Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of KCl

  • l kcl
  • m kcl
  • mm kcl

  • Terms modified by KCl

  • kcl concentration
  • kcl solution

  • Selected Abstracts

    Safely treating hypokalaemia in high dependency cardiac surgical patients

    Claire Sladdin
    Abstract In Australia, there were national issues on the use of potassium ampoules (resulting in patient deaths), which led to the removal of the ampoules from clinical areas. A decision was made by the Medication Safety Committee at a metropolitan Melbourne hospital to remove potassium ampoules from ward areas as part of the establishment of a hospital-wide potassium guideline. As a result, the nurses in the cardiothoracic ward Practice Review Committee identified the need to review the proposed practice of treating hypokalaemia with 30 mmol of potassium chloride (KCL) in 1000 mL over an extended period in postoperative cardiothoracic patients. The challenge was to develop a practice to safely administer intravenous KCL in fluid restricted patients in addition to the hospital guidelines to prevent hypokalaemic-induced cardiac dysrhythmias. A literature search revealed there were no clear or uniform approaches to guide our practice in addressing this clinical problem. The Practice Review Committee developed a KCL administration guideline based on a review of the available literature. The Practice Review Committee developed a ward-based guideline that addressed infusion concentration, duration of administration, responsiveness of nurses to severity of hypokalaemia and the evaluation of treatment by measuring serum potassium after replacement. This ward-based guideline was based on benchmarking from similar institutions and relevant literature. The review process provided an opportunity for the staff to critique their practice to improve patient care and allowed regular evaluation of the implemented practice guideline. The ward-based guideline required a revision as patients' renal function was not being taken into consideration prior to potassium infusions being administered. The implementation of the ward-based guideline into practice has been well received by the staff as it has allowed consistent practice and timely treatment of hypokalaemia. [source]

    Interaction between a dislocation and monovalent anion in various alkali halide crystals

    Y. KohzukiArticle first published online: 30 AUG 2010
    Abstract It was investigated from (L0/L)2 versus ,0 curve that the Friedel relation between the effective stress and the average length of dislocation segments, L, is appropriate for the interaction between a dislocation and the monovalent anion in various alkali halides single crystals (NaCl: Br - , NaBr: Cl - or I - , KCl: Br - or I - , and RbCl: Br - or I - ). Here, L0 represents the average spacing of monovalent anions on a slip plane and ,0 is the bending angle at which the dislocation breaks away from the anion at the temperature of 0 K. This is because the anions are the weak obstacles such as impede the dislocation at ,0 above about 150 degrees, where the Friedel relation agrees with the Fleischer one (L02 = L2(,,,0)/2). Furthermore, the values of (L /L0) were found to be within 4.05 to 5.87 for the crystals. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Studies on multiphased mixed crystals of NaCl, KCl and KI

    M. Priya
    Abstract Multiphased mixed crystals of NaCl, KCl and KI were grown by the melt method, for the first time. Densities and refractive indices of all the grown crystals were determined and used for the estimation of the composition in the crystal. Atomic absorption spectroscopic measurements were done to estimate the metal atom contents in the crystal. Lattice parameters and thermal parameters (Debye-Waller factor, mean square amplitude of vibration, Debye temperature and Debye frequency) were determined from the X-ray powder diffraction data. DC and AC electrical measurements were done at various temperatures ranging from 40 to 150C. Activation energies were also estimated. The observed lattice parameters showed that the system exhibits three phases each nearly corresponds to NaCl, KCl and KI. The thermal and electrical parameters show a highly nonlinear bulk composition dependence. Results are reported. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Determination of nucleation parameters and the solid liquid interfacial energy of the KCl-ethanol-water system

