KCl Concentration (kcl + concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Amperometric Ion Sensing Using Polypyrrole Membranes

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5-6 2003
Agata Michalska
Abstract Oxidation/reduction of conducting polymers, coupled with ion exchange between the polymer and electrolyte solution can be utilized for amperometric ion sensing. Electrochemically deposited "model" polypyrrole membranes doped by chloride (PPyCl) and hexacyanoferrate (PPyFeCN) anions were studied from the point of view of their advantages and limits for amperometric determination of electroinactive anions and cations, respectively. Monotonous dependences of the current on electrolyte concentration were obtained for short reading times after potential step application (in the range of ms). The experimental conditions were optimized to obtain linear dependences: log (current) vs. log (KCl concentration) within the range 10,6,1,M. The advantages of the amperometric method over the potentiometric one are highlighted: much lower effect of redox and pH interferences, wider concentration range, elimination of long conditioning procedure. [source]


Voltage-dependent ebselen and diorganochalcogenides inhibition of 45Ca2+ influx into brain synaptosomes

JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
M. B. Moretto
Abstract By mediating the Ca2+ influx, Ca2+ channels play a central role in neurotransmission. Chemical agents that potentially interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis are potential toxic agents. In the present investigation, changes in Ca2+ influx into synaptosomes by organic forms of selenium and tellurium were examined under nondepolarizing and depolarizing conditions induced by high KCl concentration (135 mM) or by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Under nondepolarizing conditions, ebselen (400 ,M) increased Ca2+ influx; diphenyl ditelluride (40,400 ,M) decreased Ca2+ in all concentrations tested; and diphenyl diselenide decreased Ca2+ influx at 40 and 100 ,M, but had no effect at 400 ,M. In the presence of KCl as depolarizing agent, ebselen and diphenyl ditelluride decreased Ca2+ influx in a linear fashion. In contrast, diphenyl diselenide did not modify Ca2+ influx into isolated nerve terminals. In the presence of 4-AP (3 mM) as depolarizing agent, ebselen (400 ,M) caused a significant increase, whereas diphenyl diselenide and diphenyl ditelluride inhibited Ca2+ influx into synaptosomes. The results can be explained by the fact that the mechanism through which 4-AP and high K+ induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ is not exactly coincident. The mechanism by which diphenyl ditelluride and ebselen interact with Ca2+ channel is unknown, but may be related to reactivity with critical sulfhydryl groups in the protein complex. The results of the present study indicate that the effects of organochalcogenides were rather complex depending on the condition and the depolarizing agent used. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:154,160, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10073 [source]


Astroglia growth retardation and increased microglia proliferation by lithium and ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor in rat cerebellar cultures: Cytotoxicity by combined lithium and polyamine inhibition,

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
Gad M. Gilad
Abstract Lithium, the most prevalent treatment for manic-depressive illness, might have a neuroprotective effect after brain injury. In culture, lithium can exert neurotoxic effects associated with reduction in polyamine synthesis but neuroprotective effects as cultured neurons mature. Cumulative evidence suggests that lithium may exert some of its effects on neurons indirectly, by initially acting on glial cells. We used rat cerebellar cultures to ascertain the effects of lithium on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in polyamine synthesis, and to compare effects of lithium with those of the ODC inhibitor ,-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on neuron survival and glial growth. Switching cultures from high (25 mM) to low (5 mM) KCl concentrations served as the traumatic neuronal insult. The results indicate the following. 1) Whereas high depolarizing KCl concentration enhances neuron survival, it inhibits astroglial growth. 2) Lithium (LiCl; 1,5 mM) enhances neuronal survival but inhibits astroglial growth. 3) Lithium treatment leads to reduced ODC activity. 4) DFMO enhances neuron survival but inhibits astroglial growth. 5) Lithium and DFMO lead to transformation of astroglia from epithelioid (flat) to process-bearing morphology and to increased numbers of microglia. 6) Combined lithium plus DFMO treatment is cytolethal to both neurons and glia in culture. In conclusion, lithium treatment results in growth retardation and altered cell morphology of cultured astroglia and increased microglia proliferation, and these effects may be associated with inhibition of polyamine synthesis. This implies that direct effects on astrocytes and microglia may contribute to the effects of lithium on neurons. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Physicochemical characterization of papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked kappa-carrageenan gel beads for stability improvement using Doehlert shell design

JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 9 2006
Mayur G. Sankalia
Abstract This work examines the influence of various process parameters on papain entrapped in cross-linked ,-carrageenan beads for improvement of its stability. A Doehlert shell design (DSD) was employed to investigate the effect of three process variables, namely ,-carrageenan concentration, KCl concentration, and hardening time, on the entrapment, time required for 50% enzyme release (T50), time required for 90% enzyme release (T90), and particle size. The beads were prepared by dropping the ,-carrageenan containing papain into a magnetically stirred KCl solution. Topographical characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and entrapment was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability testing was carried out according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for zone III and IV. A polymeric matrix was prepared with ,-carrageenan (3.5% w/v) and potassium chloride (0.5 M) using the ionotropic gelation method, with a hardening time of 20 min. Beads characterized by a spherical disc shape with a collapsed center, an absence of aggregates, an entrapment of 82.75%, a T90 value of 55.36 min, and a composite index of 88.55 were produced. The shelf-life of the enzyme-loaded beads was found to increase to 3.63 years compared with 1.01 years for the conventional formulation. It can be inferred that the proposed methodology can be used to prepare papain-loaded ,-carrageenan beads for stability improvement. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95: 1994,2013, 2006 [source]


Astroglia growth retardation and increased microglia proliferation by lithium and ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor in rat cerebellar cultures: Cytotoxicity by combined lithium and polyamine inhibition,

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
Gad M. Gilad
Abstract Lithium, the most prevalent treatment for manic-depressive illness, might have a neuroprotective effect after brain injury. In culture, lithium can exert neurotoxic effects associated with reduction in polyamine synthesis but neuroprotective effects as cultured neurons mature. Cumulative evidence suggests that lithium may exert some of its effects on neurons indirectly, by initially acting on glial cells. We used rat cerebellar cultures to ascertain the effects of lithium on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in polyamine synthesis, and to compare effects of lithium with those of the ODC inhibitor ,-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on neuron survival and glial growth. Switching cultures from high (25 mM) to low (5 mM) KCl concentrations served as the traumatic neuronal insult. The results indicate the following. 1) Whereas high depolarizing KCl concentration enhances neuron survival, it inhibits astroglial growth. 2) Lithium (LiCl; 1,5 mM) enhances neuronal survival but inhibits astroglial growth. 3) Lithium treatment leads to reduced ODC activity. 4) DFMO enhances neuron survival but inhibits astroglial growth. 5) Lithium and DFMO lead to transformation of astroglia from epithelioid (flat) to process-bearing morphology and to increased numbers of microglia. 6) Combined lithium plus DFMO treatment is cytolethal to both neurons and glia in culture. In conclusion, lithium treatment results in growth retardation and altered cell morphology of cultured astroglia and increased microglia proliferation, and these effects may be associated with inhibition of polyamine synthesis. This implies that direct effects on astrocytes and microglia may contribute to the effects of lithium on neurons. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]