kJ Day (kj + day)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A randomised, controlled trial of the effects of an energy-dense supplement on energy intake, appetite and blood lipids in malnourished community-based elderly patients

G.P. Hubbard
Background:, Disease-related malnutrition is common in the elderly and if left untreated may have severe consequences (Stratton & Elia, 2003). One of the strategies used to combat malnutrition is the use of high-energy, low-volume [18.8 kJ mL,1 (4.5 kcal ml,1)] nutritional supplements. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an energy dense supplement on energy intake, appetite and blood lipids in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods:, In this randomised, controlled, parallel study, 42 community-based patients (mean (SD) age: 84 (7.0) years, mean body mass index (BMI): 20.9 (3.5) kg m,2), identified as being at medium or high risk of malnutrition [Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) (Elia, 2003)] were randomised (using standard randomisation methods) to receive either; (i) 1674 kJ day,1 (400 kcal day,1) (in 3 × 30 mL doses) of an energy-dense supplement (Calogen, Nutricia®) (n = 19) or (ii) dietary advice in the form of a standardised dietary advice sheet (n = 23), for 4 weeks. Energy intake, appetite, blood lipids [i.e. total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (subset analysis only)], body weight, gastro-intestinal tolerance, product compliance and product acceptability were assessed during the 4 week study. Results are presented as mean (SD). Paired t -test and one way anova statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS v15. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the appropriate committee. Results:, Supplementation with the energy dense supplement significantly increased mean total daily energy intake by +1736 kJ (+415 kcal, P = 0.009) from 6456 (2330) kJ [1543 (557) kcal] to 8192 (1477) kJ [1958 (353) kcal], with no significant effect on voluntary food intake or appetite scores (for hunger, fullness and desire to eat). In the dietary advice group, although mean total daily energy intake was also significantly increased by +1105 kJ (+264 kcal, P = 0.026) from 5623 (2107) kJ [1344 (503) kcal] to 6728 (2029) kJ [1608 (485) kcal], it was significantly lower than in the energy dense group [-1464 kJ (-350 kcal), P = 0.012] at week 4. Both energy-dense and dietary advice groups maintained weight during the study. No significant adverse effects on blood lipid concentrations were observed in either group, with a significant decrease in total cholesterol concentrations [from 4.26 (1.0) mM to 3.96 (0.8) mM, P = 0.03] and LDL cholesterol concentrations [from 2.32 (0.6) mM to 2.06 (0.5) mM, P = 0.03] in the energy dense group (subset analysis, n = 9). Both supplementation with energy dense supplement and dietary advice were well tolerated with no gastro-intestinal side effects. The energy dense supplement was well accepted with >80% of patients rating it as pleasant and convenient, with an enjoyable taste. Compliance with the energy dense supplement was high, with 95% of patients consuming the recommended dose of 3 × 30 mL throughout the study. Discussion:, This study in elderly patients with or at risk of malnutrition suggests that the energy dense supplement is effective in significantly improving total intakes of energy with no suppression of appetite or voluntary dietary intake, enabling patients to maintain weight and that the energy dense supplement is well tolerated and accepted, with excellent compliance and no adverse effects on blood lipids. Conclusions:, This randomised controlled trial suggests that an energy-dense supplement is an effective, well tolerated and safe method of providing energy supplementation for the management of elderly patients with or at risk of malnutrition in clinical practice. References, Elia, M. (2003) The "MUST" report. Nutritional screening for adults: a multidisciplinary responsibility. Redditch, UK: BAPEN. Available at http://www.bapen.org.uk (accessed on 15 March 2008). Stratton, R.J., Green, C.J. & Elia, M. (2003) Disease-related malnutrition: an evidence-based approach. Oxford: CABI publishing. [source]

The effect of advice to walk 2000 extra steps daily on food intake

A.-A. Koulouri
Abstract Background, It is currently unclear how physical activity and diet interact within the ranges of activity seen in the general population. This study aimed to establish whether a small, acute, increase in physical activity would lead to compensatory change in energy intake and nutrient balance, and to provide power analysis data for future research in this field. Method, Twelve participants were studied over 7 days of habitual activity and 2 weeks after instruction to increase physical activity by 2000 steps per day. Physical activity was assessed using a diary, the ,activPAL' activity monitor and a pedometer. Dietary analyses from prospective food diaries were compared between the first and third weeks. Results, Participants increased step-counts (+2600 steps per day, P = 0.008) and estimated energy expenditure (+300,1000 kJ day,1, P = 0.002) but did not significantly change their energy intake, dietary composition or number of meals per day. From reverse power analysis 38 participants would be needed to exclude a change in energy intake of 400 kJ day,1 with 90% power at P < 0.05; 400 kJ day,1 would compensate for a 2000 steps per day increase in physical activity. Conclusion, These results did not demonstrate any compensatory increase in food consumption when physical activity was increased by walking an average of 2600 additional steps per day. Power analysis indicates that a larger study (n = 38) will be necessary to exclude such an effect with confidence. [source]

