Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by kDa

  • kda allergen
  • kda antigen
  • kda band
  • kda bands
  • kda component
  • kda domain
  • kda form
  • kda fragment
  • kda glycoprotein
  • kda heat shock protein
  • kda isoform
  • kda molecular weight
  • kda outer membrane protein
  • kda polypeptide
  • kda protein
  • kda region
  • kda subunit

  • Selected Abstracts

    Serological Responses of FldA and Small-Molecular-Weight Proteins of Helicobacter pylori: Correlation with the Presence of the Gastric MALT Tissue

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2004
    Hsiao-Bai Yang
    ABSTRACT Purpose., We tested whether the serological response to Flavodoxin-A (FldA) protein and anti- Helicobacter pylori immunoblots correlated to the degree of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the stomach. Methods., Eighty H. pylori -infected patients with different degrees of MALT in the stomach were investigated with serum sampling and endoscopy on enrolment, the 2nd and the 12th months after anti- H. pylori therapy. All sera were tested for the anti-FldA protein and anti- H. pylori immunoblots, including 19.5, 26.5, 30, 35, 89, and 116 KDa (CagA). Regression of follicular gastritis was assessed by histology. Results., Patients with dense lymphoid follicles had higher prevalence rates of anti-FldA protein, 19.5, 26.5, and 30 KDa antibodies of H. pylori (p < .05). Histologic downgrade of MALT was observed in 25% (10/40) of patients in the 2nd month and in 60% (23/38) in the 12th month after H. pylori therapy. After H. pylori eradication, the patients with MALT and dense lymphoid follicles had significantly negative seroconversions of 19.5, 26.5, 30, and 35 KDa antibodies (p < .05), but not of CagA and FldA. Conclusion., Patients with gastric MALT and dense lymphoid follicles had different anti- H. pylori serological responses to those with scanty or an absence of lymphoid follicles. The negative seroconversion of the smaller-molecular-weight proteins, but not CagA and FldA, may correlate with the regression of MALT by H. pylori eradication. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 4 2001
    SUN Meng
    Abstract The results both from PAGE and capillary electrophoresis indicated that there was a female specific protein i.e. vitellogenin (Vg) or vitellin (Vt) in the female wasp of Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). While there was no difference in the electrophoresis graph between soluble proteins of the female whole body and those of the male one both in two bracoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), i.e. Cotesia plutellae and Macrocentrus linears. According to the graph of the gradient SDS-PAGE, it was clear that the Vg or Vt of P. puparum consisted of two subunits with approximate molecular weights, and their molecular weights were 74.4 and 52.8 KDa, respectively. Both immunological reactions between some main different tissues of the female wasps and the male whole body and the polyantibody against the Vt of this parasitoid, and the graph of the gradient SDS-PAGE including soluble proteins sampled separately from hemolymph, fat body and ovary of the female and the whole body of the male demonstrated that Vg existed both in female fat body and hemolymph, and Vt deposited in the ovary, not in the male, as well as the Vg was synthesized in the female fat body. [source]

    Heat shock protein 27: its potential role in vascular disease

    Gordon Ferns
    Summary Heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that have an ability to protect proteins from damage induced by environmental factors such as free radicals, heat, ischaemia and toxins, allowing denatured proteins to adopt their native configuration. Heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) is a member of the small Hsp (sHsp) family of proteins, and has a molecular weight of approximately 27 KDa. In addition to its role as a chaperone, it has also been reported to have many additional functions. These include effects on the apoptotic pathway, cell movement and embryogenesis. In this review, we have focused on its possible role in vascular disease. [source]

    Protein profile study in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) seminal plasma and its correlation with sperm quality

    D. S. Peñaranda
    Summary Along with sperm quality parameters, the protein profile of European eel seminal plasma was analyzed during induced spermiation (n = 56 samples). Motility, Percentage of live cells, spermatozoa head morphometry and concentration showed low values during the initial weeks of spermiation and maintained high levels throughout the rest of the experiment. The protein profile gradient by SDS-PAGE (4,15%) registered four important electrophoretic bands around 80, 40, 26 and 12 KDa. Three of them showed significant differences in concentration during treatment (80, 40 and 12 KDa), and all of them showed the highest value on the 8th week. Both 80 and 12 KDa bands increased until the 8th week, followed by a progressive decline. One possible explanation for these profiles is that, in the first weeks of treatment, proteins originated from blood plasma are accumulated in the seminal plasma, and from the 8th week some of these proteins are incorporated into the spermatic membranes. The 40 KDa protein band also increased during the first 8 weeks, but maintained high concentrations in the seminal plasma for the rest of the experiment. One result confirms the theory that the presence of proteins in the seminal plasma having a molecular weight lower than 50 KDa increased spermatozoa motility, since the 40 KDa band displayed significantly higher values coinciding with the high percentages of spermatozoa motility. Seminal plasma proteins seem to have an important role in spermatogenesis and spermatozoa movement, but further studies are necessary to discover the identity of these proteins and their precise functions. [source]

    Production and Characteristics of an Enantioselective Lipase from Burkholderia sp.

