Km Depth (km + depth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The upper continental crust, an aquifer and its fluid: hydaulic and chemical data from 4 km depth in fractured crystalline basement rocks at the KTB test site

Abstract Detailed information on the hydrogeologic and hydraulic properties of the deeper parts of the upper continental crust is scarce. The pilot hole of the deep research drillhole (KTB) in crystalline basement of central Germany provided access to the crust for an exceptional pumping experiment of 1-year duration. The hydraulic properties of fractured crystalline rocks at 4 km depth were derived from the well test and a total of 23100 m3 of saline fluid was pumped from the crustal reservoir. The experiment shows that the water-saturated fracture pore space of the brittle upper crust is highly connected, hence, the continental upper crust is an aquifer. The pressure,time data from the well tests showed three distinct flow periods: the first period relates to wellbore storage and skin effects, the second flow period shows the typical characteristics of the homogeneous isotropic basement rock aquifer and the third flow period relates to the influence of a distant hydraulic border, probably an effect of the Franconian lineament, a steep dipping major thrust fault known from surface geology. The data analysis provided a transmissivity of the pumped aquifer T = 6.1 × 10,6 m2 sec,1, the corresponding hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is K = 4.07 × 10,8 m sec,1 and the computed storage coefficient (storativity) of the aquifer of about S = 5 × 10,6. This unexpected high permeability of the continental upper crust is well within the conditions of possible advective flow. The average flow porosity of the fractured basement aquifer is 0.6,0.7% and this range can be taken as a representative and characteristic values for the continental upper crust in general. The chemical composition of the pumped fluid was nearly constant during the 1-year test. The total of dissolved solids amounts to 62 g l,1 and comprise mainly a mixture of CaCl2 and NaCl; all other dissolved components amount to about 2 g l,1. The cation proportions of the fluid (XCa approximately 0.6) reflects the mineralogical composition of the reservoir rock and the high salinity results from desiccation (H2O-loss) due to the formation of abundant hydrate minerals during water,rock interaction. The constant fluid composition suggests that the fluid has been pumped from a rather homogeneous reservoir lithology dominated by metagabbros and amphibolites containing abundant Ca-rich plagioclase. [source]

Radial profiles of seismic attenuation in the upper mantle based on physical models

Fabio Cammarano
SUMMARY Thermally activated, viscoelastic relaxation of the Earth's materials is responsible for intrinsic attenuation of seismic waves. Seismic observations have been used to define layered radially symmetric attenuation models, independent of any constraints on temperature and composition. Here, we interpret free-oscillation and surface wave attenuation measurements in terms of physical structures, by using the available knowledge on the physical mechanisms that govern attenuation at upper-mantle (<400 km) conditions. We find that observations can be explained by relatively simple thermal and grain-size structures. The 1-D attenuation models obtained do not have any sharp gradients below 100 km, but fit the data equally well as the seismic models. The sharp gradients which characterize these models are therefore not required by the data. In spite of the large sensitivity of seismic observations to temperature, a definitive interpretation is limited by the unknown effects of pressure on anelasticity. Frequency dependence of anelasticity, as well as trade-offs with deeper attenuation structure and dependence on the elastic background model, are less important. Effects of water and dislocations can play an important role as well and further complicate the interpretation. Independent constraints on temperature and grain size expected around 100 km depth, help to constrain better the thermal and grain-size profiles at greater depth. For example, starting from a temperature of 1550 K at 100 km and assuming that the seismic attenuation is governed by the Faul & Jackson's (2005) mechanism, we found that negative thermal gradients associated with several cm grain sizes (assuming low activation volume) or an adiabatic gradient associated with ,1 cm grain size, can explain the data. A full waveform analysis, combining the effects on phase and amplitude of, respectively, elasticity and anelasticity, holds promise for further improving our knowledge on the average composition and thermal structure of the upper mantle. [source]

Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data

Archie Paulson
SUMMARY Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations of secular changes in gravity near Hudson Bay, and geological measurements of relative sea level (RSL) changes over the last 10 000 yr in the same region, are used in a Monte Carlo inversion to infer-mantle viscosity structure. The GRACE secular change in gravity shows a significant positive anomaly over a broad region (>3000 km) near Hudson Bay with a maximum of ,2.5 ,Gal yr,1 slightly west of Hudson Bay. The pattern of this anomaly is remarkably consistent with that predicted for postglacial rebound using the ICE-5G deglaciation history, strongly suggesting a postglacial rebound origin for the gravity change. We find that the GRACE and RSL data are insensitive to mantle viscosity below 1800 km depth, a conclusion similar to that from previous studies that used only RSL data. For a mantle with homogeneous viscosity, the GRACE and RSL data require a viscosity between 1.4 × 1021 and 2.3 × 1021 Pa s. An inversion for two mantle viscosity layers separated at a depth of 670 km, shows an ensemble of viscosity structures compatible with the data. While the lowest misfit occurs for upper- and lower-mantle viscosities of 5.3 × 1020 and 2.3 × 1021 Pa s, respectively, a weaker upper mantle may be compensated by a stronger lower mantle, such that there exist other models that also provide a reasonable fit to the data. We find that the GRACE and RSL data used in this study cannot resolve more than two layers in the upper 1800 km of the mantle. [source]

