Knockdown Experiments (knockdown + experiment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

NANOG maintains self-renewal of primate ES cells in the absence of a feeder layer

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2006
Shin-ya Yasuda
Nanog is a homeodomain transcription factor that is expressed specifically in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells and has been shown to be essential in the maintenance of pluripotency in mouse ES cells. To examine the function of NANOG in primate ES cells, we generated transgenic monkey ES cell lines expressing three- to seven-fold higher levels of NANOG protein compared to wild-type ES cells. These NANOG over-expressing cell lines retained their undifferentiated state in the absence of a feeder layer, as shown by expression of undifferentiated ES cell markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and OCT-4. We also demonstrated that in vitro differentiation of transgenic cell lines was mostly restricted to the ectodermal lineage, as examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Knockdown experiments using NANOG small interfering (si) RNA resulted in induction of differentiation markers such as AFP, GATA4 and GATA6 for the endoderm and CDX2 for the trophectoderm. These results suggest that NANOG plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotent state of primate ES cells. [source]

Myxoid liposarcoma FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncogene induces C/EBP ,-mediated interleukin 6 expression

Melker Göransson
Abstract The myxoid/round cell liposarcoma oncogene FUS-DDIT3 is the result of a translocation derived gene fusion between the splicing factor FUS and DDIT3. In order to investigate the downstream targets of DDIT3, and the transforming effects of the FUS-DDIT3 fusion protein, we have introduced DDIT3-GFP and FUS-DDIT3-GFP constructs into a human fibrosarcoma cell line. The gene expression profiles of stable transfectants were compared to the original fibrosarcoma cell line by microarray analysis. We here report that the NF,B and C/EBP , controlled gene IL6 is upregulated in DDIT3- and FUS-DDIT3-expressing fibrosarcoma cell lines and in myxoid liposarcoma cell lines. Strong expression of the tumor associated multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 was confirmed both at mRNA and protein level. Knockdown experiments using siRNA against CEBPB transcripts showed that the effect of FUS-DDIT3 on IL6 expression is C/EBP , dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed direct interaction between the IL6 promoter and the C/EBP , protein. In addition, the effect of DDIT3 and FUS-DDIT3 on the expression of other acute phase genes was examined using real-time PCR. We demonstrate for the first time that DDIT3 and FUS-DDIT3 show opposite transcriptional regulation of IL8 and suggest that FUS-DDIT3 may affect the synergistic activation of promoters regulated by C/EBP ,,B. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The lim domain only protein 7 is important in zebrafish heart development

Elisabeth B. Ott
Abstract The LIM domain only protein 7 (LMO7), a member of the PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein family is a candidate gene with possible roles in embryonic development and breast cancer progression. LMO7 has been linked to actin cytoskeleton organization through nectin/afadin and to cell,cell adhesion by means of E-cadherin/catenin. In addition, LMO7 has been shown to regulate transcription of the nuclear membrane protein Emerin and other muscle relevant genes. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate LMO7 expression during embryonic development in three widely used vertebrate model species: the zebrafish, the chicken and the mouse. Our temporal and spatial gene expression analysis revealed both common and distinct patterns between these species. In mouse and chicken embryos we found expression in the outflow tract, the inflow tract, the pro-epicardial organ and the second heart field, structures highly important in the developing heart. Furthermore, gene knockdown experiments in zebrafish embryos resulted in severe defects in heart development with effects on the conduction system and on heart localization. In summary, we present here the first developmental study of LMO7. We reveal the temporal and spatial expression patterns of this important gene during mouse, chicken and fish development and our findings suggest essential functions for LMO7 during vertebrate heart development. Developmental Dynamics 237:3940,3952, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Novel genes involved in Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis: Characterization of gene knockdown embryos

Mayuko Hamada
Abstract The sequenced genome of the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis contains nearly 2,500 genes that have vertebrate homologues, but their functions are as yet unknown. To identify novel genes involved in early chordates embryogenesis, we previously screened 200 Ciona genes by knockdown experiments using specific morpholino oligonucleotides and found that suppression of the translation of 40 genes caused embryonic defects (Yamada et al. [2003] Development 130:6485,6495). We have since examined an additional 304 genes, that is, screening 504 genes overall, and a total of 111 genes showed morphological defects when gene function was suppressed. We further examined the role of these genes in the differentiation of six major tissues of the embryo: endoderm, muscle, epidermis, neural tissue, mesenchyme, and notochord. Based on the similarity of phenotypes of gene knockdown embryos, genes were categorized into several groups, with the suggestion that the genes within a given group are involved in similar developmental processes. For example, five were shown to be novel genes that are likely involved in ,-catenin,mediated endoderm formation. The type of large-scale screening used is, therefore, a powerful approach to identify novel genes with significant developmental functions, the details of which will be determined in future studies. Developmental Dynamics 236:1820,1831, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Gene expression silencing with ,specific' small interfering RNA goes beyond specificity , a study of key parameters to take into account in the onset of small interfering RNA off-target effects

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2008
Sébastien Vankoningsloo
RNA-mediated gene silencing (RNA interference) is a powerful way to knock down gene expression and has revolutionized the fields of cellular and molecular biology. Indeed, the transfection of cultured cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is currently considered to be the best and easiest approach to loss-of-function experiments. However, several recent studies underscore the off-target and potential cytotoxic effects of siRNAs, which can lead to the silencing of unintended mRNAs. In this study, we used a low-density microarray to assess gene expression modifications in response to five different siRNAs in various cell types and transfection conditions. We found major differences in off-target signature according to: (a) siRNA sequence; (b) cell type; (c) duration of transfection; and (d) post-transfection time before analysis. These results contribute to a better understanding of important parameters that could impact on siRNA side effects in knockdown experiments. [source]

