Knee Osteoarthritis (knee + osteoarthritis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Necessary and Discretionary Activities in Knee Osteoarthritis: Do They Mediate the Pain,Depression Relationship?

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
Patricia A. Parmelee PhD
ABSTRACT Objective., This study examined direct vs indirect associations of pain and physical function with depression in 369 older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A key focus was the distinction of functional disability in necessary tasks (basic and instrumental activities of daily living) from discretionary, leisure activities. Design., A naturalistic longitudinal study examined effects of demographic variables, indicators of arthritis status, general health, pain, and several measures of functional disability upon depressive symptoms at baseline and 1 year later. Setting and Patients., Participants with diagnosed knee OA were recruited from rheumatological and general geriatric outpatient clinics, as well as public service announcements. Outcome Measure., Depressive symptoms, measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results., At baseline, the relationships of depression with functional disability and activity limitation were wholly mediated by pain. In contrast, activity participation was independently linked with depression, even controlling health and demographic variables. A 1-year follow-up revealed that depressive symptoms increased with increasing health problems, and with reduction in activity participation over time. Having and retaining favorite pastimes were also associated with reduced depressive symptomatology at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Conclusions., These data highlight the disease-specific nature of paths among depression, pain, and disability, and the importance of considering discretionary as well as necessary activities in evaluating effects of pain upon quality of life. [source]

Tibial subchondral trabecular volumetric bone density in medial knee joint osteoarthritis using peripheral quantitative computed tomography technology

Kim L. Bennell
Objective Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is an organ-level failure of the joint involving pathologic changes in articular cartilage and bone. This cross-sectional study compared apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of proximal tibial subchondral trabecular bone in people with and without knee OA, using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Methods Seventy-five individuals with mild or moderate medial compartment knee OA and 41 asymptomatic controls were recruited. Peripheral QCT was used to measure vBMD of trabecular bone beneath medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments at levels of 2% and 4% of tibial length, distal to the tibial plateau. Results There was no significant difference in vBMD beneath the overall medial and lateral compartments between the 3 groups. However, in the affected medial compartment of those with moderate OA, lower vBMD was seen in the 2 posterior subregions compared with controls and those with mild knee OA, while higher vBMD was seen in the anteromedial subregion. Beneath the unaffected or lesser affected lateral compartment, significantly lower vBMD was seen at the 2% level in the anterior and lateral subregions of those with moderate disease. Volumetric BMD ratios showed relatively higher vBMD in the medial compartment compared with the lateral compartment, but these ratios were not influenced by disease status. Conclusion Subregional vBMD changes were evident beneath the medial and lateral compartments of those with moderate medial knee OA. Of import, the posterior subchondral trabecular regions of the medial tibial plateau have markedly lower vBMD. [source]

Korean herbal mixture is better than placebo for pain in knee osteoarthritis

Article first published online: 3 JUN 2010

Effectiveness of Boswellia serrata extract supplemented with a synthetic lipoxygenase inhibitor in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

Article first published online: 3 JUN 2010

Chondroitin sulphate reduces pain of knee osteoarthritis

Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010

Massage is helpful for knee osteoarthritis

Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010

Supervised clinic-based treatment enhances the effects of home-exercise programmes for knee osteoarthritis, but only in the short term

Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010

Positive study of Boswellia serrata for knee osteoarthritis suffers from methodological flaws

Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010

Glucosamine sulphate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: cost-effectiveness comparison with paracetamol

S. Scholtissen
Summary Introduction:, The aim of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine sulphate (GS) compared with paracetamol and placebo (PBO) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. For this purpose, a 6-month time horizon and a health care perspective was used. Material and methods:, The cost and effectiveness data were derived from Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index data of the Glucosamine Unum In Die (once-a-day) Efficacy trial study by Herrero-Beaumont et al. Clinical effectiveness was converted into utility scores to allow for the computation of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) For the three treatment arms Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio were calculated and statistical uncertainty was explored using a bootstrap simulation. Results:, In terms of mean utility score at baseline, 3 and 6 months, no statistically significant difference was observed between the three groups. When considering the mean utility score changes from baseline to 3 and 6 months, no difference was observed in the first case but there was a statistically significant difference from baseline to 6 months with a p-value of 0.047. When comparing GS with paracetamol, the mean baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was dominant and the mean ICER after bootstrapping was ,1376 ,/QALY indicating dominance (with 79% probability). When comparing GS with PBO, the mean baseline and after bootstrapping ICER were 3617.47 and 4285 ,/QALY, respectively. Conclusion:, The results of the present cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that GS is a highly cost-effective therapy alternative compared with paracetamol and PBO to treat patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. [source]