Review: Energy regulation and neuroendocrine,immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases

R. H. Straub
Abstract., Straub RH, Cutolo M, Buttgereit F, Pongratz G (University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; University of Genova, Genova, Italy; and Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany). Energy regulation and neuroendocrine,immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases (Review). J Intern Med 2010; 267:543,560. Energy regulation (EnR) is most important for homoeostatic regulation of physiological processes. Neuroendocrine pathways are involved in EnR. We can separate factors that provide energy-rich fuels to stores [parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, oestrogens, androgens and osteocalcin] and those that provide energy-rich substrates to consumers [sympathetic nervous system (SNS), hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenal axis, thyroid hormones, glucagon and growth hormone]. In chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), balanced energy-rich fuel allocation to stores and consumers, normally aligned with circadian rhythms, is largely disturbed due to the vast fuel consumption of an activated immune system (up to 2000 kJ day,1). Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor or interleukins 1, and 6, circulating activated immune cells and sensory nerve fibres signal immune activation to the rest of the body. This signal is an appeal for energy-rich fuels as regulators are switched on to supply energy-rich fuels (,energy appeal reaction'). During evolution, adequate EnR evolved to cope with nonlife-threatening diseases, not with CIDs (huge negative selection pressure and reduced reproduction). Thus, EnR is inadequate in CIDs leading to many abnormalities, including sickness behaviour, anorexia, hypovitaminosis D, cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, fat deposits near inflamed tissue, hypoandrogenaemia, mild hypercortisolaemia, activation of the SNS (hypertension), CID-related anaemia and osteopenia. Many of these conditions can contribute to the metabolic syndrome. These signs and symptoms become comprehensible in the context of an exaggerated call for energy-rich fuels by the immune system. We propose that the presented pathophysiological framework may lead to new therapeutical approaches and to a better understanding of CID sequence. [source]

Short-term sprint interval training increases insulin sensitivity in healthy adults but does not affect the thermogenic response to ,-adrenergic stimulation

Jennifer C. Richards
Sprint interval training (SIT) and traditional endurance training elicit similar physiological adaptations. From the perspective of metabolic function, superior glucose regulation is a common characteristic of endurance-trained adults. Accordingly, we have investigated the hypothesis that short-term SIT will increase insulin sensitivity in sedentary/recreationally active humans. Thirty one healthy adults were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) SIT (n= 12): six sessions of repeated (4,7) 30 s bouts of very high-intensity cycle ergometer exercise over 14 days; (2) sedentary control (n= 10); (3) single-bout SIT (n= 9): one session of 4 × 30 s cycle ergometer sprints. Insulin sensitivity was determined (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) prior to and 72 h following each intervention. Compared with baseline, and sedentary and single-bout controls, SIT increased insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate: 6.3 ± 0.6 vs. 8.0 ± 0.8 mg kg,1 min,1; mean ±s.e.m.; P= 0.04). In a separate study, we investigated the effect of SIT on the thermogenic response to beta-adrenergic receptor (,-AR) stimulation, an important determinant of energy balance. Compared with baseline, and sedentary and single-bout control groups, SIT did not affect resting energy expenditure (EE: ventilated hood technique; 6274 ± 226 vs. 6079 ± 297 kJ day,1; P= 0.51) or the thermogenic response to isoproterenol (6, 12 and 24 ng (kg fat-free mass),1 min,1: %,EE 11 ± 2, 14 ± 3, 23 ± 2 vs. 11 ± 1, 16 ± 2, 25 ± 3; P= 0.79). Combined data from both studies revealed no effect of SIT on fasted circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, pigment epithelial-derived factor, non-esterified fatty acids or noradrenaline (all P > 0.05). Sixteen minutes of high-intensity exercise over 14 days augments insulin sensitivity but does not affect the thermogenic response to ,-AR stimulation. [source]