The core-aldehyde 9-oxononanoyl cholesterol increases the level of transforming growth factor ,1-specific receptors on promonocytic U937 cell membranes

AGING CELL, Issue 2 2009
Simona Gargiulo
Summary Among the broad variety of compounds generated via oxidative reactions in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and subsequently found in the atherosclerotic plaque are aldehydes that are still esterified to the parent lipid, termed core aldehydes. The most represented cholesterol core aldehyde in LDL is 9-oxononanoyl cholesterol (9-ONC), an oxidation product of cholesteryl linoleate. 9-ONC, at a concentration detectable in biological material, markedly up-regulates mRNA expression and protein level of both the pro-fibrogenic and pro-apoptotic cytokine transforming growth factor ,1 (TGF-,1) and the TGF-, receptor type I (T,RI) in human U937 promonocytic cells. We also observed increased membrane presentation of TGF-, receptor type II (T,RII). Experiments employing the T,RI inhibitor SB431542, or the TGF, antagonist DANFc chimera, have shown that the effect on T,RI is directly induced by 9-ONC, while T,RII up-regulation seems stimulated by its specific ligand, i.e. TGF,1, over-secreted meanwhile by treated cells. Increased levels of the cytokine and of its specific receptors in 9-ONC-treated cells clearly occurs through stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), as demonstrated by ERK1/2 knockdown experiments using mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1 and MEK2) siRNAs, or PD98059, a selective MEK1/2 inhibitor. 9-ONC might thus sustain further vascular remodeling due to atherosclerosis, not simply by stimulating synthesis of the pro-fibrogenic cytokine TGF-,1 in vascular cells, but also and chiefly by enhancing the TGF-,1 autocrine loop, because of the marked up-regulation of the cytokine's specific receptors T,RI and T,RII. [source]

The knockdown of endogenous replication factor C4 decreases the growth and enhances the chemosensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

Masaaki Arai
Abstract Aims: To identify differentially expressed genes and thereby detect potential molecular targets for future therapies directed against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: To isolate differentially expressed genes between HCC and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues, cDNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed. Gene knockdown experiments in HepG2 cells were also performed using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Proteins were detected by immunostaining, and cell proliferation was analysed using the MTT/WST-8 assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were performed using flow cytometry. Results: After an intensive screening for differentially expressed genes in HCC tissues, we isolated 23 upregulated genes in these lesions. Among these, we focused on the replication factor C4 (RFC4) gene. The expression of endogenous RFC4 proteins in HepG2 cells was found to be significantly reduced by RFC4 -specific siRNA. This inhibition of RFC4 expression correlated with a decrease in cellular proliferation, increased levels of apoptosis and a sensitizing of the cells to the DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and camptothecin. Conclusion: The replication factor C4 gene may be a novel target for developing cancer therapeutics, which can enhance the antitumour activity of chemotherapeutic agents that induce DNA damage. [source]

Optimization of an siRNA-expression system with an improved hairpin and its significant suppressive effects in mammalian cells

Makoto Miyagishi
Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a phenomenon in which expression of an individual gene can be specifically silenced by introducing a double-stranded RNA, one complementary to the gene, into cells. This phenomenon can be observed in mammalian cells when small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are used, and is receiving attention as the most powerful tool for reverse genetics in the post genome era. Several groups have developed vector-based siRNA-expression systems that can induce RNAi in living cells. Methods We describe here a comparative analysis of various siRNA-expression systems, in which we examined the effects of stem length, loop sequence and insertion of mutation(s) and/or bulges in the stem sequence on silencing effects and on the stability of the vectors. Results As a result of the comparative analysis, we determined the following optimized siRNA-expression system: U6 promoter-driven hairpin-type dsRNA with 21-nt stem length, three to four mutations in the sense strand only, and the optimized 9-nt loop sequence, derived from microRNA. Moreover, we demonstrate that the siRNA-expression system with a tetracycline-regulated U6 promoter(s) could have the potential to control RNAi in cells, and that the HIV vector-mediated transfer of an siRNA-expression cassette into cells resulted in efficient silencing of a target gene at a multiplicity of infection as low as five. Conclusion The mutated hairpin siRNAs and their genetically stable coding vectors could be very useful for gene knockdown experiments, and could further benefit gene therapy using RNAi. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Activation of synoviolin promoter in rheumatoid synovial cells by a novel transcription complex of interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 and GA binding protein ,

Toshihiko Izumi
Objective Synoviolin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and its overexpression is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reported previously that Ets binding site 1 (EBS-1) within the synoviolin promoter is crucial for the expression of synoviolin, and GA binding protein (GABP) binds to this site. This study was undertaken to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transcriptional regulation via EBS-1. Methods We performed purification and identification of complex components that bind to EBS-1 and inspected their contributions to the transcriptional regulation of synoviolin in rheumatoid synovial cells. We biochemically purified proteins that had EBS-1 binding activity and identified the proteins using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The identified proteins were verified to recruit and form the complex on EBS-1 using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and coimmunoprecipitation assay. Furthermore, their transcription activities were tested by reporter assays and RNA interference experiments. Results We identified interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF-3) as a novel factor in the complex. ILF-3 was demonstrated to activate the synoviolin promoter via association with GABP, in rheumatoid synovial cells. In addition, further activation was observed with ILF-2 and GABP,, previously reported interactants of ILF-3 and GABP,, respectively. Moreover, ILF-3,knockdown experiments showed reduced expression of the synoviolin gene. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ILF-3, which has been known to regulate IL-2 expression in T cells, up-regulates synoviolin expression with GABP, in rheumatoid synovial cells. ILF-3 might be a target for RA treatment through its effect on IL-2 in T cells and synoviolin in rheumatoid synovial cells. [source]