    Waid Omar
    Abstract The kinetic parameters of homogeneous nucleation of KCl in different ethanol-water solvent mixtures were determined at 25C from the experimental measurements of the width of the metastable zone at different cooling rates. The ethanol mass ratio in the ethanol water solvent mixture was varied from 0-0.9 and the metastable zone width for each solvent mixture was measured under the cooling rates of 10, 20 and 30 K/h. The influence of ethanol ratio on the activity coefficient was calculated. It was found that increasing the ethanol ratio in the solvent mixture leads to an increase in the mean molal activity coefficient. The experimental results obtained showed that the increase in the ethanol ratio in the solvent widens the metastable zone for the crystallization of KCl. Also it has inferred from the calculations based on the classical nucleation theory that increasing of the ethanol ratio in the solvent mixture resulted in an increase of the nucleation rate order, increase of the critical size of nuclei and increase of the solid liquid interfacial energy. It has been found that the solid liquid interfacial energy can be good correlated with inversely proportionality to the solubility. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Synthesis and crystal structure of [CuCl(phen)2]3H3V10O28 7 H2O

    E. Rakovsk
    Abstract The new compound, [CuCl(phen)2]3H3V10O28 7 H2O, was prepared by reaction of an aqueous KVO3 solution (pH 3) with an aqueous solution of CuSO4 5 H2O in which 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and KCl were added. The crystal structure of the compound was determined, and the proton position in H3V10O283, were calculated by the bond length/bond number method and also determined from difference electron density map. The protons are bound to colinearly arranged ,,OV2 and ,,OV3 groups which is the common protonation type in trihydrogen decavanadates. The structure crystallizes in P1 space group symmetry. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    VEGF-mediated fusion in the generation of uniluminal vascular spheroids

    Carmine Gentile
    Abstract Embryonic mouse allantoic tissue (E8.5) was cultured in hanging drops to generate a three-dimensional vascular micro-tissue. The resulting tissue spheroids had an inner network of small diameter vessels expressing platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and an outer layer of cells expressing SM,A, SM22-,, and SM-MHC. In a subsequent phase of culture, the fusion-promoting activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was used to transform the inner network of small diameter endothelial tubes into a contiguous layer of cells expressing PECAM-1, CD34, and VE-cadherin that circumscribed a central lumen-like cavity. The blood vessel-like character of the VEGF-treated spheroids was further demonstrated by their physiologically relevant vasodilatory and contractile responses, including contraction induced by KCl and relaxation stimulated by high-density lipoproteins and acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide production. Developmental Dynamics 237:2918,2925, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Electrochemical Elucidation of the Facilitated Ion Transport Across a Bilayer Lipid Membrane in the Presence of Neutral Carrier Compounds

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2010
    Jun Onishi
    Abstract The ion transport facilitated by neutral carrier compounds (valinomycin, nonactin) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry in the several electrolyte solutions (KF, KCl, KBr, KNO3, KSCN, KClO4), and we demonstrated the effect of the counter anions on the facilitated transport of K+ from the viewpoint of electroneutrality. Voltammograms for the ion transport were generated at steady state and the current density between W1 and W2, jW1,W2, increased with the absolute value of the applied membrane potential, EW1,W2. Then, the magnitude of jW1,W2 at a certain EW1,W2 increased with the hydrophobicity of the counter anion. It was proved that the logarithm of |jW1,W2|at a certain EW1,W2 is almost proportional to the hydration energy of the counter anion. This indicates that not only K+ but also the counter anion distributes into the BLM. Therefore, the magnitude of jW1,W2 at a certain EW1,W2 increased with an increase of pH, because the hydroxide ion was served as a counter anion. Based on the variation of the zero-current potential in case of various asymmetrical ionic compositions, it is found that the amount of cation transport is much larger than that of anion transport. [source]