    Abstract The lipase production of Burkholderia sp. GXU56 was influenced by carbon and nitrogen sources, inorganic salts, initial pH of the medium and cultivation temperature. The maximum lipase production was 580.52,U/mL and reached 5,times the level of the basic medium in the optimum medium at pH 8.0, 32,°C, 200,rpm and 40,48,h. The lipase was purified 53.6,fold to homogeneity and the molecular weight was 35,KDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of the lipase were 8.0 and 40,°C, respectively, and it was stable in the range of pH 7,8.5 and at temperatures below 45,°C. The lipase activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ ions and SDS, while it was stimulated by Li+ and Ca2+ ions and in presence of 0.1,% CTAB, 0.1,% Triton X-100 and 10,% DMSO. Km and Vmax of the lipase were calculated to be 0.038,mmol/L, and 0.029,mmol/L min,1, respectively, with PNPB as the substrate. The GXU56 lipase showed enantioselective hydrolysis of (R,S)-methyl mandelate to (R)-mandelic acid, which is an important intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry. [source]

    Occupational immunologic contact urticaria from pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa): experience in 30 cases

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2004
    Jesús Vega
    Cutaneous lesions caused by the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (TP) are frequent in pinewood areas. In the present study, 30 patients diagnosed with occupational immunologic urticaria from this caterpillar were included. Immediate hypersensitivity was demonstrated by performing prick and IgE-immunoblotting tests. Workers were grouped according to their common tasks. Occupations at risk of exposure to TP were pine-cone collectors/woodcutters (14), farmers/stockbreeders (8), other forestry personnel (4), construction workers (2), residential gardeners (1) and entomologists (1). Besides contact urticaria, angioedema (60%), papular lesions of several days of evolution (30%) and anaphylactic reactions (40%) were also detected. The most frequently detected molecular weight bands by immunoblot were 15 (70%), 17 (57%) and 13 kDa (50%). The appearance of isolated bands corresponds with the least serious cases. Only 8 subjects had bands higher than 33 kDa, which was present in the 3 most severe cases of anaphylactic reactions. By presenting these cases, we wish to offer the largest series reported so far of occupational immunologic contact urticaria caused by TP. We include the first cases described in certain occupations, some of them not directly related to forestry work. Pine-cone or resin collectors, woodcutters, farmers and stockbreeders were the most frequently and severely affected workers. [source]

    Adventures in multivalency, the Harry S. Fischer memorial lecture CMR 2005; Evian, France

    Michael F. Tweedle
    Abstract This review discusses multivalency in the context of drug discovery, specifically the discovery of new diagnostic imaging and related agents. The aim is to draw attention to the powerful role that multivalency plays throughout research involving molecular biology, in general, and much of biochemically targeted contrast agent research, in particular. Two examples from the author's laboratory are described. We created small (,5,kDa) peptide ,dimers' composed of two different, chemically linked peptides. The monomer peptides both bound to the same target protein with Kd,,,100,s,nM, while the heterodimers had sub-nM Kd values. Biological activity was evident in the heterodimers where none or very little existed in homodimers, monomers or monomer mixtures. Two different tyrosine kinases (KDR and C-Met) and four peptide families produced consistent results: multivalent heterodimers were uniquely different. The second example begins with making two micron ultrasound bubbles coated with the peptide, TKPPR (a Tuftsin antagonist) as a negative control for bubbles targeted with angiogenesis target-binding peptides. Unexpected binding of a ,negative' control, (TKPPR)-targeted bubble to endothelial cells expressing angiogenesis targets, led to the surprising result that TKPPR, only when multimerized, binds avidly, specifically and actively to neuropilin-1, a VEGF co-receptor. VEGF is the primary stimulator of angiogenesis. Tuftsin is a small peptide (TKPR) derived from IgG that binds to macrophages during inflammation, and has been studied for over 30 years. The receptor has never been cloned. The results led to new conclusions about Tuftsin, neuropilin-1 and the purpose, up to now unknown, of exon 8 in VEGF. Multivalency can be used rationally to solve practical problems in drug discovery. When targeting larger structures, multivalency is frequently unavoidable, and can lead to unpredictable and useful biochemical information, as well as to new drug candidates. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) increases plasma protein extravasation and induces lowering of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) in rat skin