Lipid peroxidation, glutathione, vitamin E, and antioxidant enzymes in synovial fluid from patients with osteoarthritis

Abstract Aim:, To compare levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in synovial fluid from primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients with severe cartilage damage undergoing total knee replacement with those in the synovial fluid from injured knee joint patients with intact cartilage undergoing knee arthroscopy. Methods:, Thirty-two OA patients and 10 injured knee joint patients were recruited. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARs]), iron and glutathione (GSH) were measured using a colorimetric method. Vitamin E was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx], superoxide dismutase [SOD]) were analyzed with the use of a kinetic method. Results:, TBARs, iron and GSH levels in synovial fluid were not significantly different between OA patients and injured knee joint patients. Antioxidant enzymes such as GPx and SOD activities also indicated no significant difference. Only vitamin E level was significantly lower in the synovial fluid of OA patients than in that of the injured knee joint patients. Conclusions:, Oxidative stress may have a role in pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis. Vitamin E supplementation may have a role in the management of patients. [source]

Predictors of disability among Filipinos with knee osteoarthritis

Ester G. Penserga
Abstract Aims: This study aims to describe the level of disability of Filipino patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in relation to common risk factors. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional analytic study. Patients with knee osteoarthritis diagnosed using the American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification of knee OA, seen at East Avenue Medical Center, using the Quezon City, Philippines, were entered by convenient sampling. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC (va) 3.1 Tagalog Version) osteoarthritis index was used. Self-reported disability was measured by the function subscale of the WOMAC OA index and used as the dependent variable. Independent variables assessed as possible risk factors affecting disability were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), education (in years), number of comorbidities present, smoking status (pack years), duration of knee OA, pain and stiffness. Categories of disability were identified as high, moderate and low. Analyses of the data were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. Results: Eighty-five subjects were included in the study. The mean disability score was 674.1 ± 318.81 (moderate disability). Chi-square tests showed that the categories or levels of disability are not significantly dependent on the categorical variables. Significant direct correlations were seen between mean disability and weight (r = 0.260, P = 0.016), pain (r = 0.574, P = 0.000), and stiffness (r = 0.616, P = 0.000). Conclusion: This is the first study analysing the relationship between disability and specific risk factors among Filipino patients with knee OA. Self-reported disability of knee OA in the population studied was strongly related to pain scores, weight and joint stiffness scores. [source]

Clinical manifestations of chondromalacia patella in 260 Iranian patients

Abstract Background and aim:, Chondromalacia patella, which is characterized by softening of the patellar cartilage, is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in young women. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with chondromalacia patella in Iran. Methods:, All patients under 40 years, complaining of mechanical knee pain who were referred to Amir A'lam Rheumatology Unit, with positive shrug sign and normal knee X-rays during the period September 2000 to September 2002, were included in this study. After physical examination and knee radiography, patients with knee arthritis, knee osteoarthritis and knee periarthritis were excluded. Patients with the clinical diagnosis of chondromalacia patella were studied. The demographic data, clinical disease characteristics and disease course were recorded. Results:, There were 260 patients. They were predominantly female (F : M, 2.6 : 1), in the third decade of life and a mean age of 22.8 years at the onset of disease. Bilateral involvement was found in 92% of patients. The first manifestation was knee pain. The history of trauma or swelling of the knee occurred in about 20% of cases. The history of dislocation was 3%. Sitting with flexed knees, stairs, and the use of Turkish WCs aggravated the knee pain. About one-third had knee malalignment, mostly mild genu varus. Patella alta was seen in 1.6%. Q-angle more than 15° was seen in 90.8%. Mean Q-angle was 21.9°, mean patellar angle was 122.6°, and mean intercondylar angle was 141.5°. All patients had the shrug sign. About 90% had Rabot test and crepitation, 3.5% had knee effusion, and 1% had knee laxity. Lower limb discrepancy was seen in 6.2% and spinal deformity in 10%. Ninety-three percent of the patients were treated by conservative (medical) therapy. Conclusion:, So the classic case of chondromalacia patella is a woman in her third decade of life with mechanical knee pain and positive shrug test. [source]