    Effect of Platinum and Ruthenium Incorporation on Voltammetric Behavior of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 23 2009
    W. Khun
    Abstract Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with or without platinum and ruthenium incorporation (N-DLC or PtRuN-DLC) were deposited on highly conductive p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering to study the effect of Pt and Ru doping on the voltammetric performance of the N-DLC films. The potential windows of these film electrodes were measured in different electrolytic solutions, such as H2SO4, HCl and KCl. The cyclic voltammograms obtained from the N-DLC film electrodes in these solutions showed wide potential windows while the introduction of Pt and Ru into the film electrodes apparently narrowed down the potential windows due to their catalytic activities. [source]

    Electrochemical Evaluation of Nucleoside Analogue Lamivudine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Human Serum

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 20 2005
    Burcu Dogan
    Abstract Lamivudine (LAM) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to determine LAM levels in serum and pharmaceutical formulations, by means of electrochemical methods using hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). On this electrode, LAM undergoes irreversible reduction at the peak potential near Ep,1.26,V (vs. Ag/AgCl/3,M KCl). Reduction LAM signals were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (OSW). DPV and OSW techniques for the determination of LAM in acetate buffer at pH,4.5, which allows quantitation over the 410,6 to 110,4,M range in supporting electrolyte for both methods, were proposed. The linear response was obtained in acetate buffer in the ranges of 210,6 to 210,4,M for spiked serum samples at pH,4.5 for both techniques. The repeatability and reproducibility of the methods for all media were determined. The standard addition method was used in serum. Precision and accuracy were also checked in all media. No electroactive interferences from the endogenous substances were found in serum. With respect to side effects of high doses and short half-life of LAM, a fast and simple detection method is described in this study. [source]

    Electrochemical Detection of Trace Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead with a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: Effect of KCl and KNO3 Electrolytes, Interferences and Measurement in River Water

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 3 2004
    Carol Babyak
    Abstract Parts-per-billion levels of cadmium and lead were detected using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry with a boron-doped diamond electrode. Calibration plots (10-minute deposition time) in KCl and KNO3 were non-linear at low concentrations (1,5,ppb) due to the deposition mechanism of these metals. The preferred electrolyte for cadmium was KCl, while lead could be measured in either electrolyte. The lowest concentrations included in the linear portion of the calibration plot (5,minute deposition time) for cadmium were 10,ppb and 50,ppb in KCl and KNO3, respectively, and 10,ppb for lead in KNO3. The presence of either lead or copper suppressed the cadmium stripping peak, but the lead stripping peak was unaffected by cadmium, and enhanced by the addition of copper. A river water sample was analyzed for cadmium and lead, and the cadmium results were confirmed using ICP-AES spectrometry. It was determined electrochemically that a fraction of lead in the river sample was bound by complexing material in the sample. [source]

    Study of the Complexation, Adsorption and Electrode Reaction Mechanisms of Chromium(VI) and (III) with DTPA Under Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Conditions

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 19 2003
    Sylvia Sander
    Abstract The complexation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), the redox behavior of these complexes and their adsorption on the mercury electrode surface were investigated by a combination of electrochemical techniques and UV/vis spectroscopy. A homogenous two-step reaction was observed when mixing Cr(III), present as hexaquo complex, with DTPA. The first reaction product, the electroactive 1,:,1 complex, turns into an electroinactive form in the second step. The results indicate that the second reaction product is presumably a 1,:,2 Cr(III)/DTPA complex. The electroreduction of the DTPA-Cr(III) complex to Cr(II) was found to be diffusion rather than adsorption controlled. The Cr(III) ion, generated in-situ from Cr(VI) at the mercury electrode at about ,50,mV (vs. Ag|AgCl) (3,mol,L,1 KCl), was found to form instantly an electroactive and adsorbable complex with DTPA. By means of electrocapillary measurements its surface activity was shown to be 30 times higher than that of the complex built by homogenous reaction of DTPA with the hydrated Cr(III). Both components, DTPA and the in-situ built complex Cr(III) ion were found to adsorb on the mercury electrode. The effect of nitrate, used as catalytic oxidant in the voltammetric determination method, on the complexation reaction and on the adsorption processes was found to be negligible. The proposed complex structures and an overall reaction scheme are shown. [source]