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2005
    V. V. Iversen
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate the ability of the microdialysis technique to measure capillary selectivity of different sized plasma proteins induced by local administration of platelet activating factor (PAF). Methods:, We used hollow plasmapheresis fibres with 3 cm membrane (cut off 3000 kDa) placed on the back of anaesthetized rats. Results:, Platelet activating factor (50 ,g mL,1) administered locally via the fibre, increased extravasation of radiolabelled 125I-HSA from plasma to the microdialysis fibre by approximately 900% compared both to baseline and the control fibre within 70 min (n = 6, P < 0.05). The extravasation in the control fibre did not change over time. HPLC measurement of plasma proteins in the microdialysis perfusate also demonstrated decreased capillary selectivity for proteins in the diameter range of 73 Å, 56 Å and 39 Å after local administration of PAF (n = 6, P < 0.05). PAF also significantly lowered interstitial fluid (Pif) pressure after subcutaneous administration (50 ,g mL,1). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) after intravenous injection of PAF (0.4 ,g kg,1) fell instantly by about 50 mmHg, and stabilized at 50 mmHg after 15 min (n = 6). MAP was unaltered when PAF was given through the microdialysis fibre (n = 4). Both total tissue water (TTW) and extravasation of albumin, measured as the plasma-to-tissue clearance (E-alb) showed a significant increase after PAF (n = 7, P < 0.05). Conclusions:, The present study demonstrates that PAF induces plasma protein extravasation and decrease capillary selectivity of different sized plasma proteins. It also increases transcapillary fluid flux, and lowers Pif, indicating a role for PAF in the interstitium for generation of transcapillary transport of water and large molecules followed by formation of oedema. [source]

    Expression of Na+/HCO3, co-transporter proteins (NBCs) in rat and human skeletal muscle

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2004
    J. M. Kristensen
    Abstract Aim:, Sodium/bicarbonate co-transport (NBC) has been suggested to have a role in muscle pH regulation. We investigated the presence of NBC proteins in rat and human muscle samples and the fibre type distribution of the identified NBCs. Methods and results:, Western blotting of muscle homogenates and sarcolemmal membranes (sarcolemmal giant vesicles) were used to screen for the presence of NBCs. Immunohistochemistry was used for the subcellular localization. The functional test revealed that approximately half of the pH recovery in sarcolemmal vesicles produced from rat muscle is mediated by bicarbonate-dependent transport. This indicates that the NBCs are preserved in the vesicles. The western blotting experiments demonstrated the existence of at least two NBC proteins in skeletal muscle. One NBC protein (approximately 150 kDa) seems to be related to the kidney/pancreas/heart isoform NBC1, whereas the other protein (approximately 200 kDa) is related to the NBC4 isoform. The two NBC proteins represent the electrogenic isoforms named NBCe1 and NBCe2. Membrane fractionation and immunofluorescence techniques confirmed that the two NBCs are located in the sarcolemmal membrane as well as in some internal membranes, probably the T-tubules. The two NBCs localized in muscle have distinct fibre type distributions. Conclusions:, Skeletal muscle possesses two variants of the sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) isoforms, which have been called NBCe1 and NBCe2. [source]

    Myosin diversity in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2010
    Matthew B. Heintzelman
    Abstract This report describes the domain architecture of ten myosins cloned from the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Several of the P. tricornutum myosins show similarity to myosins from the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana as well as to one myosin from the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. The P. tricornutum myosins, ranging in size from 126 kDa to over 250 kDa, all possess the canonical head, neck and tail domains common to most myosins, though variations in each of these domains is evident. Among the features distinguishing several of the diatom myosin head domains are N-terminal SH3-like domains, variations in or near the P-loop and Loop 1 regions close to the nucleotide binding pocket, and extended converter domains. Variations in the length of the neck domain or lever arm, defined by the light chain-binding IQ motifs, are apparent with the different diatom myosins predicted to contain from one to nine IQ motifs. Protein domains found within the P. tricornutum myosin tails include regions of coiled-coil structure, ankyrin repeats, CBS domain pairs, a PB1 domain, a kinase domain and a FYVE-finger motif. As many of these features have never before been characterized in myosins of any type, it is likely that these new diatom myosins will expand the repertoire of known myosin behaviors. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Protein methylation in full length Chlamydomonas flagella

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 8 2009
    Roger D. Sloboda
    Abstract Post-translational protein modification occurs extensively in eukaryotic flagella. Here we examine protein methylation, a protein modification that has only recently been reported to occur in flagella [Schneider MJ, Ulland M, Sloboda RD.2008. Mol Biol Cell 19(10):4319,4327.]. The cobalamin (vitamin B12) independent form of the enzyme methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the final step in methionine production, is localized to flagella. Here we demonstrate, using immunogold scanning electron microscopy, that MetE is bound to the outer doublets of the flagellum. Methionine can be converted to S-adenosyl methionine, which then serves as the methyl donor for protein methylation reactions. Using antibodies that recognize symmetrically or asymmetrically methylated arginine residues, we identify three highly methylated proteins in intact flagella: two symmetrically methylated proteins of about 30 and 40 kDa, and one asymmetrically methylated protein of about 75 kDa. Several other relatively less methylated proteins could also be detected. Fractionation and immunoblot analysis shows that these proteins are components of the flagellar axoneme. Immunogold thin section electron microscopy indicates that the symmetrically methylated proteins are located in the central region of the axoneme, perhaps as components of the central pair complex and the radial spokes, while the asymmetrically methylated proteins are associated with the outer doublets. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Microtubule sliding movement in tilapia sperm flagella axoneme is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 8 2006
    Masaya Morita
    Abstract Demembranated euryhaline tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus sperm were reactivated in the presence of concentrations in excess of 10,6 M Ca2+. Motility features changed when Ca2+ concentrations were increased from 10,6 to 10,5 M. Although the beat frequency did not increase, the shear angle and wave amplitude of flagellar beating increased, suggesting that the sliding velocity of microtubules in the axoneme, which represents dynein activity, rises with an increase in Ca2+. Thus, it is possible that Ca2+ binds to flagellar proteins to activate flagellar motility as a result of the enhanced dynein activity. One Ca2+ -binding protein (18 kDa, pI 4.0), calmodulin (CaM), was detected by 45Ca overlay assay and immunologically. A CaM antagonist, W-7, suppressed the reactivation ratio and swimming speed, suggesting that the 18 kDa Ca2+ -binding protein is CaM and that CaM regulates flagellar motility. CaMKIV was detected immunologically as a single 48 kDa band in both the fraction of low ion extract of the axoneme and the remnant of the axoneme, suggesting that CaMKIV binds to distinct positions in the axoneme. It is possible that CaMKIV phosphorylates the axonemal proteins in a Ca2+/CaM-dependent manner for regulating the dynein activity. A 32P-uptake in the axoneme showed that 48, 75, 120, 200, 250, 380, and 400 kDa proteins were phosphorylated in a Ca2+/CaM kinase-dependent manner. Proteins (380 kDa) were phosphorylated in the presence of 10,5 M Ca2+. It is possible that an increase in Ca2+ induces Ca2+/CaM kinase-dependent regulation, including protein phosphorylation for activation/regulation of dynein activity in flagellar axoneme. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Vinculin is proteolyzed by calpain during platelet aggregation: 95 kDa cleavage fragment associates with the platelet cytoskeleton