The effect of heat application on pain, stiffness, physical function and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Nurcan Y
Aims and objectives., The aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of local heat application on pain, stiffness, physical function and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Background., Local heat application is used as a non-pharmacological practice for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. On the other hand, literature reveals limited information on the effects of heat application. Design., The study was a comparative study. Methods., The patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into two groups (23 patients in each) as intervention and control groups, and patients in the control group were applied with the routine medication of the physician. The intervention group received 20-minute heat application every other day for four weeks in addition to the routine medication. The data were collected using data collection form, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index and SF-36. Results., The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities disability scores of the patients with knee osteoarthritis in control and intervention groups before and after the intervention were compared, and the differences for both scores in the change were found to be statistically significant (p < 0·05). Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the control and intervention group patients in terms of changes in the scores for physical function, pain and general health perception (p < 0·05). Conclusions., It was found that heat application every other day decreased pain and disability of the patients with knee osteoarthritis. Also, heat application was found to improve the subdimensions of quality of life scores of physical function, pain and general health perception of patients. Relevance to clinical practice., The data obtained in this study on the efficiency of heat application on pain, stiffness, physical function and general health perception of patients with knee osteoarthritis may offer an insight into decision-making process for appropriate intervention. [source]

Ultrasonographic assessment of Baker's cysts after intra-articular corticosteroid injection in knee osteoarthritis

J. Carlos Acebes MD
Abstract Purpose: To assess sonographic changes in Baker's cysts (BCs) of patients with knee osteoarthritis after a single intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Methods: Thirty patients with knee osteoarthritis complicated with a symptomatic BC received a single intra-articular injection of 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Knee pain, swelling, and range of motion were evaluated. BC area and thickness of the cyst wall were measured with sonography before and 4 weeks after local treatment. Results: A significant improvement in knee pain, swelling, and range of motion after corticosteroid injection was accompanied by a decrease in size of the BCs as well as in thickness of the cyst wall as measured by sonography. Moreover, the reduction of BC area on sagittal scans after treatment was significantly correlated with the improvement in range of motion. Conclusions: In this series of osteoarthritis patients, injection of corticosteroids inside the knee joint accounted for a reduction in BC dimensions as well as cyst wall thickness. Sonography can be used not only for the diagnosis of BCs but also to monitor response to therapy. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 34:113,117, 2006 [source]

Change in serum COMP concentration due to ambulatory load is not related to knee OA Status

Annegret Mündermann
Abstract The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration is related to joint load during a 30-min walking exercise in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) and in age-matched control subjects. Blood samples were drawn from 42 patients with medial compartment knee OA and from 41 healthy age-matched control subjects immediately before, immediately after, and 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, and 5.5 h after a 30-min walking exercise on a level outdoor walking track at self-selected normal speed. Serum COMP concentrations were determined using a commercial ELISA. Basic time,distance gait variables were recorded using an activity monitor. Joint loads were measured using gait analysis. Serum COMP concentrations increased immediately after the walking exercise (+6.3% and +5.6%; p,<,0.001) and decreased over 5.5 h after the exercise (,11.1% and ,14.6%; p,<,0.040 and p,=,0.001) in patients and control subjects, respectively. The magnitude of increase in COMP concentration did not differ between groups (p,=,0.902) and did not correlate with any variables describing ambulatory loads at the joints of the lower extremity. These results, taken together with a previous study of a younger healthy population, suggest the possibility that the influence of ambulatory loads on cartilage turnover is dependent on age. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:1408,1413, 2009 [source]

Lower extremity walking mechanics of young individuals with asymptomatic varus knee alignment