    Analysis of effect of electrolyte types on electrokinetic energy conversion in nanoscale capillaries

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 3 2010
    Reiyu Chein
    Abstract An analytical study on the effect of electrolyte types on the electrokinetic energy conversion is presented using nanoscale cylindrical capillary, which is either positively or negatively charged. The sign of surface charge determines the role and concentration magnitude of ions in the capillary and the energy conversion performance. Our study shows that the electrokinetic energy conversion performance (maximum efficiency, pressure rise and streaming potential) are approximately identical for 1:1 (KCl), 2:1 (CaCl2) and 3:1 (LaCl3) electrolytes when capillary is positively charged. For negatively charged capillary, energy conversion performance degrades significantly with the increase of counter-ion valence. For both positively and negatively charged capillaries, higher maximum efficiency can be resulted in low bulk concentration and surface charge density regimes. However, high maximum pressure rise generation for the pumping is found in the low bulk concentration and high surface charge density regimes. For the electric power generation, higher maximum streaming potential is found when both bulk concentration and surface charge density are low. [source]

    Influence of complexation with chloride on the responses of a lux-marked bacteria bioassay to cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury

    Charoon Sarin
    Abstract The toxicity of a heavy metal in solution to a microorganism depends not only on its concentration but also on pH and the concentrations of any aqueous complexing ligands in the microorganism's environment. This paper reports on the use of different inorganic resuscitation media and effect of the chloride ion, Cl,, on the bioluminescence response of a bacterial biosensor, Escherichia coli HB101 (pUCD607), to four metals: Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb. The toxicity tests were conducted at pH 4, using 0.1 M KNO3 as resuscitation medium and adding KCl to investigate effect of Cl, concentration. The species distributions of metals as a function of Cl, concentration were calculated using GeoChem-PC. Resuscitation in 0.1 M KC1 gave significantly higher light output than that in 0.1 M KNO3, demonstrating that Cl, in the resuscitation medium has a direct effect on the bioluminescence response of the E. coli biosensor. Increasing concentrations of Cl, ions increased the toxicity of Hg, apparently because of the formation of HgCl,3, and increased the toxicity of Pb because of PbCl+ formation. The toxicity of Cu decreased at high Cl, concentrations as free Cu2+ decreased, in accordance with the free ion model. Concentrations of Cl, had no significant effect on the toxicity of Cd. This study clearly demonstrates that the chloro-complexes of some heavy metals can be toxic and, for Pb and Hg, more toxic than the free ion. [source]

    Effects of oral electrolyte supplementation on endurance horses competing in 80 km rides

    Summary Reasons for performing study: There is no evidence that use of oral electrolyte pastes enhances performance in competing endurance horses. Objective: To ascertain whether oral administration of a high dose (HD) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) to endurance horses would differentially increase water intake, attenuate bodyweight (bwt) loss and improve performance when compared to a low dose (LD). Methods: A randomised, blinded, crossover study was conducted on 8 horses participating in two 80 km rides (same course, 28 days apart). Thirty minutes before and at 40 km of the first ride 4, horses received orally 0.2 g NaCl/kg bwt and 0.07 g KCl/kg bwt. The other 4 received 0.07 g NaCl/kg bwt and 0.02 g KCl/kg bwt. Horses received the alternate treatment in the second ride. Data were analysed with 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures (P<0.05). Results: Estimated water intake was significantly greater with HD both at the 40 km mark and as total water intake; however, differences in bwt loss and speed between HD and LD were not found. Treatment significantly affected serum Na+, Cl,, HCO3, pH and water intake, but not serum K+ or bwt. Serum Na+ and Cl, were significantly higher at 80 km when horses received HD, but no differences were found in early recovery. Venous HCO3 and pH were significantly lower throughout the ride and in early recovery when horses received HD. Conclusions and potential relevance: Other than enhancing water intake, supplementing endurance horses with high doses of NaCl and KCl did not provide any detectable competitive advantage in 80 km rides. Further, the elevated serum electrolyte concentrations induced with HD might not be appropriate for endurance horses. [source]