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2004
    Katherine Serrano
    Abstract The focal adhesion protein vinculin contributes to cell attachment and spreading through strengthening of mechanical interactions between cell cytoskeletal proteins and surface membrane glycoproteins. To investigate whether vinculin proteolysis plays a role in the influence vinculin exerts on the cytoskeleton, we studied the fate of vinculin in activated and aggregating platelets by Western blot analysis of the platelet lysate and the cytoskeletal fractions of differentially activated platelets. Vinculin was proteolyzed into at least three fragments (the major one being ,95 kDa) within 5 min of platelet activation with thrombin or calcium ionophore. The 95 kDa vinculin fragment shifted cellular compartments from the membrane skeletal fraction to the cortical cytoskeletal fraction of lysed platelets in a platelet aggregation-dependent manner. Vinculin cleavage was inhibited by calpeptin and E64d, indicating that the enzyme responsible for vinculin proteolysis is calpain. These calpain inhibitors also inhibited the translocation of full-length vinculin to the cytoskeleton. We conclude that cleavage of vinculin and association of vinculin cleavage fragment(s) with the platelet cytoskeleton is an activation response that may be important in the cytoskeletal remodeling of aggregating platelets. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 58:242,252, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression and distribution of distinct variants of E-MAP-115 during proliferation and differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2003
    Marie-Thérèse Vanier
    Abstract Epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation occur concomitant with striking remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Microtubules (MTs) play important roles in these processes, during which the MTs themselves are reorganized and stabilized by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Among the proteins classified as structural MAPs, E-MAP-115 (also named ensconsin) is preferentially expressed in cells of epithelial origin. The aims of this study were, first, to determine if E-MAP-115, like other MAPs, is expressed as different isoforms during differentiation and, second, to perform a detailed analysis of the expression and distribution of any E-MAP-115 variants detected in intestinal epithelial cells during their polarization/differentiation. It was our expectation that these data would help us to develop hypotheses concerning the role of this MAP in epithelial development. We report the expression of three E-MAP-115 transcripts encoding isoforms of 115, 105, and 95 kDa; two display an expression gradient inverse to the third one as Caco-2 cells progress from proliferation through the stages of differentiation. To monitor the proteins produced from each transcript, we used purified polyclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides contained within the 115, 105, and 95 kDa isoforms to assay proliferating and differentiating CaCo-2 cells. Our results indicate that the expression and MT-binding capacity of the 115, 105, and 95 kDa isoforms vary upon proliferation/differentiation of the cells. E-MAP-115 proteins colocalize with MTs in proliferative and differentiated Caco-2 cells; in vivo, they are expressed in both crypt and villus epithelial cells where they are mainly concentrated at the apical pole of the cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 55:221,231, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Deletion of mdmB impairs mitochondrial distribution and morphology in Aspergillus nidulans

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2003
    Katrin V. Koch
    Abstract Mitochondria form a dynamic network of interconnected tubes in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans,Neurospora crassa, or Podospora anserina. The dynamics depends on the separation of mitochondrial fragments, their movement throughout the cell, and their subsequent fusion with the other parts of the organelle. Interestingly, the microtubule network is required for the distribution in N. crassa and S. pombe, while S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans appear to use the actin cytoskeleton. We studied a homologue of S. cerevisiae Mdm10 in A. nidulans, and named it MdmB. The open reading frame is disrupted by two introns, one of which is conserved in mdm10 of P. anserina. The MdmB protein consists of 428 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46.5 kDa. MdmB shares 26% identical amino acids to Mdm10 from S. cerevisiae, 35% to N. crassa, and 32% to the P. anserina homologue. A MdmB-GFP fusion protein co-localized evenly distributed along mitochondria. Extraction of the protein was only possible after treatment with a non-ionic and an ionic detergent (1% Triton X-100; 0.5% SDS) suggesting that MdmB was tightly bound to the mitochondrial membrane fraction. Deletion of the gene in A. nidulans affected mitochondrial morphology and distribution at 20°C but not at 37°C. mdmB deletion cells contained two populations of mitochondria at lower temperature, the normal tubular network plus some giant, non-motile mitochondria. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 55:114,124, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Myosins of Babesia bovis: Molecular characterisation, erythrocyte invasion, and phylogeny