Radial resolving power of far-field differential sea-level highstands in the inference of mantle viscosity

Roblyn A. Kendall
SUMMARY For two decades leading to the late 1980s, the prevailing view from studies of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data was that the viscosity of the Earth's mantle increased moderately, if at all, from the base of the lithosphere to the core,mantle boundary. This view was first questioned by Nakada & Lambeck, who argued that differential sea-level (DSL) highstands between pairs of sites in the Australian region preferred an increase of approximately two orders of magnitude from the mean viscosity of the upper to the lower mantle, in accord with independent inferences from observables related to mantle convection. We use non-linear Bayesian inference to provide the first formal resolving power analysis of the Australian DSL data set. We identify three radial regions, two within the upper mantle (110,270 km and 320,570 km depth) and one in the lower mantle (1225,2265 km depth), over which the average of viscosity is well constrained by the data. We conclude that: (1) the DSL data provide a resolution in the inference of upper mantle viscosity that is better than implied by forward analyses based on isoviscous regions above and below the 670 km depth discontinuity and (2) the data do not strongly constrain viscosity at either the base or top of the lower mantle. Finally, our inversions also quantify the significant bias that may be introduced in inversions of the DSL highstands that do not simultaneously estimate the thickness of the elastic lithosphere. [source]

Crustal structure of the Newfoundland rifted continental margin from constrained 3-D gravity inversion

J. Kim Welford
ABSTRACT The rifting history of the Atlantic continental margin of Newfoundland is very complex and so far has been investigated at the crustal scale primarily with the use of 2-D seismic surveys. While informative, the results generated from these surveys cannot easily be interpreted in a regional sense due to their sparse sampling of the margin. A 3-D gravity inversion of the free air data over the Newfoundland margin allows us to generate a 3-D density anomaly model that can be compared with the seismic results and used to gain insight into regions lacking seismic coverage. Results of the gravity inversion show good correspondence with Moho depths from seismic results. A shallowing of the Moho to 12 km depth is resolved on the shelf at the northern edge of the Grand Banks, in a region poorly sampled by other methods. Comparisons between sediment thickness and crustal thickness show deviations from local isostatic compensation in locations which correlate with faults and rifting trends. Such insights must act as constraints for future palaeoreconstructions of North Atlantic rifting. [source]

Lithospheric structure of an active backarc basin: the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

Antony Harrison
SUMMARY Seismic data from both explosive and earthquake sources have been used to model the crustal and upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), an active backarc basin in central North Island, New Zealand. Volcanic sediments with P -wave velocities of 2.0,3.5 km s,1 reach a maximum thickness of 3 km beneath the central TVZ. Underlying these sediments to 16 km depth is material with velocities of 5.0,6.5 km s,1, interpreted as quartzo-feldspathic crust. East and west of the TVZ, crust with similar velocities is found to depths of 30 and 25 km, respectively. Beneath the TVZ, material with P -wave velocities of 6.9,7.3 km s,1 is found from 16 to 30 km depth and is interpreted as heavily intruded or underplated lower crust. The base of the crust at 30 km depth under the TVZ is marked by a strong seismic reflector, interpreted as the Moho. Modelling of arrivals from deep (>40 km) earthquakes near the top of the underlying subducting Pacific Plate reveals a region with low mantle velocities of 7.4,7.8 km s,1 beneath the crust of the TVZ. This region of low mantle velocities is best explained by the presence of partially hydrated upper mantle, resulting from dehydration of hydrous minerals (e.g. serpentinite) carried down by the underlying subducting plate. Within the lower crust beneath the TVZ, a region of high (0.34) Poisson's ratio is observed, indicating the presence of at least 1 per cent partial melt. This melt probably fractionates and assimilates crustal material before some of it migrates into the upper crust, where it provides a source for the voluminous rhyolitic magmas of the TVZ. [source]

A preliminary study of crustal structure in Taiwan region using receiver function analysis

Kwang-Hee Kim
SUMMARY Selected teleseismic data observed at temporary and permanent broad-band stations have been analysed using the receiver function method in order to investigate the very complex crustal structure in Taiwan region. Very significant azimuthal variations of radial and transverse receiver function responses from broad-band stations could be attributed to, among other things, the sampling of incoming seismic waves across the nearby subduction zone, a subsurface dipping interface, or a localized anisotropic region. A mid-crust discontinuity, interpreted as the Conrad discontinuity, can be identified at 18,20 km depth beneath TATO and TPUB stations in the Western Foothills, but is absent beneath the two nearby stations SSLB and TDCB in the Central Mountain Range. The separation of upper and lower crust beneath the Western Foothills and the steady increase in crustal velocity as a function of depth across the entire thicker crust beneath the Central Mountain Range suggest that the tectonic evolution of the crust may be significantly different for these two adjacent regions. Although a ,thin-skinned' model may be associated with the tectonic evolution of the upper crust of the Western Foothills and Western Coastal Plain, a ,thick-skinned' or ,lithospheric deformation' model can probably be applied to explain the crustal evolution of the Central Mountain Range. A trend of crustal thinning from east (50,52 km) to west (28,32 km) is in very good agreement with the results from two east,west-trending deep seismic profiles obtained using airgun sources. The thinner crust (20,30 km) beneath TWB1 station in northeastern Taiwan can be associated with the high-heat-flow backarc opening at the western terminus of the Okinawa trough behind the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate. The relatively simple crustal structure beneath KMNB station, offshore southeastern China, depicts typical continental crust, with the Moho depth at 28,32 km. An apparent offset of the thickest Moho beneath NACB station from the topographic high in the central Central Mountain Range suggests that the Taiwan orogeny has probably not reached its isostatic status. [source]