    Spasmogenic action of endothelin-1 on isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus

    A. E. M. BENAMOU
    Summary Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary vasculature and airways or which ET receptor subtypes mediate ET-1-induced vasoconstrictive and bronchoconstrictive action in the horse. Objectives: To investigate the effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on smooth muscle from isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. In addition, the roles of ETA and ETB receptors in ET-1 mediated contraction in these tissues were assessed. Methods: The force generation of ring segments from pulmonary arteries or third-generation airways (obtained from horses subjected to euthanasia fororthopaedic reasons) were studied in an organ bath at 37C in response to exogenous endothelin and selective endothelin A (BQ123) or B receptor (BQ788) antagonists. Results: ET-1 produced concentration-dependent contractions of the equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. The threshold for contraction was 10,10 and 10,9 mol/l ET-1 for pulmonary artery and bronchus, respectively. The maximal contraction induced by the highest ET-1 concentration (10,7 mol/l) was 173 and 194% of the contraction obtained with 100 mmol/l KCl in pulmonary artery and bronchus, respectively. ET-1 potency was 25 times greater in equine pulmonary artery than in equine bronchus (concentration of ET-1 producing 50% of maximal contraction [EC50] = 5.6 10,9 mol/l and 2.2 10,8 mol/l, respectively). In pulmonary artery, ET-1 induced contractions were significantly inhibited by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 (1 ,mol/l; dose-response curve to ET-1 was shifted to the right by 5.4-fold), but not by the ETB antagonist BQ788. In bronchus, dose-responses curves to ET-1 were shifted to the right by BQ123 (1 ,mol/l; 2.5-fold), but not by BQ788 (1 ,mol/l). In the presence of both antagonists, the dose-response curve to ET-1 was shifted to the right by 4.5-fold. Conclusions: These functional studies demonstrate that ET-1 is a potent spasmogen of equine third generation pulmonary artery and bronchus, and that contractions are mediated via ETA receptors in the former and both ETA and ETB receptors in the latter. Potential clinical relevance: Endothelin receptor antagonists may have potential for treating equine pulmonary hypertension or bronchoconstriction. [source]

    Hexaazamacrocycle Containing Pyridine and Its Dicopper Complex as Receptors for Dicarboxylate Anions

    Feng Li
    Abstract The host,guest binding interactions of the hexaazamacrocycle [26]py2N4, in its tetraprotonated form H4[26]py2N44+ as well as in its dicopper(II) complex [Cu2([26]py2N4)(H2O)4]4+, with dicarboxylate anions of different stereoelectronicrequirements, such as oxalate (ox2,), malonate (mal2,), succinate (suc2,), fumarate (fu2,) and maleate (ma2,), were evaluated. The association constants were determined using potentiometric methods in aqueous solution, at 298.0 K and 0.10 moldm,3 KCl. These values for the tetraprotonated ditopic receptor with the dicarboxylate anions revealed that the main species in solution corresponds to the formation of {H4[26]py2N4(A)}2+ (pH , 4,9), A being the substrate anion. The values determined are not especially high, but the receptor exhibits selectivity for the malonate anion. The study of the cascade complexes revealed several species in solution, involving mononuclear and dinuclear complexes, mainly protonated and hydrolysed species, as well as the expected complexes [Cu2([26]py2N4)(A)(H2O)x]2+ or [Cu2([26]py2N4)(A)2(H2O)y]. Ox2, and mal2, form cascade complexes with only one anion, which will necessarily bridge the two copper atoms because of the symmetrical arrangement of the dinuclear complex. The two other studied anions, suc2, and ma2,, form species involving two substrate anions, although species with only one suc2, anion were also found. UV/Vis and EPR spectroscopy have shown that the dicopper complex can operate as a sensor to detect and quantitatively determine oxalate spectrophotometrically because of the red shift of the maximum of the visible band observed by addition of ox2, to an aqueous solution of the dinuclear copper complex. However the selectivity of [Cu2([26]py2N4)(H2O)4]4+ as a receptor for ox2, in the studied series is not sufficiently high to detect ox2, spectrophotometrically in the presence of the other anions. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the H4[26]py2N44+ receptor provides a large and flexible cavity to accommodate the studied anions. Molecular recognition is based in electrostatic interactions rather than in multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions acting cooperatively. By contrast, the [Cu2([26]py2N4)]4+ receptor has a well-shaped cavity with adequate size to uptake these anions as bridging ligands with formation of four Cu,O bonds. The ox2, anion is encapsulated within the cascade complex while the remaining anions are located above the N6 macrocyclic plane, suggesting a selective coordination behaviour of this receptor. In spite of our molecular simulation being carried out in gas phase, the modelling results are consistent with the solution studies. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