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2002
    A.E. Lew
    Abstract Using degenerate primers, three putative myosin sequences were amplified from Australian isolates of Babesa bovis and confirmed as myosins (termed Bbmyo-A, Bbmyo-B, and Bbmyo-C) from in vitro cultures of the W strain of B. bovis. Comprehensive analysis of 15 apicomplexan myosins suggests that members of Class XIV be defined as those with greater than 35% myosin head sequence identity and that these be further subclassed into groups bearing above 50,60% identity. Bbmyo-A protein bears a strong similarity with other apicomplexan myosin-A type proteins (subclass XIVa), the Bbmyo-B myosin head protein sequence exhibits low identity (35,39%) with all members of Class XIV, and 5,-sequence of Bbmyo-C shows strong identity (60%) with P. falciparum myosin-C protein. Domain analysis revealed five divergent IQ domains within the neck of Pfmyo-C, and a myosin-N terminal domain as well as a classical IQ sequence unusually located within the head converter domain of Bbmyo-B. A cross-reacting antibody directed against P. falciparum myosin-A (Pfmyo-A) revealed a zone of approximately 85 kDa in immunoblots prepared with B. bovis total protein, and immunofluorescence inferred stage-specific myosin-A expression since only 25% of infected erythrocytes with mostly paired B. bovis were immuno-positive. Multiplication of B. bovis in in vitro culture was inhibited by myosin- and actin-binding drugs at concentrations lower than those that inhibit P. falciparum. This study identifies and classifies three myosin genes and an actin gene in B. bovis, and provides the first evidence for the participation of an actomyosin-based motor in erythrocyte invasion in this species of apicomplexan parasite. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 52:202,220, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Two different unique cardiac isoforms of protein 4.1R in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and insights into their cardiac functions as related to their unique structures

    Kenji Murata
    Protein 4.1R (4.1R) has been identified as the major component of the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The members of the protein 4.1 gene family are expressed in a tissue-specific alternative splicing manner that increases their functions in each tissue; however, the exact roles of cardiac 4.1R in the developing myocardium are poorly understood. In zebrafish (ZF), we identified two heart-specific 4.1R isoforms, ZF4.1RH2 and ZF4.1RH3, encoding N-terminal 30 kDa (FERM) domain and spectrin-actin binding domain (SABD) and C-terminal domain (CTD), separately. Applying immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies for 30 kDa domain and CTD separately, the gene product of ZF4.1RH2 and ZF4.1RH3 appeared only in the ventricle and in the atrium, respectively, in mature hearts. During embryogenesis, both gene expressions are expressed starting 24 h post-fertilization (hpf). Following whole-mount in situ hybridization, ZF4.1RH3 gene expression was detected in the atrium of 37 hpf embryos. These results indicate that the gene product of ZF4.1RH3 is essential for normal morphological shape of the developing heart and to support the repetitive cycles of its muscle contraction and relaxation. [source]

    Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish

    Yoshitaka Nagahama
    A period of oocyte growth is followed by a process called oocyte maturation (the resumption of meiosis) which occurs prior to ovulation and is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Our studies using fish models have revealed that oocyte maturation is a three-step induction process involving gonadotropin (LH), maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). LH acts on the ovarian follicle layer to produce MIH (17,, 20,-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17,, 20,-DP, in most fishes). The interaction of ovarian thecal and granulosa cell layers (two-cell type model), is required for the synthesis of 17,,20,-DP. The dramatic increase in the capacity of postvitellogenic follicles to produce 17,,20,-DP in response to LH is correlated with decreases in P450c17 (P450c17-I) and P450 aromatase (oP450arom) mRNA and increases in the novel form of P450c17 (P450c17-II) and 20,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20,-HSD) mRNA. Transcription factors such as Ad4BP/SF-1, Foxl2, and CREB may be involved in the regulation of expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. A distinct family of G-protein-coupled membrane-bound MIH receptors has been shown to mediate non-genomic actions of 17,, 20,-DP. The MIH signal induces the de novo synthesis of cyclin B from the stored mRNA, which activates a preexisting 35 kDa cdc2 kinase via phosphorylation of its threonine 161 by cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase, thus producing the 34 kDa active cdc2 (active MPF). Upon egg activation, MPF is inactivated by degradation of cyclin B. This process is initiated by the 26S proteasome through the first cut in its NH2 terminus at lysine 57. [source]

