Kg H (kg + h)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effects of an adapted intravenous amiodarone treatment protocol in horses with atrial fibrillation

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
D. de CLERCQ
Summary Reason for performing study: Good results have been obtained with a human amiodarone (AD) i.v. protocol in horses with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and a pharmacokinetic study is required for a specific i.v. amiodarone treatment protocol for horses. Objectives: To study the efficacy of this pharmacokinetic based i.v. AD protocol in horses with chronic AF. Methods: Six horses with chronic AF were treated with an adapted AD infusion protocol. The protocol consisted of 2 phases with a loading dose followed by a maintenance infusion. In the first phase, horses received an infusion of 6.52 mg AD/kg bwt/h for 1 h followed by 1.1 mg/kg bwt/h for 47 h. In the second phase, horses received a second loading dose of 3.74 mg AD/kg bwt/h for 1 h followed by 1.31 mg/kg bwt/h for 47 h. Clinical signs were monitored, a surface ECG and an intra-atrial electrogram were recorded. AD treatment was discontinued when conversion or any side effects were observed. Results: Three of the 6 horses cardioverted successfully without side effects. The other 3 horses did not convert and showed adverse effects, including diarrhoea. In the latter, there were no important circulatory problems, but the diarrhoea continued for 10,14 days. The third horse had to be subjected to euthanasia because a concomitant Salmonella infection worsened the clinical signs. Conclusion: The applied treatment protocol based upon pharmacokinetic data achieved clinically relevant concentrations of AD and desethylamiodarone. Potential relevance: Intravenous AD has the potential to be an alternative pharmacological treatment for AF in horses, although AD may lead to adverse drug effects, particularly with cumulative dosing. [source]


Bioavailability and disposition of sodium and procaine penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) administered orally with milk to calves

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 3 2001
J. M. B. Musser
Eighteen 1-week-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) sodium penicillin G administered intravenously, (b) sodium penicillin G administered orally, or (c) procaine penicillin G administered orally. All calves were dosed with penicillin G at 4.0 mg/kg BW. At 5 weeks of age, the calves were dosed again. Blood samples were taken serially for 24 h after both dosings. Plasma was assayed for penicillin G by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For i.v. administration, the area under the concentration,time curve (AUC), 7456 and 5508 ng/mL h, and systemic clearance, 0.54 and 0.73 L/kg h, were significantly different (P < 0.05) at 1 and 5 weeks of age, respectively. There were no significant differences between orally administered sodium and procaine penicillin G within the same age groups. Following oral (p.o.) administration, there were significant differences (P < 0.01) at 1 and 5 weeks of age in the AUC, 760 and 409 ng/mL h, terminal half-life, 2.1 and 1.6 h, time of maximum concentration (TMAX), 3.0 and 2.3 h, and maximum plasma concentration (CMAX), 85 and 58 ng/mL, respectively. Bioavailability was 10.2 and 7.4% at 1 and 5 weeks, respectively. [source]


Predicting and managing the effects of hypersalinity on the fish community in solar salt fields in north-western Australia

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
B. W. Molony
Summary Five concentrator ponds (CPs) of a solar salt field in Port Hedland, Western Australia were sampled by seine and gill nets over a 12-month period in order to describe the fish community and examine relationships between diversity, abundance and catch per unit effort (CPUE) with salinity. Salinity varied between 40.2 and 113.7, during the sampling period. Forty-one species of fishes were recorded from the CPs, with fewer species recorded from CPs of higher salinity. A significant inverse relationship was identified between salinity and the number of species (diversity) captured in gill nets, indicating that one species is lost with every 16, increase in salinity. A significant relationship between salinity and CPUE was also identified with gill-net samples, indicating a reduction of 1 kg h,1 with every increase in salinity of 5.5,. As CPs are connected by one-way flaps, fish movements are only possible into CPs of higher salinity. Thus, reductions in diversity, abundance and CPUE suggested fish mortalities, likely as a result of maximum or rapidly changing salinities exceeding the tolerance ability of individual species. As fish kills are not infrequent events in solar salt fields and result in economic losses due to loss of production and clean-up costs, the results may allow managers to identify high risk species and times of year of fish kills by using salinity measurements. Commercial, indigenous and/or recreational fishing opportunities are viable options for reducing fish biomasses within the CPs and are discussed. Although absolute salinity values were higher than those recorded from tropical Australian estuaries, salinity deviations within each CP are similar to other estuaries and the effect on the ichthyo-community is likely to be similar. [source]