    Brief exposure to NMDA produces long-term protection of cerebellar granule cells from apoptosis

    Xavier Xifro
    Abstract Cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) require excitatory inputs to survive during their postnatal migration from the external to the internal granule cell layers. The lack of innervation of mossy fibres induces CGC death by apoptosis. In vitro, CGCs die by apoptosis in the presence of physiological concentrations of KCl (5 mm or K5) but they survive in the presence of depolarizing concentrations of KCl (25 mm or K25) or N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) by a mechanism dependent on calcium influx. The addition of NMDA or K25, for only 24 h, to immature CGCs cultures [2 days in vitro (DIV)] was able to produce a remarkable and long-term protection until 8 DIV. Moreover, our data show that NMDA and K25-mediated long-lasting protection was related to an inhibition of caspase-3 activity. By using different protein kinase inhibitors, we have shown that the inhibition of caspase-3 activation by NMDA was dependent on the activation of tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). Moreover, an impairment in NMDA-mediated neuroprotection and caspase-3 inhibition was observed when the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was blocked. By contrast, K25-mediated neuroprotection was BDNF-independent and was mediated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and PI3-kinase-dependent inhibition of caspase-3. [source]

    The actin-binding protein profilin I is localized at synaptic sites in an activity-regulated manner

    Henrike Neuhoff
    Abstract Morphological changes at synaptic specializations have been implicated in regulating synaptic strength. Actin turnover at dendritic spines is regulated by neuronal activity and contributes to spine size, shape and motility. The reorganization of actin filaments requires profilins, which stimulate actin polymerization. Neurons express two independent gene products , profilin I and profilin II. A role for profilin II in activity-dependent mechanisms at spine synapses has recently been described. Although profilin I interacts with synaptic proteins, little is known about its cellular and subcellular localization in neurons. Here, we investigated the subcellular distribution of this protein in brain neurons as well as in hippocampal cultures. Our results indicate that the expression of profilin I varies in different brain regions. Thus, in cerebral cortex and hippocampus profilin I immunostaining was associated predominantly with dendrites and was present in a subset of dendritic spines. In contrast, profilin I in cerebellum was associated primarily with presynaptic structures. Profilin I immunoreactivity was partially colocalized with the synaptic molecules synaptophysin, PSD-95 and gephyrin in cultured hippocampal neurons, indicating that profilin I is present in only a subset of synapses. At dendritic spine structures, profilin I was found primarily in protrusions, which were in apposition to presynaptic terminal boutons. Remarkably, depolarization with KCl caused a moderate but significant increase in the number of synapses containing profilin I. These results show that profilin I can be present at both pre- and postsynaptic sites and suggest a role for this actin-binding protein in activity-dependent remodelling of synaptic structure. [source]

    Rapid assessment of in vivo cholinergic transmission by amperometric detection of changes in extracellular choline levels