    Identification and characterization of Xenopus OMP25

    Masafumi Inui
    This study describes the isolation of mitochondrial outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25) from Xenopus laevis and an analysis of its role in early development. X. laevis OMP25 (xOMP25) is a transmembrane protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane with a PDZ domain in the cytoplasmic tail, and an approximate molecular size of 25 kDa. We isolated xOMP25 from a cDNA library of X. laevis tailbud embryos. Amino acid sequence analysis of xOMP25 showed 57% identity to mouse OMP25, with 73% identity in the PDZ domains. XOMP25 mRNA is expressed maternally, and at a constant level throughout early development. The transcript is localized to eye, otic vesicle, branchial arch and neural tube. Mitochondrial targeting of an EGFP-fusion protein of xOMP25 was visualized using a mitochondria-specific fluorescent dye. Overexpression of xOMP25 in embryos caused curved axes, small eyes and disorganized head structures. Knockdown of xOMP25 protein using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in slightly shortened axes and decreased neural tissue. Although the mechanism remains unclear, our results implicate xOMP25 protein in the formation of the intact neural tube. [source]

    Differential distribution of spicule matrix proteins in the sea urchin embryo skeleton

    Takashi Kitajima
    Spicule matrix proteins are the products of primary mesenchyme cells, and are present in calcite spicules of the sea urchin embryo. To study their possible roles in skeletal morphogenesis, monoclonal antibodies against SM50, SM30 and another spicule matrix protein (29 kDa) were obtained. The distribution of these proteins in the embryo skeleton was observed by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, their distribution inside the spicules was examined by a ,spicule blot' procedure, direct immunoblotting of proteins embedded in crystallized spicules. Our observations showed that SM50 and 29 kDa proteins were enriched both outside and inside the triradiate spicules of the gastrulae, and also existed in the corresponding portions of growing spicules in later embryos and micromere cultures. The straight extensions of the triradiate spicules and thickened portions of body rods in pluteus spicules were also rich in these proteins. The SM30 protein was only faintly detected along the surface of spicules. By examination using the spicule blot procedure, however, SM30 was clearly detectable inside the body rods and postoral rods. These results indicate that SM50 and 29 kDa proteins are concentrated in radially growing portions of the spicules (normal to the c-axis of calcite), while SM30 protein is in the longitudinally growing portions (parallel to the c-axis). Such differential distribution suggests the involvement of these proteins in calcite growth during the formation of three-dimensionally branched spicules. [source]

    Divergent roles of the DEAD-box protein BS-PL10, the urochordate homologue of human DDX3 and DDX3Y proteins, in colony astogeny and ontogeny

    Amalia Rosner
    Abstract Proteins of the highly conserved PL-10 (Ded1P) subfamily of DEAD-box family, participate in a wide variety of biological functions. However, the entire spectrum of their functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates is still unknown. Here, we isolated the Botryllus schlosseri (Urochordata) homologue, BS-PL10, revealing its distributions and functions in ontogeny and colony astogeny. In botryllid ascidians, the colony grows by increasing the number of modular units (each called a zooid) through a whole colony synchronized and weekly cyclical astogenic budding process (blastogenesis). At the level of the colony, both BS-PL10 mRNA and its protein (78 kDa) fluctuate in a weekly pattern that corresponds with the animal's blastogenic cycle, increasing from blastogenic stage A to blastogenic stage D. At the organ/module level, a sharp decline is revealed. Primary and secondary developing buds express high levels of BS-PL10 mRNA and protein at all blastogeneic stages. These levels are reduced four to nine times in the new set of functional zooids. This portrait of colony astogeny differed from its ontogeny. Oocytes and sperm cells express high levels of BS-PL10 protein only at early stages of development. Young embryos reveal background levels with increased expressions in some organs at more developed stages. Results reveal that higher levels of BS-PL10 mRNA and protein are characteristic to multipotent soma and germ cells, but patterns deviate between two populations of differentiating stem cells, the stem cells involved in weekly blastogenesis and stem cells involved in embryogenesis. Two types of experimental manipulations, zooidectomy and siRNA assays, have confirmed the importance of BS-PL10 for cell differentiation and organogenesis. BS-PL10 (phylogenetically matching the animal's position in the evolutionary tree), is the only member of this subfamily in B. schlosseri, featuring a wide range of biological activities, some of which represent pivotal roles. The surprising weekly cyclical expression and the participation in cell differentiation posit this molecule as a model system for studying PL10 protein subfamily. Developmental Dynamics 235:1508,1521, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Apparent mitochondrial asymmetry in Xenopus eggs

    Natalia Volodina
    Abstract Cell polarity is manifest along the animal/vegetal axis in eggs of the frog, Xenopus laevis. Along this axis, maternal cytoplasmic components are asymmetrically distributed and are thought to underlie specification of distinct cell fates. To ascertain the molecular identities of such cytoplasmic components, we have used a monoclonal antibody that specifically stains the vegetal hemisphere of Xenopus eggs. The antigenic protein Vp67 (vegetal protein of 67 kDa) was identified through purification and cloning as a Xenopus homolog of the mitochondrial protein dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The identification of Vp67 as a mitochondrial protein could indicate that populations of mitochondria are asymmetrically distributed in Xenopus eggs. Developmental Dynamics 226:654,662, © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Parasitoid wasp sting: A cocktail of GABA, taurine, and ,-alanine opens chloride channels for central synaptic block and transient paralysis of a cockroach host