Joaquin A. Barrios
Abstract Varus knee alignment is associated with an increased risk for developing medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Medial knee OA is commonly associated with altered walking mechanics in the frontal and sagittal planes, as well as altered ground reaction forces. It is unknown whether these mechanics are present in young, asymptomatic individuals with varus knees. We expected that varus-aligned individuals would generally present with frontal plane mechanics that were similar to those reported for individuals with medial knee OA. The gait mechanics of 17 asymptomatic individuals with varus knees and 17 healthy, normally aligned controls were recorded. Gait parameters associated with medial knee OA were compared between groups. The individuals with varus knees exhibited greater knee external adduction moments, knee adduction, eversion, and lateral ground reaction force than the normally aligned individuals. In addition, those with varus knees also demonstrated increased knee flexion and external knee flexor moments during midstance. These results suggest that individuals with varus knees exhibit some, but not all, of the altered mechanics seen in medial knee OA. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:1414,1419, 2009 [source]

Muscle stabilization strategies in people with medial knee osteoarthritis: The effect of instability

Laura C. Schmitt
Abstract The sensation of knee instability (shifting, buckling. and giving way) is common in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Its influence on knee stabilization strategies is unknown. This study investigated the influence of knee instability on muscle activation during walking when knee stability was challenged. Twenty people with medial knee OA participated and were grouped as OA Stable (OAS) (n,=,10) and OA Unstable (OAU) (n,=,10) based on self-reported knee instability during daily activities. Quadriceps strength, passive knee laxity, and varus alignment were assessed and related to knee instability and muscle cocontraction during walking when the support surface translated laterally. Few differences in knee joint kinematics between the groups were seen; however, there were pronounced differences in muscle activation. The OAU group used greater medial muscle cocontraction before, during, and following the lateral translation. Self-reported knee instability predicted medial muscle cocontraction, but medial laxity and limb alignment did not. The higher muscle cocontraction used by the OAU subjects appears to be an ineffective strategy to stabilize the knee. Instability and high cocontraction can be detrimental to joint integrity, and should be the focus of future research. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1180,1185, 2008 [source]

In healthy subjects without knee osteoarthritis, the peak knee adduction moment influences the acute effect of shoe interventions designed to reduce medial compartment knee load

David S. Fisher
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoe sole material stiffness changes and angle changes that are intended to reduce the peak knee adduction moment during walking. Fourteen physically active adults were tested wearing their personal shoes (control) and five intervention pairs, two with stiffness variations, two with angle variations, and a placebo shoe. The intervention shoes were evaluated based on how much they reduced the peak knee adduction moment compared to the control shoe. An ANOVA test was used to detect differences between interventions. Linear regression analysis was used to determine a relationship between the magnitude of the knee adduction moment prior to intervention and the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing the peak knee adduction moment. Peak knee adduction moments were reduced for the altered stiffness and altered angle shoes (p,<,0.010), but not for the placebo shoe (p,=,0.363). Additionally, linear regression analysis showed that subjects with higher knee adduction moments prior to intervention had larger reductions in the peak knee adduction moment (p,<,0.010). These results demonstrate that shoe sole stiffness and angle interventions can be used to reduce the peak knee adduction moment and that subjects with initially higher peak knee adduction moments have higher reductions in their peak knee adduction moments. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 25:540,546, 2007 [source]

The knee adduction moment during gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis is more closely correlated with static alignment than radiographic disease severity, toe out angle and pain

D. E. Hurwitz
This study tested whether the peak external knee adduction moments during walking in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were correlated with the mechanical axis of the leg, radiographic measures of OA severity, toe out angle or clinical assessments of pain, stiffness or function. Gait analysis was performed on 62 subjects with knee OA and 49 asymptomatic control subjects (normal subjects). The subjects with OA walked with a greater than normal peak adduction moment during early stance (p = 0.027). In the OA group, the mechanical axis was the best single predictor of the peak adduction moment during both early and late stance (R = 0.74, p < 0.001). The radiographic measures of OA severity in the medial compartment were also predictive of both peak adduction moments (R = 0.43 to 0.48, p < 0.001) along with the sum of the WOMAC subscales (R = ,0.33 to ,0.31, p < 0.017). The toe out angle was predictive of the peak adduction moment only during late stance (R = ,0.45, p < 0.001). Once mechanical axis was accounted for, other factors only increased the ability to predict the peak knee adduction moments by 10,18%. While the mechanical axis was indicative of the peak adduction moments, it only accounted for about 50% of its variation, emphasizing the need for a dynamic evaluation of the knee joint loading environment. Understanding which clinical measures of OA are most closely associated with the dynamic knee joint loads may ultimately result in a better understanding of the disease process and the development of therapeutic interventions. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Analytical aspects of pharmaceutical grade chondroitin sulfates

