Km Reach (km + reach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Near real time satellite imagery to support and verify timely flood modelling

Giuliano Di Baldassarre
Abstract The study investigates the capability of coarse resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to support flood inundation models. A hydraulic model of a 98-km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) was calibrated on the October 2000 high-magnitude flood event with extensive and high-quality field data. During the June 2008, low-magnitude flood event a SAR image was acquired and processed in near real time (NRT) in order to provide adequate data for quick verification and recalibration of the hydraulic model. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Optimal use of high-resolution topographic data in flood inundation models

P. D. Bates
Abstract In this paper we explore the optimum assimilation of high-resolution data into numerical models using the example of topographic data provision for flood inundation simulation. First, we explore problems with current assimilation methods in which numerical grids are generated independent of topography. These include possible loss of significant length scales of topographic information, poor representation of the original surface and data redundancy. These are resolved through the development of a processing chain consisting of: (i) assessment of significant length scales of variation in the input data sets; (ii) determination of significant points within the data set; (iii) translation of these into a conforming model discretization that preserves solution quality for a given numerical solver; and (iv) incorporation of otherwise redundant sub-grid data into the model in a computationally efficient manner. This processing chain is used to develop an optimal finite element discretization for a 12 km reach of the River Stour in Dorset, UK, for which a high-resolution topographic data set derived from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) was available. For this reach, three simulations of a 1 in 4 year flood event were conducted: a control simulation with a mesh developed independent of topography, a simulation with a topographically optimum mesh, and a further simulation with the topographically optimum mesh incorporating the sub-grid topographic data within a correction algorithm for dynamic wetting and drying in fixed grid models. The topographically optimum model is shown to represent better the ,raw' topographic data set and that differences between this surface and the control are hydraulically significant. Incorporation of sub-grid topographic data has a less marked impact than getting the explicit hydraulic calculation correct, but still leads to important differences in model behaviour. The paper highlights the need for better validation data capable of discriminating between these competing approaches and begins to indicate what the characteristics of such a data set should be. More generally, the techniques developed here should prove useful for any data set where the resolution exceeds that of the model in which it is to be used. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Processes governing river water quality identified by principal component analysis

I. Haag
Abstract The present study demonstrates the usefulness of principal component analysis in condensing and interpreting multivariate time-series of water quality data. In a case study the water quality system of the lock-regulated part of the River Neckar (Germany) was analysed, with special emphasis on the oxygen budget. Pooled data of ten water quality parameters and discharge, which had been determined at six stations along a 200 km reach of the river between the years 1993 and 1998, were subjected to principal component analysis. The analysis yielded four stable principal components, explaining 72% of the total variance of the 11 parameters. The four components could be interpreted confidently in terms of underlying processes: biological activity, dilution by high discharge, seasonal effects and the influence of wastewater. From analysing the data of single stations separately, these processes were found to be active throughout the complete reach. Considering the oxygen budget of the river, the variance of biological activity, representing the counteracting processes of primary production and microbial degradation, was found to be most important. This principal component explained 79% of the observed variance of oxygen saturation. In contrast, the analysis of a reduced data set from the 1970s showed that oxygen saturation was then dominated by discharge and temperature variations. The findings indicate that the oxygen budget used to be governed directly by the emission of degradable matter, whereas nowadays eutrophication is most important for extreme oxygen concentrations. Therefore, controlling eutrophication has to be the primary goal, in order to mitigate the rare episodes of pronounced oxygen over- and undersaturation in the future. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Kootenai River velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection , a mystery unraveled?

V. L. Paragamian
Summary The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0,246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a ,short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam water management has reduced velocities and shear stress, thus sediment is now covering the cobbles and gravels. Although higher discharges will likely provide more suitable spawning and rearing conditions, this would be socially and politically unacceptable because it would bring the river elevation to or in excess of 537.66 m, which is flood stage. Thus, support should be given to habitat modifications incorporated into a management plan to restore suitable habitat and ensure better survival of eggs and larvae. [source]

Nitrogen Sources and Sinks Within the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico,

Gretchen P. Oelsner
Abstract:, Relationships between discharge, land use, and nitrogen sources and sinks were developed using 5 years of synoptic sampling along a 300 km reach of the Rio Grande in central New Mexico. Average river discharge was higher during 2001 and 2005 "wet years" (15 m3/s) than during the drought years of 2002-04 "dry years" (8.9 m3/s), but there were no differences in nitrogen loading from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which were the largest and most consistent source of nitrogen to the river (1,330 kg/day). Average total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations remained elevated for 180 km downstream of the Albuquerque WWTP averaging 1.2 mg/l in wet years and 0.52 mg/l in dry years. Possible explanations for the constant elevated TDN concentrations downstream of the major point source include reduced nitrogen retention capacity, minimal contact with riparian or channel vegetation, large suspended sediment loads, and low algal biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, agricultural return flows had lower average nitrogen concentrations than river water originally diverted to agriculture in both wet (0.81 mg/l) and dry years (0.19 mg/l), indicating that the agricultural system is a sink for nitrogen. Lower average nitrogen concentrations in the river during the dry years can be explained by the input of agricultural returns which comprise the majority of river flow in dry years. [source]