Streamer tomography velocity models for the Gulf of Corinth and Gulf of Itea, Greece

Barry C. Zelt
SUMMARY The Gulf of Corinth (GOC), Greece is a rapidly extending, active continental rift with a record of large, damaging earthquakes. An extensive multichannel seismic (MCS) survey of the GOC conducted in 2001 provided, in addition to the processed MCS images, the opportunity to constrain velocity structure using refracted arrivals recorded along a 6-km-long streamer. We use first-arrival traveltimes to derive tomographic P -wave velocity models for several profiles collected in the central portion of the GOC. Eight of the profiles are closely spaced, north,south lines crossing the GOC and extending into the Gulf of Itea (GOI); a ninth profile is an east,west-oriented tie line. The N,S profiles image the relatively simple velocity structure of the deep Corinth rift basin and more complicated structure of the northern margin of the currently active rift. Integration of the velocity models with migrated MCS sections shows that south of the GOI the basement, which comprises Mesozoic nappes, occurs at a velocity of 4.5 km s,1 in the velocity models, although the actual velocity at, or just below, the top of basement is probably closer to 5,5.5 km s,1. The maximum sediment thickness in the Corinth basin is 2.2 km. The basement shallows to the north into a fault-bounded terrace in the central region between the two gulfs. Sediment cover in this central region decreases in thickness from west to east. Beneath the GOI, low average velocities beneath the rift-onset reflector indicate the presence of pre-rift sediments. The pre-rift velocity structure in the GOI is complex, with significant lateral variation from west to east. The E,W line shows that high-velocity basement is shallow (,1 km depth) and flat to the west of the GOI but dips ,20° east down to ,1.5 km beneath the pre-rift sediments of the GOI. [source]

A reflector at 200 km depth beneath the northwest Pacific

S. Rost
SUMMARY We present an analysis of precursors to PP produced by underside reflections from discontinuities in the upper mantle beneath the NW Pacific. The events used for this study occur in the western Pacific Rim (New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon, New Guinea, Philippine Islands) and are recorded at the short-period Yellowknife Array (YKA) in northern Canada. The source,receiver combination results in PP reflection points which allow us to study the upper mantle structure in a corridor from the Hawaiian Islands to the Kuril subduction zone. To detect the weak precursors in the time window between the P arrival and the PP onset and to identify them as PP underside reflections, special array techniques are used. Our analysis indicates a reflector at a depth of ,200 km beneath the northwestern Pacific. This reflector shows strong topography of some tens of kilometres on length scales of several hundred kilometres, complicating the detection of this reflector in global or regional stacks of seismograms. Different models for the impedance jump across the reflector, the thickness and the possible fine structure of the reflector are modelled using synthetic seismograms and are compared with the data. The thickness of the reflector has to be less than 7 km and the P wave impedance contrast has to be larger than 5.0,6.5 per cent to be detected by this study. This corresponds to a P -velocity jump of ,4 per cent assuming the PREM density model. [source]

Depth distribution of earthquakes in the Baikal rift system and its implications for the rheology of the lithosphere

Jacques Déverchère
Summary The correspondence between the predicted brittle,plastic transition within the crust and the maximum depth of earthquakes is examined in the case of the Baikal rift, Siberia. Although little accurate information on depths is available through large- and moderate-size earthquakes, there are frequent indications of foci at 20 km depth and more. We have relocated 632 events recorded at nearby stations that occurred between 1971 and 1997, with depth and epicentral uncertainties less than 5 km, over the eastern and southern parts of the Baikal rift. We have compared these results with other depth distributions obtained in previous studies from background seismicity in the NE rift (1365 events in the Kalar-Chara zone and 704 events in the Muya region). The relative abundance of earthquakes is generally low at depths between 0 and 10 km (7,15 per cent) and high between 15 and 25 km (,50 per cent). Earthquake activity is still significant between 25 and 30 km (9,15 per cent) and persists between 30 and 40 km (7,13 per cent). Very few earthquakes are below the Moho. We use empirical constitutive laws to obtain the yield-stress limits of several layers made of dominant lithologies and to examine whether the observed distribution of earthquakes at depth (519 events controlled by a close station and located within the extensional domain of the Baikal rift system) can match the predicted crustal strength proportion with depth and the deeper brittle,ductile transition in the crust. A good fit is obtained by using a quartz rheology at 0,10 km depth and a diabase rheology at 10,45 km depth with a moderate temperature field which corresponds to a ,100 Myr thermal lithosphere. No dioritic composition of the crust is found necessary. In any case, earthquakes occur at deep crustal levels, where the crust is supposed to be ductile, in a way very similar to what is found in the East African Rift System. From these results we conclude that the seismogenic thickness is ,35,40 km in the Baikal rift system and that the depth distribution of earthquakes is at first order proportional to the strength profile found in a rheologically layered crust dominated by a mafic composition in the ,10,45 km depth range. An upper mantle core with high strength, however, generally prevents it from reaching stress failure at greater depth. [source]