Nicola Volpi
Abstract Chondroitin sulfate is a very heterogeneous polysaccharide in terms of relative molecular mass, charge density, chemical properties, biological and pharmacological activities. It is actually recommended by EULAR as a symptomatic slow acting drug (SYSADOA) in Europe in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis based on meta-analysis of numerous clinical studies. Chondroitin sulfate is also utilized as a nutraceutical in dietary supplements mainly in the United States. On the other hand, chondroitin sulfate is derived from animal sources by extraction and purification processes. As a consequence, source material, manufacturing processes, the presence of contaminants, and many other factors contribute to the overall biological and pharmacological actions of these agents. The aim of this review is to evaluate new possible more specific analytical approaches to the determination of the origin and purity of chondroitin sulfate preparations for pharmaceutical application and in nutraceuticals, such as the evaluation of the molecular mass values, the constituent disaccharides, and the specific and sensitive agarose-gel electrophoresis technique. Furthermore, a critical evaluation is presented, together with a discussion of the limits of these analytical approaches. Finally, the necessity for reference standards having high specificity, purity and well-known physico-chemical properties useful for accurate and reproducible quantitative analyses will be discussed. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 96: 3168,3180, 2007 [source]

Evidence based guidelines and current practice for physiotherapy management of knee osteoarthritis

Nicola E. Walsh MSc MCSP
Abstract Objectives:,To document physiotherapy provision for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in relation to the United Kingdom (UK) recently published National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for osteoarthritis. Design:,Questionnaire survey of chartered physiotherapists. Method:,300 postal questionnaires were distributed to Physiotherapy Departments requesting information regarding source of referrals, treatment aims, preferred methods of treatment and service delivery. Results:,Responses were received from 83 physiotherapists (28 %), predominantly working in the UK National Health Service. Approximately equal numbers of referrals came from primary and secondary care. Aims of physiotherapy management were to; encourage self-management; increase strength and range of movement; reduce pain; and improve function. To achieve these, exercise was utilised by 100% of practitioners, often supplemented with electrotherapeutic modalities (66%), manual therapy (64%) and acupuncture (60%). The majority of patients received individual treatment for a total contact time of 1,2 hours, whilst most group interventions lasted 5,6 hours. Approximately half (54%) of respondents reported using outcome measures to determine treatment efficacy. Conclusions:,Although knee OA is usually managed in primary care, the similar number of referrals from primary and secondary care may suggest a deviation from evidence-based management guidelines. The guidelines' recommendations of exercise, patient education and self-management are observed by physiotherapists, but other modalities are often used despite poor or no research evidence supporting their efficacy. Whether any of these interventions are clinically beneficial is speculative as treatment outcomes were frequently under-evaluated. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Negligible Analgesic Tolerance Seen with Extended Release Oxymorphone: A Post Hoc Analysis of Open-Label Longitudinal Data

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 8 2010
R. Norman Harden MD
Abstract Objective., To examine the development of analgesic tolerance in patients on oxymorphone extended-release (OxymER). Design.,Post hoc analysis of data from a previously conducted prospective 1 year multi-center open-label extension study in which patients were able to titrate as needed. Patients., Sample of 153 hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) subjects on OxymER. Primary analyses were limited to study completers (n = 62) due to the large amount of missing data for the noncompleters (n = 91). Outcome Measures., Main outcome measures included OxymER doses (pill counts) and pain intensity ratings using a visual analog scale at monthly visits. Results., There were significant dose increases from weeks 1 to 2 and 2 to 6 (P < 0.05). Doses stabilized around week 6, suggesting the completion of what we defined as "titration." Both doses and pain ratings were stable when this titration phase was excluded from the analysis (P = 0.751; P = 0.056, respectively). Only 28% of the patients had any dose changes following this titration. While there was a significantly greater dose at week 52 compared with week 10 (P = 0.010), the increase in dose became insignificant after excluding four subjects who required two dose increases (P = 0.103). Conclusions., The results showed that most of the titration/dose stabilization changes occurred within the first 10 weeks. A minority (28%) of subjects required dosage increases after this (defined) titration period. Pain reports stabilized statistically after 2 weeks. The findings of this post hoc analysis suggest a lack of opioid tolerance in the majority (72%) of these OA patients who completed this study following a defined titration period on OxymER. Summary., This post hoc analysis of oxymorphone ER consumption in osteoarthritis pain vs pain report showed that most dose changes occurred during an initial "titration period" as defined. Following this titration few subjects increased dose and analgesia remained stable. These findings suggest a lack of longitudinal opioid tolerance in the majority of those OA subjects who completed the trial. [source]

