Kdr Mutation (kdr + mutation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An unusual distribution of the kdr gene among populations of Anopheles gambiae on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

L. J. Reimer
Abstract In West Africa, Anopheles gambiae exists in discrete subpopulations known as the M and S molecular forms. Although these forms occur in sympatry, pyrethroid knock-down resistance (kdr) is strongly associated with the S molecular form. On the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea we found high frequencies of the kdr mutation in M form individuals (55.8%) and a complete absence of kdr in the S form. We also report the absence of the kdr allele in M and S specimens from the harbour town of Tiko in Cameroon, representing the nearest continental population to Bioko. The kdr allele had previously been reported as absent in populations of An. gambiae on Bioko. Contrary to earlier reports, sequencing of intron-1 of this sodium channel gene revealed no fixed differences between M form resistant and susceptible individuals. The mutation may have recently arisen independently in the M form on Bioko due to recent and intensive pyrethroid application. [source]

The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiaes.s. through introgression

M. Weill
Abstract Anopheles gambiaes.s. is a complex of sibling taxa characterized by various paracentric inversions. In west and central Africa, where several taxa are sympatric, a kdr mutation responsible for pyrethroid resistance has been described in only one (the S taxon), suggesting an absence of gene flow between them. Following a thorough sampling, we have found a kdr mutation in another taxon (M). To establish whether this mutation is the same event or not, the large intron upstream of the kdr mutation was sequenced to find polymorphic sites in susceptible/resistant and M/S mosquitoes. The low genetic diversity found in this DNA region indicates that a local genetic sweep has recently occurred. However, some polymorphic sites were found, and it is therefore concluded that the kdr mutation in the M taxon is not an independent mutation event, and is best explained by an introgression from the S taxon. These results are discussed within the context of possible gene flow between members of An. gambiae s.s. taxa, and with the possible spread of the kdr mutation in other closely related malaria vectors of the An. gambiae complex. [source]

Sodium channel gene expression in mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (S.)

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 6 2006
Abstract A mosquito strain of Aedes albopictus, HAmAalG0, from Huntsville, Alabama, USA, showed a normal susceptibility and low tolerance to permethrin and resmethrin (pyrethroid insecticides) compared to a susceptible Ikaken strain, even though these pyrethroid insecticides have been used in the field for a long period of time in Alabama. Recently, we treated HAmAalG0 in the laboratory with permethrin for five generations and detected no significant change in the level of resistance to permethrin in the selected mosquitoes, HAmAalG5, compared with the parental strain HAmAalG0. We then examined the allelic expression at the L-to-F kdr site of the sodium channel gene in the Aedes mosquitoes to address our hypothesis that the L-to-F kdr mutation was not present in HAmAalG0 and HAmAalG5 mosquitoes. We found that every tested individual in Ikaken, HAmAalG0, and HAmAalG5 populations expressed a codon of CTA at the L-to-F kdr site encoding Leu, strongly corresponding to their susceptibility to insecticides. [source]

Insecticide resistance in the malarial mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and association with the kdr mutation

Abstract A colony of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Sennar region of Sudan was selected for resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Adults from the F-16 generation of the resistant strain were exposed to all four classes of insecticides approved for use in malaria vector control and showed high levels of resistance to them all (24-h mortalities: malathion, 16.7%; bendiocarb, 33.3%; DDT, 12.1%; dieldrin, 0%; deltamethrin, 24.0%; permethrin, 0%). Comparisons between the unselected base colony and the DDT-resistant strain showed elevated glutathione- S -transferase (P < 0.05) in both sexes and elevated esterases (P < 0.05) in males only. The Leu-Phe mutation in the sodium channel gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, but showed no correlation with the resistant phenotype. These results do not provide any explanation as to why this colony exhibits such widespread resistance and further studies are needed to determine the precise mechanisms involved. The implications for malaria vector control in central Sudan are serious and resistance management (e.g. through the rotational use of different classes of insecticides) is recommended. [source]

Widespread distribution of knockdown resistance mutations in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), populations in the United States

Fang Zhu
Abstract We previously reported high deltamethrin resistance in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, collected from multiple areas of the United States (Romero et al., 2007). Recently, two mutations, the Valine to Leucine mutation (V419L) and the Leucine to Isoleucine mutation (L925I) in voltage-gated sodium channel ,-subunit gene, had been identified to be responsible for knockdown resistance (kdr) to deltamethrin in bed bugs collected from New York (Yoon et al., 2008). The current study was undertaken to investigate the distribution of these two kdr mutations in 110 bed bug populations collected in the United States. Out of the 17 bed bug populations that were assayed for deltamethrin susceptibility, two resistant populations collected in the Cincinnati area and three deltamethrin-susceptible lab colonies showed neither of the two reported mutations (haplotype A). The remaining 12 populations contained L925I or both V419L and L925I mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel ,-subunit gene (haplotypes B&C). In 93 populations that were not assayed for deltamethrin susceptibility, 12 contained neither of the two mutations (haplotype A) and 81 contained L925I or V419L or both mutations (haplotypes B-D). Thus, 88% of the bed bug populations collected showed target-site mutations. These data suggest that deltamethrin resistance conferred by target-site insensitivity of sodium channel is widely spread in bed bug populations across the United States. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]