A complex, young subduction zone imaged by three-dimensional seismic velocity, Fiordland, New Zealand

Donna Eberhart-Phillips
Summary The Fiordland subduction zone, where subduction developed in the late Miocene, has been imaged with P and S,P arrival-time data from 311 earthquakes in a simultaneous inversion for hypocentres and 3-D VP and VP/VS models. The three-month microearthquake survey, recorded with 24 portable seismographs, provides excellent coverage, and, since earthquakes to depths of 130 km are included, parts of the model are well-resolved to depths of 100 km. The crustal features are generally consistent with geology. The low velocity in the upper 10 km is associated with the Te Anau and Waiau basins. The Western Fiordland Orthogneiss is associated with a prominent feature from near-surface to over 40 km depth, which includes the residue from the basaltic source rocks. It is defined by high VP (7.4 km s,1 at 15 km depth) and slightly low VP/VS, and has distinct boundaries on its southern and eastern margins. Adjacent to the deepest earthquakes, there is high-velocity Pacific mantle below 80 km depth, inferred to be the mantle expression of ongoing shortening since the early Miocene. As the subducting slab moves down and northeast, it is hindered by the high-velocity body and bends to near-vertical. Bending is accommodated by distributed fracturing evidenced by high VP/VS and persistent deep earthquake activity. Buckling of the subducted plate pushes up the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss. In the transition to the Alpine fault in northern Fiordland, a prominent low-velocity crustal root is consistent with ductile thickening in combination with downwarp of the subducted plate. [source]

Seismic evidence for a mantle plume oceanwards of the Kamchatka,Aleutian trench junction

A. Gorbatov
Summary A non-linear iterative P- wave traveltime tomography has revealed a mantle plume originating at a depth of nearly 1000 km, rising across the 600 km discontinuity, and deflecting subhorizontally in the uppermost mantle presumably by shear flow due to the overlying moving plate. Data from the Geophysical Survey of Russia (1955,1997) were inverted jointly with the catalogues of International Seismological Centre and USGS National Earthquake Information Centre (1964, 1998). The result shows a 300,500 km-wide cylindrical low-velocity anomaly (, , 2 per cent) that extends from a depth of greater than 900 km to shallower than 200 km. The anomaly is almost vertical at depths up to ,400 km and rises obliquely to the north up to ,200 km under the ocean floor near the northern end of Emperor seamounts. Above ,300 km depth a subsidiary anomaly extends subhorizontally to the NW in fair agreement with the direction of movement of the Pacific Plate. The overlying seafloor is characterized by anomalously high heat flow, which may be attributed to the thermal effect of the mantle plume. [source]

Non-double-couple mechanisms in the seismicity preceding the 1991,1993 Etna volcano eruption

A. Saraò
Summary The temporal evolution of the complete source moment tensor is investigated for 28 earthquakes that occurred at Mt Etna in the period August 1990,December 1991 preceding the biggest eruption of the last three centuries. We perform several tests to check the robustness of the results of inversion considering different frequency ranges and different groups of stations. As well as the selection of good-quality data, the error analysis, statistically significant at the 95 per cent confidence level, is employed to validate the findings of the inversion and to distinguish between physical solutions and artefacts of modelling. For events between 0.3 and 10 km depth, strike-slip mechanisms prevail on normal, inverse and dip-slip mechanisms; this is possibly due to the dyke-induced stress dominating the overall stress field at the surface, producing a continuous switch of the tensile and compressive axes. The regional E,W tension prevails at depth, as indicated by the prevalence of normal mechanisms. An increment of the non-double-couple components is observed immediately before the eruption and can be related to movements of fluids, even though, for some events, the complex interaction between tectonic stress and volcanic activity cannot be excluded. The source time functions retrieved are in general simple and short but some show complexities, as one would expect in volcanic seismicity. From the seismic scalar moment found, we extrapolate an empirical moment,magnitude relation that we compare with other relations proposed for the same area and computed for the duration magnitude and the equivalent Wood,Anderson magnitude. [source]

Crustal structure of central and northern Iceland from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions

Fiona A. Darbyshire
We present results from a teleseismic receiver function study of central and northern Iceland, carried out during the period 1995,1998. Data from eight broad-band seismometers installed in the SIL network operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office were used for analysis. Receiver functions for each station were generated from events for a wide range of backazimuths and a combination of inversion and forward modelling was used to infer the crustal structure below each station. The models generated show a considerable variation in the nature and thickness of the crust across Iceland. The thinnest crust (20,21 km) is found in the northern half of the Northern Volcanic Zone approximately 120 km north of the centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Thicker crust (24,30 km) is found elsewhere in northern and central Iceland and the thickest crust (37 km) is found close to the plume centre. Velocity,depth profiles show a distinct division of the crust into two main sections, an upper high-velocity-gradient section of thickness 2,8 km and a lower crustal section with small or zero overall velocity gradient. The thickness of the upper crust correlates with the tectonic structure of Iceland; the upper crust is thickest on the flanks of the northern and central volcanic rift zones and thinnest close to active or extinct central volcanoes. Below the Krafla central volcano in northeastern Iceland the receiver function models show a prominent low-velocity zone at 10,15 km depth with minimum shear wave velocities of 2.0,2.5 km s,1. We suggest that this feature results from the presence of partially molten sills in the lower crust. Less prominent low-velocity zones found in other regions of Iceland may arise from locally high temperatures in the crust or from acidic intrusive bodies at depth. A combination of the receiver function results and seismic refraction results constrains the crustal thickness across a large part of Iceland. Melting by passive decompression of the hot mantle below the rift zone in northern Iceland forms a crust of thickness ,20 km. In contrast, the larger crustal thickness below central Iceland probably arises from enhanced melt production due to active upwelling in the plume core. [source]

Upper mantle stratification by P and S receiver functions

Véronique Farra
Summary Seismic stratification of the upper mantle is investigated by applying two complementary techniques to the records of the Graefenberg array in southern Germany. The anisotropic P receiver function technique (Kosarev et al. 1984; Vinnik & Montagner 1996) is modified by using summary seismic events instead of individual events and different weighting functions instead of the same function for the harmonic angular analysis of the SV and T components of the Pds phases. The summary events provide better separation of the second azimuthal harmonic than the individual events. The parameters of the second harmonics of SV and T thus evaluated should be similar if they reflect the effects of azimuthal anisotropy. This can be used as a criterion to identify the anisotropy. To detect the Sdp phases and their azimuthal variations caused by azimuthal anisotropy we have developed a stacking technique, which can be termed the S receiver function technique It includes axis rotation to separate interfering P and S arrivals, determination of the principal (M) component of the S -wave motion, deconvolution of the P components of many recordings by their respective M components and stacking of the deconvolved P components with weights depending on the level of noise and the angle between the M direction and the backazimuth of the event. Both techniques yield consistent results for the Graefenberg array. As indicated by the P receiver functions, the upper layer of the mantle between the Moho and 80 km depth is anisotropic with dVs/Vs around 0.03 and the fast direction close to 20° clockwise from north. The fast direction of anisotropy below this layer is around 110°, The boundary between the upper and the lower anisotropic layers is manifested by the detectable Pds and Sdp converted phases. Shear wave splitting in SKS is strongly dominated by azimuthal anisotropy in the lower layer (asthenosphere). [source]

Three-dimensional VP and VP,/VS models of the upper crust in the Friuli area (northeastern Italy)

G. F. Gentile
3-D images of P velocity and P - to S -velocity ratio have been produced for the upper crust of the Friuli area (northeastern Italy) using local earthquake tomography. The data consist of 2565 P and 930 S arrival times of high quality. The best-fitting VP and VP,/VS 1-D models were computed before the 3-D inversion. VP was measured on two rock samples representative of the investigated upper layers of the Friuli crust. The tomographic VP model was used for modelling the gravity anomalies, by converting the velocity values into densities along three vertical cross-sections. The computed gravity anomalies were optimized with respect to the observed gravity anomalies. The crust investigated is characterized by sharp lateral and deep VP and VP,/VS anomalies that are associated with the complex geological structure. High VP,/VS values are associated with highly fractured zones related to the main faulting pattern. The relocated seismicity is generally associated with sharp variations in the VP,/VS anomalies. The VP images show a high-velocity body below 6 km depth in the central part of the Friuli area, marked also by strong VP,/VS heterogeneities, and this is interpreted as a tectonic wedge. Comparison with the distribution of earthquakes supports the hypothesis that the tectonic wedge controls most of the seismicity and can be considered to be the main seismogenic zone in the Friuli area. [source]

Interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data by the scaling function method: the case of Southern Apennines (Italy)

G. Florio
ABSTRACT A complex aeromagnetic anomaly in Southern Apennines (Italy) is analysed and interpreted by a multiscale method based on the scaling function. We use multiscale methods allowing analysis of a potential field along ridges, which are lines defined by the position of the extrema of the field at the considered scales. The method developed and applied in this paper is based on the study of the scaling function of the total magnetic field. It allows recovering of source parameters such as depth and structural index. The studied area includes a Pleistocene volcanic structure (Mt. Vulture) whose intense dipolar anomaly is superimposed on a longer wavelength regional anomaly. The interpretation of ridges of the modulus of the analytic signal at different altitude ranges allows recognition of at least three distinct sources between about 5 km and 20 km depth. Their interpretation is discussed in light of borehole data and other geophysical constraints. A reasonable geological model for these sources indicates the presence of intrusions, probably linked to the past activity of Mt. Vulture. [source]