Impact of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pathology on Older Adults: A Study of Differences between Knee OA and Low Back Pain

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 4 2009
Natalia E. Morone MD
ABSTRACT Objectives., The study aimed to compare the psychological and physical characteristics of older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) vs those of adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to identify psychological and physical predictors of function as measured by gait speed. Design., Secondary data analysis. Method and Patients., Eighty-eight older adults with advanced knee OA and 200 with CLBP who had participated in separate randomized controlled trials were selected for this study. Measures., Inclusion criteria for both trials included age ,65 and pain of at least moderate intensity that occurred daily or almost every day for at least the previous 3 months. Psychological constructs (catastrophizing, fear avoidance, self-efficacy, depression, affective distress) and physical measures (comorbid medical conditions, pain duration, pain severity, pain related interference, self-rated health) were obtained. Results., Subjects with CLBP had slower gait (0.88 m/s vs 0.96 m/s, P = 0.002) and more comorbid conditions than subjects with knee pain (mean 3.36 vs 1.97, P < 0.001). All the psychological measures were significantly worse in the CLBP group except the Multidimensional Pain Inventory,Affective Distress score. Self-efficacy, pain severity, and medical comorbidity burden were associated with slower gait regardless of the location of the pain. Conclusions., Older adults with chronic pain may have distinct psychological and physical profiles that differentially impact gait speed. These findings suggest that not all pain conditions are the same in their psychological and physical characteristics and may need to be taken into consideration when developing treatment plans. [source]

Choice of treatment modalities was not influenced by pain, severity or co-morbidity in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Gro Jamtvedt
Abstract Background and Purpose.,Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are commonly treated by physiotherapists in primary care. The physiotherapists use different treatment modalities. In a previous study, we identified variation in the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), low level laser or acupuncture, massage and weight reduction advice for patients with knee OA. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might explain variation in treatment modalities for patients with knee OA.,Methods.,Practising physiotherapists prospectively collected data for one patient with knee osteoarthritis each through 12 treatment sessions. We chose to examine factors that might explain variation in the choice of treatment modalities supported by high or moderate quality evidence, and modalities which were frequently used but which were not supported by evidence from systematic reviews. Experienced clinicians proposed factors that they thought might explain the variation in the choice of these specific treatments. We used these factors in explanatory analyses.,Results.,Using TENS, low level laser or acupuncture was significantly associated with having searched databases to help answer clinical questions in the last six months (odds ratio [OR] = 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08,3.42). Not having Internet access at work and using more than four treatment modalities were significant determinants for giving massage (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.19,0.68 and OR = 8.92, 95% CI = 4.37,18.21, respectively). Being a female therapist significantly increased the odds for providing weight reduction advice (OR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.12,11.57). No patient characteristics, such as age, pain or co-morbidity, were significantly associated with variation in practice.,Conclusions.,Factors related to patient characteristics, such as pain severity and co-morbidity, did not seem to explain variation in treatment modalities for patients with knee OA. Variation was associated with the following factors: physiotherapists having Internet access at work, physiotherapists having searched databases for the last six months and the gender of the therapist. There is a need for more studies of determinants for physiotherapy practice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Knee pain in the ACL-deficient osteoarthritic knee and its relationship to quality of life

