
    Abstract The functional role of GluR3 AMPA (,-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor subunits has remained elusive. In vitro studies of genetic knockout mice have not yielded significant alterations in synaptic communication. However, behavioural approaches utilizing knockout mice have shown that the subunit may be involved in exploration and motor coordination, suggesting that in vivo methodologies may be more forthcoming. We tested the hypothesis that GluR3 subunits are involved in the modulation of neural network activity. We used a freely behaving mouse model to examine the effect of GluR3,/, on field potential recordings of electroencephalogram, vital functions (i.e. breathing and heart rate) and muscle tone across natural sleep and wakefulness states. We found that GluR3,/, mice virtually lack electroencephalographic signatures of NREM sleep (n = 9) as demonstrated by reduction in electroencephalogram power in the low-frequency bands (,1, ,2 and ,). In addition, three of nine GluR3,/, mice expressed seizure activity during wakefulness and sleep, suggesting that deletion of the GluR3 gene may predispose to seizure. GluR3 gene knockout also produced state-dependent respiratory modulation, with a selective reduction in breathing rate during behavioural inactivity. These findings show that GluR3 subunits have diverse neurophysiological impact, modulating oscillatory networks for sleep, breathing and seizure generation. Finally, this is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of direct diaphragm electromyogram recordings in freely behaving mice. [source]

    Impact of S100B on local field potential patterns in anesthetized and kainic acid-induced seizure conditions in vivo

    Seiichi Sakatani
    Abstract S100B is a calcium-binding protein predominantly expressed in astrocytes. Previous studies using gene-manipulated animals have suggested that the protein has a role in synaptic plasticity and learning. In order to assess the physiological roles of the protein in active neural circuitry, we recorded spontaneous neural activities from various layers of the neocortex and hippocampus in urethane-anesthetized S100B knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) control mice. Typical local field oscillation patterns including the slow (0.5,2 Hz) oscillations in the neocortex, theta (3,8 Hz) and sharp wave-associated ripple (120,180 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampus were observed in both genotypes. Comparisons of the frequency, power and peak amplitude have shown that these oscillatory patterns were virtually indistinguishable between WT and KO. When seizure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid, a difference between WT and KO appeared in the CA1 radiatum local field potential pattern, where seizure events were characterized by prominent appearance of hyper-synchronous gamma band (30,80 Hz) activity. Although both genotypes developed seizures within 40 min, the gamma amplitude was significantly smaller during the development of seizures in KO mice. Our results suggest that deficiency of S100B does not have a profound impact on spontaneous neural activity in normal conditions. However, when neural activity was sufficiently raised, activation of S100B-related pathways may take effect, resulting in modulation of neural activities. [source]

    Local and descending circuits regulate long-term potentiation and zif268 expression in spinal neurons

    Lars Jųrgen Rygh
    Abstract Long-term potentiation (LTP), a use dependent long-lasting modification of synaptic strength, was first discovered in the hippocampus and later shown to occur in sensory areas of the spinal cord. Here we demonstrate that spinal LTP requires the activation of a subset of superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1-R) that have previously been shown to mediate certain forms of hyperalgesia. These neurons participate in local spinal sensory processing, but are also the origin of a spino-bulbo-spinal loop driving a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5HT3-R)- mediated descending facilitation of spinal pain processing. Using a saporin-substance P conjugate to produce site-specific neuronal ablation, we demonstrate that NK1-R expressing cells in the superficial dorsal horn are crucial for the generation of LTP-like changes in neuronal excitability in deep dorsal horn neurons and this is modulated by descending 5HT3-R-mediated facilitatory controls. Hippocampal LTP is associated with early expression of the immediate-early gene zif268 and knockout of the gene leads to deficits in long-term LTP and learning and memory. We found that spinal LTP is also correlated with increased neuronal expression of zif268 in the superficial dorsal horn and that zif268 antisense treatment resulted in deficits in the long-term maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Our results support the suggestion that the generation of LTP in dorsal horn neurons following peripheral injury may be one mechanism whereby acute pain can be transformed into a long-term pain state. [source]

    Hippocampal vulnerability following traumatic brain injury: a potential role for neurotrophin-4/5 in pyramidal cell neuroprotection

    N. C. Royo
    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes selective hippocampal cell death, which is believed to be associated with cognitive impairment observed both in clinical and experimental settings. Although neurotrophin administration has been tested as a strategy to prevent cell death following TBI, the potential neuroprotective role of neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) in TBI remains unknown. We hypothesized that NT-4/5 would offer neuroprotection for selectively vulnerable hippocampal neurons following TBI. Measurements of NT-4/5 in rats subjected to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI revealed two,threefold increases in the injured cortex and hippocampus in the acute period (1,3 days) following brain injury. Subsequently, the response of NT-4/5 knockout (NT-4/5,/,) mice to controlled-cortical impact TBI was investigated. NT-4/5,/, mice were more susceptible to selective pyramidal cell loss in Ahmon's corn (CA) subfields of the hippocampus following TBI, and showed impaired motor recovery when compared with their brain-injured wild-type controls (NT-4/5wt). Additionally, we show that acute, prolonged administration of recombinant NT-4/5 (5 µg/kg/day) prevented up to 50% of the hippocampal CA pyramidal cell death following LFP TBI in rats. These results suggest that post-traumatic increases in endogenous NT-4/5 may be part of an adaptive neuroprotective response in the injured brain, and that administration of this neurotrophic factor may be useful as a therapeutic strategy following TBI. [source]

    Paradoxical effects of prodynorphin gene deletion on basal and cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens

    V. I. Chefer
    Abstract Quantitative and conventional microdialysis were used to investigate the effects of constitutive deletion of the prodynorphin gene on basal dopamine (DA) dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the responsiveness of DA neurons to an acute cocaine challenge. Saline- and cocaine-evoked locomotor activity were also assessed. Quantitative microdialysis revealed that basal extracellular DA levels were decreased, while the DA extraction fraction, an indirect measure of DA uptake, was unchanged in dynorphin (DYN) knockout (KO) mice. The ability of cocaine to increase NAc DA levels was reduced in KO. Similarly, cocaine-evoked locomotor activity was decreased in KO. The selective kappa opioid receptor agonist U-69593 decreased NAc dialysate DA levels in wildtype mice and this effect was enhanced in KO. Administration of the selective kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to KO mice attenuated the decrease in cocaine-induced DA levels. However, it was ineffective in altering the decreased locomotor response to cocaine. These studies demonstrate that constitutive deletion of prodynorphin is associated with a reduction of extracellular NAc DA levels and a decreased responsiveness to acute cocaine. Data regarding the effects of U-69593 and nor-binaltorphimine in KO suggest that the kappa opioid receptor is up-regulated as a consequence of prodynorphin gene deletion and that this adaptation underlies the decrease in basal DA dynamics and cocaine-evoked DA levels observed in DYN KO mice. These findings suggest that the phenotype of DYN KO mice is not solely due to loss of endogenous opioid peptide but also reflects developmental compensations that occur at the level of the opioid receptor. [source]