Knockdown Cells (knockdown + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Transcription factor NF-Y is involved in regulation of the JNK pathway during Drosophila thorax development

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 2 2008
Yasuhide Yoshioka
The CCAAT motif-binding factor, nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) consists of three different subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC. Knockdown of Drosophila NF-YA (dNF-YA) in the notum compartment of wing discs by a pannir -GAL4 and UAS- dNF-YAIR mainly resulted in a thorax disclosed phenotype. Reduction of the Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) basket (bsk) gene dose enhanced the knockdown of dNF-YA-induced phenotype. Monitoring of JNK activity in the wing disc by LacZ expression in a puckered (puc) -LacZ enhancer trap line revealed reduction in the level of the JNK reporter, puc-LacZ signals, in dNF-YA RNAi clones. In addition, expression of wild-type Bsk effectively suppressed the phenotype induced by knockdown of dNF-YA. The bsk gene promoter contains a CCAAT motif and this motif plays a positive role in the promoter activity. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in S2 cells with anti-dNF-YA IgG and quantitative real-time PCR. The bsk gene promoter region containing the CCAAT boxes was effectively amplified in the immunoprecipitates by PCR. However, this region was not amplified in the immunoprecipitates from dNF-YA knockdown cells. Furthermore, the level of endogenous bsk mRNA is reduced in the dNF-YA knockdown larvae. These results suggest that dNF-Y is necessary for proper bsk expression and activity of JNK pathway during thorax development. [source]

Oxygen Tension Regulates the Expression of ANK (Progressive Ankylosis) in an HIF-1-Dependent Manner in Growth Plate Chondrocytes,,

Raihana Zaka
Abstract The proximal promoter region of ANK, a gene that codes for a protein that regulates the transport of inorganic pyrophosphate, contains two hypoxia responsive elements (HREs); therefore, we studied the expression and function of ANK at different oxygen tensions. ATDC5 and N1511 clonal chondrocytic cells were cultured in either hypoxia (2% O2) or normoxia (21% O2). Transcript and protein levels of ANK were depressed in hypoxic conditions, as were levels of extracellular pyrophosphate (ePPi). To determine whether HIF-1 was involved in the oxemic response, Hif-1, knockdown cells were exposed to varying oxygen conditions and ANK expression was assessed. Knockdown of Hif-1, resulted in low levels of expression of ANK in hypoxia and normoxia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays explored the binding of Hif-1, to ANK HREs and showed that Hif-1, is able to bind to the HREs of ANK more avidly in normoxia than in hypoxia. Furthermore, functional studies of Hif-1, activity using luciferase reporter assays of wildtype and mutagenized HREs showed that only HRE-1 binds Hif-1, in normoxia. Expression of ANK in growth plate and articular cartilage was low in hypoxic regions of the tissues, and higher levels of ANK expression were observed in the synovium and meniscus in regions that have a normally higher oxygen tension. The data suggest that ANK expression and function in vitro and in vivo are repressed in hypoxic environments and that the effect is regulated by HIF-1. [source]

Oxidative stress in NPC1 deficient cells: protective effect of allopregnanolone

Stefania Zampieri
Abstract Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal function of NPC1 or NPC2 proteins, leading to an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the lysosomes. The mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology in NPC disease are not clear. Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathophysiology of different neurological disorders and the effect of GSL accumulation on the intracellular redox state has been documented. Therefore, we determined whether the intracellular redox state might contribute to the NPC disease pathophysiology. Because the treatment of NPC mice with allopregnanolone (ALLO) increases their lifespan and delays the onset of neurological impairment, we analysed the effect of ALLO on the oxidative damage in human NPC fibroblasts. Concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were higher in fibroblasts from NPC patients than in fibroblasts from normal subjects. Fibroblasts from NPC patients were more susceptible to cell death through apoptosis after an acute oxidative insult. This process is mediated by activation of the NF-,B signalling pathway. Knockdown of NPC1 mRNA both in normal fibroblasts and in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells caused increased ROS concentrations. ALLO treatment of fibroblasts from NPC patients or NPC1 knockdown cells reduced the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation and prevented peroxide-induced apoptosis and NF-kB activation. Thus, these findings suggest that oxidative stress might contribute to the NPC disease and ALLO might be beneficial in the treatment of the disease, at least in part, due to its ability to restore the intracellular redox state. [source]

Hypoxia stimulates the autocrine regulation of migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via HIF-1,-dependent expression of thrombospondin-1

Mayuko Osada-Oka
Abstract The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells from the media to intima and their subsequent proliferation are critical causes of arterial wall thickening. In atherosclerotic lesions increases in the thickness of the vascular wall and the impairment of oxygen diffusion capacity result in the development of hypoxic lesions. We investigated the effect of hypoxia on the migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) via HIF-1,-dependent expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). When the cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions, mRNA and protein levels of TSP-1, and mRNA levels of integrin ,3 were increased with the increase in HIF-1, protein. DNA synthesis and migration of the cells were stimulated under the conditions, and a neutralizing anti-TSP-1 antibody apparently suppressed the migration, but not DNA synthesis. The migration was also inhibited by RGD peptide that binds to integrin ,3. Furthermore, the migration was completely suppressed in HIF-1,-knockdown cells exposed to hypoxia, while it was significantly enhanced in HIF-1,-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the hypoxia induces the migration of CASMCs, and that the migration is elicited by TSP-1 of which induction is fully dependent on the stabilization of HIF-1,, in autocrine regulation. Thus we suggest that HIF-1, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. J. Cell. Biochem. 104: 1918,1926, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Suppression of growth of pancreatic cancer cell and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by gene silencing with RNA interference

OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-angiogenesis and tumor cell growth suppressive effects resulted from gene silencing by RNAi in BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: The designation and transfection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-siRNA lentivirus was carried out in vitro. Real-time PCR and western blot were conducted to measure the expression levels of VEGF mRNA and protein. Flow cytometry was employed to evaluate cell apoptosis and cell death. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of VEGF-siRNA. A 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to picture the cellular growth. For the in vivo study, BxPC-3 cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to form xenografts. The mice were divided into three groups according to the intervention used. The control group, the negative control group and the knockdown group of mice were injected with saline, an empty lentivirus vehicle and lentivirus carrying VEGF-siRNA, respectively. None of the mice died during the study. When these mice were killed, the xenografts were collected and the tumor sizes of the different groups were compared. Finally, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the VEGF expression level and microvascular density. RESULTS: After the transfection of VEGF-siRNA lentivirus, the cellular expression of VEGF mRNA decreased to 50% of the control and the VEGF protein in the BxPC-3 cells decreased to 30% of the control. Apoptosis and cell death increased after transfection of the VEGF-siRNA lentivirus. The LDH assay showed high cytotoxicity induced by VEGF-siRNA lentivirus transfection. The MTT assay showed slower cellular growth in the knockdown cells. Tumor growth suppression was observed in nude mice that had received the VEGF-siRNA lentivirus transfection, and the tumor sizes of the xenografts in this group were clearly smaller than those in other two groups. VEGF expression and microvascular density were significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: Vascular endothelial growth factor gene silencing via VEGF-siRNA can effectively inhibit the production of VEGF and exert an anti-angiogenesis and tumor cell growth suppressive effect both in vitro and in vivo. [source]

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase inhibits hepatitis C virus replication but may be not essential in interferon treatment

Jin-Hai Chang
Abstract Background: Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene, is activated by binding with double-stranded RNA, a putative replicative intermediate of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Activated PKR phosphorylates the , subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 to inhibit the translation of viral protein. Aims/methods: We established stable PKR knockdown Huh7 cells using RNA interference and investigated the effect of PKR against HCV replication using a subgenomic replicon that expressed luciferase reporter protein and the JFH1 full-length HCV genome. Results: In stable PKR knockdown cells that harboured a subgenomic replicon, luciferase activity was approximately three times higher than that of control cells, indicating that the subgenomic replicon replicated with a higher efficiency in stable PKR knockdown cells than that in control cells. Furthermore, stable PKR knockdown cells secreted significantly more HCV particles than did control cells after transfection with the full-length HCV genome. The replication of the subgenomic replicon was suppressed by the addition of IFN-, in both cells. Although the extent of suppression was significantly lower in stable PKR knockdown than control cells using a low concentration (2.5,5 U/ml) of IFN-,, even 10 U/ml IFN-, suppressed the replication of subgenomic replicon by >98% in both cells. Conclusions: Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase plays an important role in suppressing HCV replication in an innate state, but may not be essential in IFN therapy. [source]

Akt1-mediated Intracellular Oxidation after UVB Irradiation Suppresses Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Cell Detachment and Serum Starvation

Yuko Ibuki
Apoptosis is an important cell death system that deletes damaged and mutated cells to prevent cancer. We have previously reported that a certain dose of UVB irradiation inhibited the apoptosis induced by serum starvation and cell detachment, leading to cell transformation. This antiapoptotic effect was partially inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitors. UVB irradiation is known to cause the phosphorylation of Akt via the activation of PI3-kinase; however, the Akt isoform-specific relationship has not yet been clarified. Notably, the role in antiapoptotic effect of UVB has yet to be elucidated. In this study, the role of Akt1 in the UVB-induced inhibition of apoptosis was examined by Akt1 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA). NIH3T3 cells showed typical apoptotic cell death by serum starvation and cell detachment, which was significantly inhibited by UVB irradiation. Akt1 knockdown decreased the antiapoptotic effect of UVB. Hydrogen peroxide-induced suppression of cell death was also decreased in Akt1 knockdown cells. An antioxidant, N -acetylcysteine, inhibited the antiapoptotic effect by UVB irradiation, whereas no inhibition was observed in Akt1 knockdown cells. Furthermore, UVB-induced intracellular peroxidation was not observed in the knockdown cells, indicating that Akt1 played an important role in mediating the intracellular redox status. Treatment with insulin had a similar antiapoptotic effect as UVB irradiation involving intracellular peroxidation, which was also attenuated in Akt1 knockdown cells. These findings suggest that appropriate intracellular oxidation after UVB irradiation prevented apoptosis, a process which might be partially regulated by the production of reactive oxygen species mediated by Akt1. [source]

The mTOR target 4E-BP1 contributes to differential protein expression during normoxia and hypoxia through changes in mRNA translation efficiency

MichaŽl G. Magagnin
Abstract Hypoxia causes a rapid and sustained inhibition in mRNA translation that is characterized by both a transient phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2,) and by inhibition of the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E via activation of two distinct inhibitory proteins, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) target 4E-BP1 and the eIF4E transporter 4E-T. Although the importance of eIF2, phosphorylation during hypoxia has been clearly demonstrated, there is little information on the potential relevance of eIF4E regulation. We generated HeLa cells stably expressing a short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) against 4E-BP1 and found that despite efficient knockdown, no significant changes occurred in the overall inhibition of mRNA translation during hypoxia. However, using a proteomics approach we identified seven proteins that were exclusively expressed in the 4E-BP1 knockdown cells during both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Further investigation of the transcriptional and translational regulation of these genes by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the loss of 4E-BP1 causes a significant increase in the rate of protein synthesis of S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) and transgelin 2. These 4E-BP1 regulated proteins have previously been associated with tumor cell motility, invasion and metastasis and may thus contribute to an adverse tumor phenotype. [source]