Michael Hartwick
Abstract Background and Purpose Pain during activities of daily living is a common presenting complaint of individuals with knee osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Knee pain is also associated with a decrease in quality of life for people with osteoarthritis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the dose,response relationship between knee joint forces and painful symptoms, and whether the acute symptoms, were associated with individuals' quality of life. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort correlation study. Seventeen individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees diagnosed with ipsilateral knee osteoarthritis completed the ACL quality of life questionnaire (ACL-QOL). The subjects also rated pain associated with each of five incremental isometric knee extension tests, proportional to their body weight. Analysis of variance was used to assess the association between pain and normalized torque. Linear regression was used to assess the correlation between the ACL-QOL score and the total pain experienced during the graded test. Results A strong relationship was found between the level of perceived knee pain and the amount of isometric torque produced (Pearson's r = 0.98; p<0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between pain during the graded isometric test and the ACL-QOL (Pearson's r = ,0.56; p = 0.016). Conclusions Since knee joint compression is a function of active isometric knee extension torque, increased painful symptoms were associated with increased compression forces at the knee joint for these subjects. The relationship between pain provocation and disease-specific quality of life provides evidence for the proposed joint provocation test for this subject population. Weakness caused by osteoarthritis (OA) may, in part, be a negative conditioning response that would need to be overcome in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis

Peter Cisár
Abstract Objective. The safe and efficacious use of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) in other inflammatory diseases prompted this study of its antiinflammatory effects in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether Pycnogenol® reduces the symptoms of OA in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomly allocated trial with patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis stages I and II. Methods. 100 patients were treated for 3 months either by 150 mg Pycnogenol® per day at meals or by placebo. Patients had to report any change of use of previously prescribed antiinflammatory medication during the study period. Patients filled the Western Ontario and Mc Masters University (WOMAC) questionnaire for osteoarthritis every 2 weeks and evaluated weekly pain symptoms using a visual analogue scale for pain intensity. Results. Following treatment with Pycnogenol® patients reported an improvement of WOMAC index (p < 0.05), and a significant alleviation of pain by visual analogue scale (p < 0.04), the placebo had no effect. The use of analgesics diminished in the verum group but increased under the placebo. Treatment with Pycnogenol® was well tolerated. Conclusion. Results show that Pycnogenol® in patients with mild to moderate OA improves symptoms and is able to spare NSAIDs. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Total knee replacement in the morbidly obese: a literature review

Anthony J. Samson
Abstract Background:, The ,obesity epidemic' is expected to result in an increased incidence of knee osteoarthritis and hence total knee replacements (TKRs). Reviews have demonstrated the conflicting results of TKR for all obese (body mass index (BMI) >30). The aim of this literature review was to specifically evaluate outcomes of TKR in patients with morbid obesity (MO; BMI >40). Methods:, A systematic review of medical databases (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect) by use of keywords from January 1990 to September 2009 was undertaken. Results:, Clinical and functional Knee Society Scores (KSS) improve after TKR for patients with MO. The post-operative functional KSS was, in general, less than in controls. Radiographic analysis was inconclusive because of small study populations and short duration of follow-up. All studies reporting complications noted a greater prevalence in MO patients (10,30%). Of concern was the significantly higher prevalence of deep prosthetic infection (3,9-times that of controls). The morbidly obese also had a significantly higher incidence of wound complications. TKR did not result in weight loss for MO patients, and therefore has no benefit on weight-related medical conditions. Bariatric surgery in MO under 65 years of age has been shown to be a cost-effective and clinically effective method of weight reduction. This surgery also results in significant improvement in weight-related medical conditions, the KSS and knee pain. Conclusions:, Given the increase in complications for MO patients after TKR, these patients should be advised to lose weight before surgery and, if suitable, would probably benefit from bariatric surgery. [source]

Genetic variation in the SMAD3 gene is associated with hip and knee osteoarthritis