    Vinay Parikh
    Abstract Conventional microdialysis methods for measuring acetylcholine (ACh) efflux do not provide sufficient temporal resolution to relate cholinergic transmission to individual stimuli or behavioral responses, or sufficient spatial resolution to investigate heterogeneities in such regulation within a brain region. In an effort to overcome these constraints, we investigated a ceramic-based microelectrode array designed to measure amperometrically rapid changes in extracellular choline as a marker for cholinergic transmission in the frontoparietal cortex of anesthetized rats. These microelectrodes exhibited detection limits of 300 nm for choline and selectivity (> 100 : 1) of choline over interferents such as ascorbic acid. Intracortical pressure ejections of choline (20 mm, 66,400 nL) and ACh (10 and 100 mm, 200 nL) dose-dependently increased choline-related signals that were cleared to background levels within 10 s. ACh, but not choline-induced signals, were significantly attenuated by co-ejection of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (Neo; 100 mm). Pressure ejections of drugs known to increase cortical ACh efflux, potassium (KCl; 70 mm, 66, 200 nL) and scopolamine (Scop; 10 mm, 200 nL), also markedly increased extracellular choline signals, which again were inhibited by Neo. Scop-induced choline signals were also found to be tetrodotoxin-sensitive. Collectively, these findings suggest that drug-induced increases in current measured with these microelectrode arrays reflect the oxidation of choline that is neuronally derived from the release and subsequent hydrolysis of ACh. Choline signals assessed using enzyme-selective microelectrode arrays may represent a rapid, sensitive and spatially discrete measure of cholinergic transmission. [source]

    Histamine H3 receptor-mediated impairment of contextual fear conditioning and in-vivo inhibition of cholinergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    M. Beatrice Passani
    Abstract We investigated the effects of agents acting at histamine receptors on both, spontaneous release of ACh from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of freely moving rats, and fear conditioning. Extensive evidence suggests that the effects of histamine on cognition might be explained by the modulation of cholinergic systems. Using the microdialysis technique in freely moving rats, we demonstrated that perfusion of the BLA with histaminergic compounds modulates the spontaneous release of ACh. The addition of 100 mm KCl to the perfusion medium strongly stimulated ACh release, whereas, 0.5 m tetrodotoxin (TTX) inhibited spontaneous ACh release by more than 50%. Histaminergic H3 antagonists (ciproxifan, clobenpropit and thioperamide), directly administered to the BLA, decreased ACh spontaneous release, an effect fully antagonized by the simultaneous perfusion of the BLA with cimetidine, an H2 antagonist. Local administration of cimetidine alone increased ACh spontaneous release slightly, but significantly. Conversely, the administration of H1 antagonists failed to alter ACh spontaneous release. Rats receiving intra-BLA, bilateral injections of the H3 antagonists at doses similar to those inhibiting ACh spontaneous release, immediately after contextual fear conditioning, showed memory consolidation impairment of contextual fear conditioning. Post-training, bilateral injections of 50 g scopolamine also had an adverse effect on memory retention. These observations provide the first evidence that histamine receptors are involved in the modulation of cholinergic tone in the amygdala and in the consolidation of fear conditioning. [source]

    Altered striatal amino acid neurotransmitter release monitored using microdialysis in R6/1 Huntington transgenic mice