Seismic modelling study of a subglacial lake

José M. Carcione
ABSTRACT We characterize the seismic response of Lake Vostok, an Antarctic subglacial lake located at nearly 4 km depth below the ice sheet. This study is relevant for the determination of the location and morphology of subglacial lakes. The characterization requires the design of a methodology based on rock physics and numerical modelling of wave propagation. The methodology involves rock-physics models of the shallow layer (firn), the ice sheet and the lake sediments, numerical simulation of synthetic seismograms, ray tracing, ,,p transforms, and AVA analysis, based on the theoretical reflection coefficients. The modelled reflection seismograms show a set of straight events (refractions through the firn and top-ice layer) and the two reflection events associated with the top and bottom of the lake. Theoretical AVA analysis of these reflections indicates that, at near offsets, the PP-wave anomaly is negative for the ice/water interface and constant for the water/sediment interface. This behaviour is shown by AVA analysis of the synthetic data set. This study shows that subglacial lakes can be identified by using seismic methods. Moreover, the methodology provides a tool for designing suitable seismic surveys. [source]

Fault configuration produced by initial arc rifting in the Parece Vela Basin as deduced from seismic reflection data

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
Mikiya Yamashita
Abstract The Parece Vela Basin (PVB), which is a currently inactive back-arc basin of the Philippine Sea Plate, was formed by separation between the Izu-Ogasawara Arc (IOA) and the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). Elucidating the marks of the past back-arc opening and rifting is important for investigation of its crustal structure. To image its fault configurations and crustal deformation, pre-stack depth migration to multichannel seismic reflection was applied and data obtained by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology and Metal Mining Agency of Japan and Japan National Oil Corporation (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation). Salient results for the pre-stack depth-migrated sections are: (i) deep reflectors exist around the eastern margin of KPR and at the western margin of IOA down to 8 km depth; and (ii) normal fault zones distributed at the eastern margin of the KPR (Fault zone A) and the western margin of the IOA (Fault zone B) have a total displacement of greater than 500 m associated with synrift sediments. Additional normal faults (Fault zone C) exist 20 km east of the Fault zone B. They are covered with sediment, which indicates deposition of recent volcanic products in the IOA. According to those results: (i) the fault displacement of more than 500 m with respect to initial rifting was approximately asymmetric at 25 Ma based on PSDM profiles; and (ii) the faults had reactivated after 23 Ma, based on the age of deformed sediments obtained from past ocean drillings. The age of the base sediments corresponds to those of spreading and rotation after rifting in the PVB. Fault zone C is covered with thick and not deformed volcanogenic sediments from the IOA, which suggests that the fault is inactive. [source]

Exhumation during oblique transpression: The Feiran,Solaf region, Egypt

Abstract The Feiran,Solaf metamorphic complex of Sinai, Egypt, is one of the highest grade metamorphic complexes of a series of basement domes that crop out throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In the Eastern Desert of Egypt these basement domes have been interpreted as metamorphic core complexes exhumed in extensional settings. For the Feiran,Solaf complex an interpretation of the exhumation mechanism is difficult to obtain with structural arguments as all of its margins are obliterated by post-tectonic granites. Here, metamorphic methods are used to investigate its tectonic history and show that the complex was characterized by a single metamorphic cycle experiencing peak metamorphism at ,700,750 °C and 7,8 kbar and subsequent isothermal decompression to ,4,5 kbar, followed by near isobaric cooling to 450 °C. Correlation of this metamorphic evolution with the deformation history shows that peak metamorphism occurred prior to the compressive deformation phase D2, while the compressive D2 and D3 deformation occurred during the near isothermal decompression phase of the P,T loop. We interpret the concurrence of decompression of the P,T path and compression by structural shortening as evidence for the Najd fault system exhuming the complex in an oblique transpressive regime. However, final exhumation from ,15 km depth must have occurred due to an unrelated mechanism. [source]

SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating from Sulu-Dabie dolomitic marble, eastern China: constraints on prograde, ultrahigh-pressure and retrograde metamorphic ages