    Eugene L. Moore
    Abstract The wasp Ampulex compressa injects venom directly into the prothoracic ganglion of its cockroach host to induce a transient paralysis of the front legs. To identify the biochemical basis for this paralysis, we separated venom components according to molecular size and tested fractions for inhibition of synaptic transmission at the cockroach cercal-giant synapse. Only fractions in the low molecular weight range (<2 kDa) caused synaptic block. Dabsylation of venom components and analysis by HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS revealed high levels of GABA (25 mM), and its receptor agonists ,-alanine (18 mM), and taurine (9 mM) in the active fractions. Each component produces transient block of synaptic transmission at the cercal-giant synapse and block of efferent motor output from the prothoracic ganglion, which mimics effects produced by injection of whole venom. Whole venom evokes picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents in cockroach central neurons, consistent with a GABAergic action. Together these data demonstrate that Ampulex utilizes GABAergic chloride channel activation as a strategy for central synaptic block to induce transient and focal leg paralysis in its host. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

    Effect of celecoxib on cyclooxygenase-2 expression and possible variants in a patient with Barrett's esophagus

    G. A. Jacobson
    SUMMARY., Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is increased in metaplastic and dysplastic Barrett's esophageal epithelium and it is thought that selective COX-2 inhibitors could offer hope as chemoprevention therapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vivo effect of celecoxib on COX-2 expression in patients with Barrett's esophagus and no recent history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens were collected at baseline and after 28 days of therapy in a patient treated with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Samples were analyzed for COX-2 expression by immunoblot analysis with chemiluminescence detection. COX-2 expression was found to decline 20% and 44% at two different biopsy sites compared to the baseline sample. Longer exposures revealed a number of previously unidentified proteins above and below the 67 kDa COX-2 protein including 38 kDa and 45 kDa proteins which were present only at study completion consistent with up-regulation after celecoxib therapy. Further investigations of the 38 kDa and 45 kDa proteins were undertaken using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with immunoblot and MALDI-TOF (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization , time of flight) analysis but no matches were found and results were inconclusive. Unmatched masses from MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting were compared with human COX-2 (67 kDa) and COX-2b (39 kDa) using unspecific cleavage. Peptide sequence homology with COX-2 and COX-2b was found for a length of 19 amino acids. Based on immunodetection, molecular weight and equivical MALDI-TOF results, one of these up-regulated proteins may be COX-2b. [source]

    Comparison of the Electrochemical Behavior of the High Molecular Mass Cadmium Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Vegetable Plants on Using Preparative Native Continuous Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PNC-PAGE)

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 1 2006
    Bernd Kastenholz
    Abstract In Arabidopsis cytosol (supernatant) and in supernatants of vegetable plants high molecular mass cadmium proteins with molecular mass 200,kDa were isolated by using preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PNC-PAGE). Because of a different electrochemical behavior of the Cd proteins in Arabidopsis and endive supernatants on using the same PAGE method, it is concluded that the high molecular mass cadmium proteins of Arabidopsis and endive possess different isoelectric points. Consequently, different chemical structures of the Cd proteins with molecular mass 200,kDa are present in Arabidopsis thaliana and in endive. During the electrophoretic separation of vegetable metalloproteins by using the Model 491 Prep Cell from BioRad, electroanalytical processes like electrode reactions may play an important role. [source]

    Recombinant clotting factor VIII concentrates: Heterogeneity and high-purity evaluation

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 16 2010
    Gian Maria D'Amici
    Abstract Factor VIII is an important glycoprotein involved in hemostasis. Insertion of expression vectors containing either the full-length cDNA sequence of human factor VIII (FLrFVIII) or B-domain deleted (BDDrFVIII) into mammalian cell lines results in the production of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) for therapeutic usage. Three commercially available rFVIII concentrates (Advate®, Helixate NexGen® and Refacto®), either FLrFVIII or BDDrFVIII, were investigated by 1- and 2-DE and MS. The objective of this study was to compare the heterogeneity and the high purity of both rFVIII preparations before and after thrombin digestion. In particular, the 2-D gel was optimized to better highlight the presence of contaminants and many unexpected proteins. Recombinant strategies consisting of insertion of expression vectors containing BDDrFVIII and FLrFVIII resulted in homogeneous and heterogeneous protein products, respectively, the latter consisting in a heterogeneous mixture of various B-domain-truncated forms of the molecule. Thrombin digestion of all the three rFVIII gave similar final products, plus one unexpected fragment of A2 domain missing 11 amino acids. Regarding the contaminants, Helixate NexGen® showed the presence of impurities, such as Hsp70,kDa, haptoglobin and proapolipoprotein; Refacto® showed glutathione S -transferase and ,-lactamase, whereas Advate® apparently did not contain any contaminants. The proteomic approach will contribute to improving the quality assurance and manufacturing processes of rFVIII concentrates. In this view, the 2-DE is mandatory for revealing the presence of contaminants. [source]

