Kg Body Mass (kg + body_mass)

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Selected Abstracts

Association of maturation, sex, and body fat in cardiorespiratory fitness

Jorge Mota
The aims of this cross-sectional study were 1) to estimate changes in body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness across stages of pubertal maturation, and 2) to describe the relationship between maturity status and body fatness, regional fat distribution, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The sample consisted of 494 children (254 males, 240 females), 8,16 years of age. Height and weight were measured with standard anthropometric methods. Percentage of fat (%F) was estimated from two skinfold thicknesses and regional fat distribution was estimated by the ratio of the subscapular to the triceps skinfold (S/T ratio). Biological maturity was based on self-assessment of breast stages in females and pubic hair stages in males. A maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run was used to predict maximal aerobic capacity from maximal aerobic speed. Both VO2max and 20SRT-time were used as indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness. ANCOVA with age as the covariate was used. There were significant differences among girls across pubertal stages. Among boys, only weight and height differed significantly by stage of maturity. When adjusted for maturity status, cardiorespiratory fitness expressed either as VO2/kg body mass or 20SRT-time was inversely associated with %F in both sexes. This suggests that sexual maturity status alone accounts for a small portion of the variance in aerobic fitness. Height, %F and the S/T ratio were also significantly associated with VO2/kg body mass and 20SRT-time. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 14:707,712, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

During hypoxic exercise some vasoconstriction is needed to match O2 delivery with O2 demand at the microcirculatory level

Carsten Lundby
To test the hypothesis that the increased sympathetic tonus elicited by chronic hypoxia is needed to match O2 delivery with O2 demand at the microvascular level eight male subjects were investigated at 4559 m altitude during maximal exercise with and without infusion of ATP (80 ,g (kg body mass),1 min,1) into the right femoral artery. Compared to sea level peak leg vascular conductance was reduced by 39% at altitude. However, the infusion of ATP at altitude did not alter femoral vein blood flow (7.6 1.0 versus 7.9 1.0 l min,1) and femoral arterial oxygen delivery (1.2 0.2 versus 1.3 0.2 l min,1; control and ATP, respectively). Despite the fact that with ATP mean arterial blood pressure decreased (106.9 14.2 versus 83.3 16.0 mmHg, P < 0.05), peak cardiac output remained unchanged. Arterial oxygen extraction fraction was reduced from 85.9 5.3 to 72.0 10.2% (P < 0.05), and the corresponding venous O2 content was increased from 25.5 10.0 to 46.3 18.5 ml l,1 (control and ATP, respectively, P < 0.05). With ATP, leg arterial,venous O2 difference was decreased (P < 0.05) from 139.3 9.0 to 116.9 8.4,1 and leg was 20% lower compared to the control trial (1.1 0.2 versus 0.9 0.1 l min,1) (P= 0.069). In summary, at altitude, some degree of vasoconstriction is needed to match O2 delivery with O2 demand. Peak cardiac output at altitude is not limited by excessive mean arterial pressure. Exercising leg is not limited by restricted vasodilatation in the altitude-acclimatized human. [source]

Phosphocreatine degradation in type I and type II muscle fibres during submaximal exercise in man: effect of carbohydrate ingestion

Kostas Tsintzas
1The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on changes in ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations in different muscle fibre types during prolonged running and relate those changes to the degree of glycogen depletion. 2Five male subjects performed two runs at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake (V,O2,max), 1 week apart. Each subject ingested 8 ml (kg body mass (BM)),1 of either a placebo (Con trial) or a 5.5 % CHO solution (CHO trial) immediately before each run and 2 ml (kg BM),1 every 20 min thereafter. In the Con trial, the subjects ran to exhaustion (97.0 6.7 min). In the CHO trial, the run was terminated at the time coinciding with exhaustion in the Con trial. Muscle samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after each trial. 3Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect ATP concentrations. However, it attenuated the decline in PCr concentration by 46 % in type I fibres (CHO: 20 8 mmol (kg dry matter (DM)),1; Con: 34 6 mmol (kg DM),1; P < 0.05) and by 36 % in type II fibres (CHO: 30 5 mmol (kg DM),1; Con: 48 6 mmol (kg DM),1; P < 0.05). 4A 56 % reduction in glycogen utilisation in type I fibres was observed in CHO compared with Con (117 39 vs. 240 32 mmol glucosyl units (kg DM),1, respectively; P < 0.01), but no difference was observed in type II fibres. 5It is proposed that CHO ingestion during exhaustive running attenuates the decline in oxidative ATP resynthesis in type I fibres, as indicated by sparing of both PCr and glycogen breakdown. The CHO-induced sparing of PCr, but not glycogen, in type II fibres may reflect differential recruitment and/or role of PCr between fibre types. [source]

Studies on the metabolism of the ,9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor ,9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (,9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques

Julia Jung
Abstract In Cannabis sativa, ,9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (,9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of ,9-tetrahydrocannabinol (,9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total ,9-THC is available as ,9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), ,9-THCA-A is only partially converted to ,9-THC and therefore, ,9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of ,9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of ,9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of ,9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure ,9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of ,9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that ,9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-,9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-,9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-,9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-,9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (,9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, ,9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-,9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8,-Hydroxy-,9-THCA-A and 8,-Hydroxy-,9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of ,9-THCA-A to ,9-THC was not observed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091

R. Petlevski
Abstract Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of,cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.) , Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of,cinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an , enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was signi,cantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not signi,cant). The results showed that statistically signi,cant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a signi,cant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not signi,cant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]