Abstract Laser Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that zircon from Sulu-Dabie dolomitic marbles is characterized by distinctive domains of inherited (detrital), prograde, ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and retrograde metamorphic growths. The inherited zircon domains are dark-luminescent in CL images and contain mineral inclusions of Qtz + Cal + Ap. The prograde metamorphic domains are white-luminescent in CL images and preserve a quartz eclogite facies assemblage of Qtz + Dol + Grt + Omp + Phe + Ap, formed at 542,693 °C and 1.8,2.1 GPa. In contrast, the UHP metamorphic domains are grey-luminescent in CL images, retain the UHP assemblage of Coe + Grt + Omp + Arg + Mgs + Ap, and record UHP conditions of 739,866 °C and >5.5 GPa. The outermost retrograde rims have dark-luminescent CL images, and contain low- P minerals such as calcite, related to the regional amphibolite facies retrogression. Laser ablation ICP-MS trace-element data show striking difference between the inherited cores of mostly magmatic origin and zircon domains grown in response to prograde, UHP and retrograde metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating on these zoned zircon identified four discrete 206Pb/238U age groups: 1823,503 Ma is recorded in the inherited (detrital) zircon derived from various Proterozoic protoliths, the prograde domains record the quartz eclogite facies metamorphism at 254,239 Ma, the UHP growth domains occurred at 238,230 Ma, and the late amphibolite facies retrogressive overprint in the outermost rims was restricted to 218,206 Ma. Thus, Proterozoic continental materials of the Yangtze craton were subducted to 55,60 km depth during the Early Triassic and recrystallized at quartz eclogite facies conditions. Then these metamorphic rocks were further subducted to depths of 165,175 km in the Middle Triassic and experienced UHP metamorphism, and finally these UHP metamorphic rocks were exhumed to mid-crustal levels (about 30 km) in the Late Triassic and overprinted by regional amphibolite facies metamorphism. The subduction and exhumation rates deduced from the SHRIMP data and metamorphic P,T conditions are 9,10 km Myr,1 and 6.4 km Myr,1, respectively, and these rapid subduction,exhumation rates may explain the obtained P,T,t path. Such a fast exhumation suggests that Sulu-Dabie UHP rocks that returned towards crustal depths were driven by buoyant forces, caused as a consequence of slab breakoff at mantle depth. [source]

Fluid evolution and thermal structure in the rapidly exhuming gneiss complex of Namche Barwa,Gyala Peri, eastern Himalayan syntaxis

Abstract High-grade gneisses (amphibolite,granulite facies) of the Namche Barwa and Gyala Peri massifs, in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, have been unroofed from metamorphic depths in the late Tertiary,Recent. Rapid exhumation (2,5 mm year,1) has resulted in a pronounced shallow conductive thermal anomaly beneath the massifs and the intervening Tsangpo gorge. The position of the 300 °C isotherm has been estimated from fluid inclusions using CO2,H2O immiscibility phase equilibria to be between 2.5 and 6.2 km depth below surface. Hence, the near-surface average thermal gradient exceeds 50 °C km,1 beneath valleys, although the thermal gradient is relatively lower beneath the high mountains. The original metamorphic fluid in the gneisses was >90% CO2. This fluid was displaced by incursion of brines from overlying marine sedimentary rocks that have since been largely removed by erosion. Brines can exceed 60 wt% dissolved salts, and include Ca, Na, K and Fe chlorides. These brines were remobilized during the earliest stages of uplift at >500 °C. During exhumation, incursion of abundant topography-driven surface waters resulted in widespread fracture-controlled hydrothermal activity and brine dilution down to the brittle,ductile transition. Boiling water was particularly common at shallow levels (<2.5 km) beneath the Yarlung Tsangpo valley, and numerous hot springs occur at the surface in this valley. Dry steam is not a major feature of the hydrothermal system in the eastern syntaxis (in contrast to the western syntaxis at Nanga Parbat), but some dry steam fluids may have developed locally. [source]

Serpentinites of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite complex and their texture evolution

X.-P. Li
Abstract The Zermatt-Saas serpentinite complex is an integral member of the Penninic ophiolites of the Central Alps and represents the mantle part of the oceanic lithosphere of the Tethys. Metamorphic textures of the serpentinite preserve the complex mineralogical evolution from primary abyssal peridotite through ocean-floor hydration, subduction-related high-pressure overprint, meso-Alpine greenschist facies metamorphism, and late-stage hydrothermal alteration. The early ocean floor hydration of the spinel harzburgites is still visible in relic pseudomorphic bastite and locally preserved mesh textures. The primary serpentine minerals were completely replaced by antigorite. The stable assemblage in subduction-related mylonitic serpentinites is antigorite,olivine,magnetite ± diopside. The mid-Tertiary greenschist facies overprint is characterized by minor antigorite recrystallization. Textural and mineral composition data of this study prove that the hydrated mineral assemblages remained stable during high-pressure metamorphism of up to 2.5 GPa and 650 °C. The Zermatt-Saas serpentinites thus provide a well documented example for the lack of dehydration of a mantle fragment during subduction to 75 km depth. [source]

,Forbidden zone' subduction of sediments to 150 km depth, the reaction of dolomite to magnesite + aragonite in the UHPM metapelites from western Tianshan, China