Declining catch rates of reef fish in Aldabra's marine protected area

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue S1 2009
Pierre A. Pistorius
Abstract 1.Fish landings from a small-scale subsistence fishery at Aldabra, Seychelles, were monitored from late 1995 to early 2007 to describe the predominant species caught, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and patterns in yield over time. 2.During this period a total of 19.5 tons of piscivores were caught, varying between 0.99 and 2.46 tons per annum. Effort data allowing for estimation of CPUE were available for 259 fishing trips and from 1998 onwards. 3.Over the study period, and in order of importance, Lutjanus bohar, Variola louti, Lethrinus nebulosus, Epinephelus multinotatus and Epinephelus polyphekadion made up over 80% of the total catch in terms of biomass. Using a general linear model, including fishing location and season as predictor variables, it was shown that CPUE declined significantly over the study period. Annual CPUE varied between 3.0 and 5.1 kg h,1 per person. 4.Throughout the period fishing pressure was low, and largely limited to the subsistence fishery. It is argued that changing catch rates are likely to have been independent of direct anthropogenic influences but a result of reef degradation following the 1998 bleaching event. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Milk Fat Globule EGF Factor 8 Attenuates Sepsis-Induced Apoptosis and Organ Injury in Alcohol-Intoxicated Rats

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
Rongqian Wu
Background:, Despite advances in our understanding of excessive alcohol-intake-related tissue injury and modernization of the management of septic patients, high morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases in alcohol abusers remain a prominent challenge. Our previous studies have shown that milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8), a protein required to opsonize apoptotic cells for phagocytosis, is protective in inflammation. However, it remains unknown whether MFG-E8 ameliorates sepsis-induced apoptosis and organ injury in alcohol-intoxicated rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) attenuates organ injury after acute alcohol exposure and subsequent sepsis. Methods:, Acute alcohol intoxication was induced in male adult rats by a bolus injection of intravenous alcohol at 1.75 g/kg BW, followed by an intravenous infusion of 300 mg/kg BW/h of alcohol for 10 hours. Sepsis was induced at the end of 10-hour alcohol infusion by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). rmMFG-E8 or vehicle (normal saline) was administered intravenously 3 times (i.e., at the beginning of alcohol injection, the beginning of CLP, and 10 hours post-CLP) at a dose of 20 ,g/kg BW each. Blood and tissue samples were collected 20 hours after CLP in alcoholic animals for various measurements. Results:, Acute alcohol exposure per se did not affect the production of MFG-E8; however, it primed the animal and enhanced sepsis-induced MFG-E8 downregulation in the spleen. Administration of rmMFG-E8 reduces alcohol/sepsis-induced apoptosis in the spleen, lungs, and liver. In addition, administration of rmMFG-E8 after alcohol exposure and subsequent sepsis decreases circulating levels of TNF-, and interleukin-6 and attenuates organ injury. Conclusions:, rmMFG-E8 attenuates sepsis-induced apoptosis and organ injury in alcohol-intoxicated rats. [source]


Effects of an adapted intravenous amiodarone treatment protocol in horses with atrial fibrillation

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
D. de CLERCQ
Summary Reason for performing study: Good results have been obtained with a human amiodarone (AD) i.v. protocol in horses with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and a pharmacokinetic study is required for a specific i.v. amiodarone treatment protocol for horses. Objectives: To study the efficacy of this pharmacokinetic based i.v. AD protocol in horses with chronic AF. Methods: Six horses with chronic AF were treated with an adapted AD infusion protocol. The protocol consisted of 2 phases with a loading dose followed by a maintenance infusion. In the first phase, horses received an infusion of 6.52 mg AD/kg bwt/h for 1 h followed by 1.1 mg/kg bwt/h for 47 h. In the second phase, horses received a second loading dose of 3.74 mg AD/kg bwt/h for 1 h followed by 1.31 mg/kg bwt/h for 47 h. Clinical signs were monitored, a surface ECG and an intra-atrial electrogram were recorded. AD treatment was discontinued when conversion or any side effects were observed. Results: Three of the 6 horses cardioverted successfully without side effects. The other 3 horses did not convert and showed adverse effects, including diarrhoea. In the latter, there were no important circulatory problems, but the diarrhoea continued for 10,14 days. The third horse had to be subjected to euthanasia because a concomitant Salmonella infection worsened the clinical signs. Conclusion: The applied treatment protocol based upon pharmacokinetic data achieved clinically relevant concentrations of AD and desethylamiodarone. Potential relevance: Intravenous AD has the potential to be an alternative pharmacological treatment for AF in horses, although AD may lead to adverse drug effects, particularly with cumulative dosing. [source]