Ana M. Valdes
Objective Smad3 (or, MADH3) is a key intracellular messenger in the transforming growth factor , signaling pathway. In mice, Smad3 deficiency accelerates growth plate chondrocyte maturation and leads to an osteoarthritis (OA),like disease. We undertook this study to investigate the role of genetic variation in SMAD3 in the risk of large-joint OA in humans. Methods Ten tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SMAD3 gene region were tested in a discovery set: 313 patients who had undergone total knee replacement, 214 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, and 520 controls from the UK. The SNP associated with both hip and knee OA was subsequently genotyped in 1,221 controls and 1,074 cases from 2 cohorts of patients with hip OA and 2,537 controls and 1,575 cases from 4 cohorts of patients with knee OA. Results A SNP (rs12901499) mapping to intron 1 of SMAD3 was associated with both knee and hip OA (P < 0.0022 and P < 0.021, respectively) in the discovery set. In all study cohorts, the major allele (G) was increased among OA patients relative to controls. A meta-analysis for knee OA yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.12,1.34), P < 7.5 × 10,6. For hip OA, the OR was 1.22 (95% CI 1.09,1.36), P < 4.0 × 10,4. No evidence for heterogeneity was found (I2 = 0%). Conclusion Our data indicate that genetic variation in the SMAD3 gene is involved in the risk of both hip OA and knee OA in European populations, confirming the results from animal models on the potential importance of this molecule in the pathogenesis of OA. [source]

Frequency of varus and valgus thrust and factors associated with thrust presence in persons with or at higher risk of developing knee osteoarthritis,,

Alison Chang
Objective Varus thrust observed during gait has been shown to be associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Valgus thrust is believed to be less common than varus thrust; the prevalence of each is uncertain. Racial differences in risk factors may help explain variations in the natural history of knee OA. We undertook this study to determine the frequency of varus and valgus thrust in African Americans and Caucasians and to identify factors associated with thrust presence. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort includes men and women who have knee OA or are at increased risk of developing it. Trained examiners assessed thrust presence by gait observation. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to identify factors associated with thrust presence, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results Compared with Caucasians, African Americans had lower odds of varus thrust, controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), injury, surgery, disease severity, strength, pain, and alignment in persons without knee OA (adjusted OR 0.50 [95% CI 0.36, 0.72]) and in those with knee OA (adjusted OR 0.46 [95% CI 0.34, 0.61]). Also independently associated with varus thrust were age, sex, BMI, disease severity, strength, and alignment. The odds of valgus thrust were greater for African Americans than for Caucasians in persons without knee OA (adjusted OR 1.69 [95% CI 1.02, 2.80]) and in those with knee OA (adjusted OR 1.98 [95% CI 1.35, 2.91]). Also independently associated with valgus thrust were disease severity and malalignment. Conclusion Compared with Caucasians, African Americans had lower odds of varus thrust and greater odds of valgus thrust. These findings may help explain the difference between these groups in the pattern of OA involvement at the knee. [source]

Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles between primary knee osteoarthritis and an osteoarthritis endemic to Northwestern China, Kashin-Beck disease

Chen Duan
Objective To investigate the differences in gene expression profiles of adult articular cartilage from patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) versus those with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The messenger RNA expression profiles of articular cartilage from patients with KBD, diagnosed according to the clinical criteria for KBD in China, were compared with those of cartilage from patients with OA, diagnosed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index. Total RNA was isolated separately from 4 pairs of the KBD and OA cartilage samples, and the expression profiles were evaluated by Agilent 4×44k Whole Human Genome density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The microarray data for selected transcripts were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. Results For 1.2 × 104 transcripts, corresponding to 58.4% of the expressed transcripts, 2-fold changes in differential expression were revealed. Expression levels higher in KBD than in OA samples were observed in a mean ± SD 6,439 ± 1,041 (14.6 ± 2.4%) of the transcripts, and expression levels were lower in KBD than in OA samples in 6,147 ± 1,222 (14.2 ± 2.8%) of the transcripts. After application of the selection criteria, 1.85% of the differentially expressed genes (P < 0.001 between groups) were detected. These included 233 genes, of which 195 (0.4%) were expressed at higher levels and 38 (0.08%) were expressed at lower levels in KBD than in OA cartilage. Comparisons of the quantitative RT-PCR data supported the validity of our microarray data. Conclusion Differences between KBD and OA cartilage exhibited a similar pattern among all 4 of the pairs examined, indicating the presence of disease mechanisms, mainly chondrocyte matrix metabolism, cartilage degeneration, and apoptosis induction pathways, which contribute to cartilage destruction in KBD. [source]