L. Zhang
Abstract The solid-state reaction magnesite (MgCO3) + calcite (aragonite) (CaCO3) = dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) has been identified in metapelites from western Tianshan, China. Petrological studies show that two metamorphic stages are recorded in the metapelites: (1) the peak mineral assemblage of magnesite and calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite which is only preserved as inclusions within dolomite; and (2) the retrograde glaucophane-chloritoid facies mineral assemblage of glaucophane, chloritoid, dolomite, garnet, paragonite, chlorite and quartz. The peak metamorphic temperatures and pressures are calculated to be 560,600 °C, 4.95,5.07 GPa based on the calcite,dolomite geothermometer and the equilibrium calculation of the reaction dolomite = magnesite + aragonite, respectively. These give direct evidence in UHP metamorphic rocks from Tianshan, China, that carbonate sediments were subducted to greater than 150 km depth. This UHP metamorphism represents a geotherm lower than any previously estimated for subduction metamorphism (< 3.7 °C km,1) and is within what was previously considered a ,forbidden' condition within Earth. In terms of the carbon cycle, this demonstrates that carbonate sediments can be subducted to at least 150 km depth without releasing significant CO2 to the overlying mantle wedge. [source]

Layered ejecta craters and the early water/ice aquifer on Mars

The impact model provides estimates of the water content of crater deposits relative to volatile content in the aquifer of Mars. These estimates together with the amount of water required to initiate fluid flow in terrestrial debris flows provide an estimate of 21% by volume (7.6 × 107km3) of water/ice that was stored between 0.27 and 2.5 km depth in the crust of Mars during Hesperian and Amazonian time. This would have been sufficient to supply the water for an ocean in the northern lowlands of Mars. The existence of fluidized craters smaller than 5 km diameter in some places on Mars suggests that volatiles were present locally at depths less than 0.27 km. Deposits of Martian craters may be ideal sites for searches for fossils of early organisms that may have existed in the water table if life originated on Mars. [source]

Basin evolution, diagenesis and uranium mineralization in the Paleoproterozic Thelon Basin, Nunavut, Canada

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
Eric E. Hiatt
ABSTRACT The Paleoproterozoic (Statherian) Thelon Basin is located in the Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield, formed following the Trans-Hudson Orogeny. Basin formation followed an interval of felsic volcanism and weathering of underlying bedrock. The diagenetic evolution of the Thelon lasted about one billion years and was punctuated by fluid movement influenced by tectonic events. Early quartz cements formed in well-sorted, quartz-rich facies during diagenetic stage 1; fluids in which these overgrowths formed had ,18O values near 0, (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Uranium-rich apatite cement (P1) also formed during diagenetic stage 1 indicating that oxygenated, uranium-bearing pore water was present in the basin early in its diagenetic history. Syntaxial quartz cement (Q1) formed in water with ,18O from ,4 to ,0.8, in diagenetic stage 2. Diagenetic stage 3 occurred when the Thelon Formation was at ca. 5 km depth, and was marked by extensive illitization, alteration of detrital grains, and uranium mineralization. Basin-wide, illite crystallized at ,200 °C by fluids with ,18O values of 5,9, and ,D values of ,60 to ,31,, consistent with evolved basinal brines. Tectonism caused by the accretion of Nena at ca. 1600 Ma may have provided the mechanism for brine movement during deep burial. Diagenetic stage 4 is associated with fracturing and emplacement of mafic dikes at ca. 1300 Ma, quartz cement (Q3) in fractures and vugs, further illitization, and recrystallization of uraninite (U2). Q3 cements have fluid inclusions that suggest variable salinities, ,18O values of 1.5,9,, and ,D values of ,97 to ,83, for stage 4 brines. K-feldspar and Mg-chlorite formed during diagenetic stage 5 at ca. 1000 Ma in upper stratigraphic sequences, and in the west. These phases precipitated from low-temperature, isotopically distinct fluids. Their distribution indicates that the basin hydrostratigraphy remained partitioned for >600 Ma. [source]

Seismogenic Structure around the Epicenter of the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake from Micro-seismic Tomography

Meijian AN
Abstract: A three-dimensional local-scale P -velocity model down to 25 km depth around the main shock epicenter region was constructed using 83821 event-to-receiver seismic rays from 5856 aftershocks recorded by a newly deployed temporary seismic network. Checkerboard tests show that our tomographic model has lateral and vertical resolution of ,2 km. The high-resolution P -velocity model revealed interesting structures in the seismogenic layer: (1) The Guanxian-Anxian fault, Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Wenchuan-Maoxian fault of the Longmen Shan fault zone are well delineated by sharp upper crustal velocity changes; (2) The Pengguan massif has generally higher velocity than its surrounding areas, and may extend down to at least ,10 km from the surface; (3) A sharp lateral velocity variation beneath the Wenchuan-Maoxian fault may indicate that the Pengguan massif's western boundary and/or the Wenchuan-Maoxian fault is vertical, and the hypocenter of the Wenchuan earthquake possibly located at the conjunction point of the NW dipping Yingxiu-Beichuan and Guanxian-Anxian faults, and vertical Wenchuan-Maoxian fault; (4) Vicinity along the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault is characterized by very low velocity and low seismicity at shallow depths, possibly due to high content of porosity and fractures; (5) Two blocks of low-velocity anomaly are respe tively imaged in the hanging wall and foot wall of the Guanxian-Anxian fault with a ,7 km offset with ,5 km vertical component. [source]