    Improved disc SDS-PAGE for extraction of low molecular weight proteins from serum

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2010
    Tiechun Li
    Abstract The low molecular weight proteins can provide a lot of valuable information of biomarkers. To study these proteins, the high abundance and high molecular weight proteins must be removed prior to analysis. In this work, a simple and inexpensive disc SDS-PAGE to extract low molecular weight proteins from human serum and cutoff proteins larger than 30,kDa was developed. Some experimental conditions were examined. The experimental results obtained by plate SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS showed that the molecular weight of extracted proteins was about in the range from 0.3 to 28,kDa. Some experiments, including precipitation of proteins in organic solvents, SPE and cytochrome C test, were carried out and the experimental results demonstrated successful recovery of proteins/peptides with molecular weight from several hundreds of dalton to about 30,kDa. The experimental results obtained by plate SDS-PAGE indicated the repeatability was satisfactory. [source]

    Upregulation of glycolytic enzymes in proteins secreted from human colon cancer cells with 5-fluorouracil resistance

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 12 2009
    Young-Kyoung Shin
    Abstract 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, resistance to this drug is a major obstacle in CRC chemotherapy. Accurate prediction of response to 5-FU would avoid unnecessary chemotherapy and allow the selection of other effective drugs. To identify a candidate predictor of 5-FU resistance, we isolated secreted proteins that were up- or downregulated in a 5-FU-resistant cancer cell line, compared with the parent cell line (SNU-C4), using a stable isotope-coded labeling protocol. For validating the clinical applicability of this method, levels of the identified proteins were determined in the sera of 46 patients treated with 5-FU. In total, 238 proteins with molecular weights ranging from 50 to 75,kDa were identified. Among these, 45 and 35 secreted proteins were up- and downregulated in the 5-FU-resistant cell line, respectively. We observed significant upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase M2 (PK-M2), transketolase, and NADP(+)-dependent malic enzyme 1. In particular, the level of PK-M2, a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, showed an increasing tendency in both sera and tissues from CRC patients displaying no response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy (progressive and stable disease cases), compared with that in complete or partial responders to 5-FU-based chemotherapy; however, it did not reach the statistical significance. In conclusion, increasing pattern of PK-M2 observed with 5-FU resistance induced in vitro and in sera and tissues from CRC patients displaying poor response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy suggest the relevance of dysregulated glycolysis and 5-FU-resistant CRC. [source]

    Lectin-based electrophoretic analysis of the expression of the 35,kDa inter-,-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragment in sera of patients with five different malignancies

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 12 2008
    Emida Mohamed
    Abstract A 35,kDa glycoprotein whose abundance was previously demonstrated to be enhanced in sera of patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma (n,=,12), was isolated from pooled sera of three of the cancer patients using champedak galactose-binding lectin affinity chromatography in the present study. Subjecting it to 2-DE and MS/MS, the glycoprotein was identified as the O -glycosylated fragment of inter-,-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4). When compared to control sera (n,=,17), expression of the 35,kDa ITIH4 cleavage fragment was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced in sera of patients with breast carcinoma (n,=,10), epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n,=,10), and germ cell ovarian carcinoma (n,=,10) but not in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n,=,13) and osteosarcoma (n,=,7). The lectin-based electrophoretic bioanalytical method adopted in the present study may be used to assess the physiological relevance of ITIH4 fragmentation and its correlation with different malignancies, their stages and progression. [source]

    Rapid capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry separations of peptides and proteins using a monoquaternarized piperazine compound (M7C4I) for capillary coatings

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 8 2008
    Anisa Elhamili
    Abstract A monoquaternarized piperazine, 1-(4-iodobutyl) 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2,2,2] octane iodide (M7C4I), has been evaluated as a surface derivatization reagent for CE in combination with TOF MS for the analysis of proteins, peptides, and protein digests. The M7C4I piperazine, at alkaline pH, forms a covalent bond via alkylation of the ionized silanols producing a cationic surface with a highly stable and reversed EOF. The obtained surface yields rapid separations (less than 5,min) of peptides and proteins at acidic pH with high separation efficiencies (up to 1.1×106 plates/m for peptides and up to 1.8×106 plates/m for proteins) and no observed bleeding of the coating reagent into the mass spectrometer. The simplicity of the coating procedure also enables fast (2,min) regeneration of the surface, if necessary. This is useful in the analysis of complex samples in order to prevent possible memory effects. The potential of using M7C4I-coated capillaries for MS analysis of complex samples is demonstrated by the separation of peptides, proteins, and protein digests. Even more, the spectacular thing in which large intact proteins with molecular masses over 0.5,MDa could be separated. The coating showed good ability to handle these large proteins with high efficiency and retained peak shape as demonstrated by separation of IgG1 (150,kDa) and thyroglobulin (669,kDa). [source]