    B. NicNiocaill
    Abstract Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant disease which presents with striatal and cortical degeneration causing involuntary movements, dementia and emotional changes. We employed 16-week-old transgenic Huntington mice (R6/1 line developed by Bates and coworkers) that express exon 1 of the mutant human Huntington gene with 115 CAG triplet repeats. At this age, R6/1 mice do not exhibit an overt neurological phenotype nor any striatal neuronal loss. Using microdialysis, we monitored basal and intrastriatal N-methyl d -aspartate (NMDA, 100 m, 15 min)- and KCl (100 mm, 15 min)-induced increases in local aspartate, glutamate and GABA release in halothane-anaesthetized transgenic mice and wild-type controls. Basal striatal dialysate glutamate levels were reduced by 42% in R6/1 mice whilst aspartate and GABA levels did not differ from those observed in control mice. Intrastriatal NMDA was associated with significantly greater aspartate (at 15 min) and GABA (at 30 min) levels in the R6/1 mice compared to controls, whilst glutamate release rapidly increased to the same extent in both groups. Intrastriatal KCl was associated with enhanced increases (30 min) in local aspartate and glutamate release in the R6/1 mice above those observed in controls whilst the rapid increase (15 min) in GABA release was similar in both groups. The results provide compelling evidence for specific alterations in both basal, as well as NMDA- and KCl-induced, release of striatal amino acid neurotransmitters in this transgenic model of Huntington's disease, even in the absence of manifest neurodegeneration. [source]

    Reversible protein kinase C activation in PC12 cells: effect of NGF treatment

    Jean-Luc Dupont
    Abstract Although protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme in the signal transduction process, there is little information on the mechanism leading to PKC activation in living cells. Using a new fluorescence imaging method, we studied this mechanism and correlated PKC conformational changes with intracellular Ca2+ concentration. PC12 cells were simultaneously loaded with Fura-2-AM and Fim-1, two fluorescent probes, which recognize Ca2+ and PKC, respectively. KCl and carbachol (an agonist to muscarinic receptors) applications induced dose-dependent increases of fluorescence for both probes. Both Ca2+ and PKC responses were observed within seconds following KCl or carbachol application, and were reversible upon stimulus withdrawal. PKC activation kinetics was slightly more rapid than the Ca2+ response after KCl application. After nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment of the cells, the amplitude of the KCl-induced PKC responses was larger indicating an increase in the activated PKC-pool in these cells. This difference between control and NGF-treated cells was not observed following carbachol application, suggesting the involvement of different PKC pools. While the Ca2+ response uniformly occurred in the cytosol, the PKC response displayed a patch pattern with higher intensities in the peripheral zone near the plasma membrane. This heterogeneous distribution of PKC activation sites was similar to the immunocytological localization of Ca2+ -dependent and independent PKC isoforms, which suggested that at least several PKC isoforms interacted with intracellular elements. Upon repeated stimulation, the PKC response rapidly desensitized. [source]

    Total and soluble fluorine concentrations in relation to properties of soils in New Zealand

    P. Loganathan
    Summary Soil fluorine (F) concentrations continue to increase in agricultural soils receiving regular applications of phosphatic fertilizer. Continued accumulation of soil F poses a risk to grazing ruminants and may pose a future risk to groundwater quality. This paper examines the range of total F (Ft) concentrations and forms of soluble F species and their relationship to selected soil properties in New Zealand agricultural soils. The Ft and soluble F (soil F extracted with water (Fwater) and 0.01 m KCl (FKCl)) concentrations in 27 soil samples (0,75 mm depth) taken from predominantly pasture sites in the North and South Islands of New Zealand were much less than those reported in the literature for sites contaminated with F from industry. The Ft concentrations ranged from 212 to 617 g F g,1 soil. The F-toxicity risk to grazing animals in farms at these sites through soil ingestion is small at present, but farms with very large Ft concentrations (i.e. > 500 g F g,1) need to adopt suitable grazing and fertilizer management practices to avoid future F-toxicity risk. The Ft concentration had very strong positive correlations with both total soil P and total soil Cd concentrations, reflecting the link between P fertilizer use and F accumulation in the soils. It also had significant positive correlations with organic matter and amorphous Al oxides contents, indicating that F is strongly bound to Al polymers adsorbed to organic matter and amorphous Al oxides. The Fwater and FKCl concentrations and free F, ion concentrations in water (F,water) and 0.01 m KCl (F,KCl) extracts were generally two and three orders of magnitude, respectively, less than the Ft concentrations and were much less than the concentrations considered phytotoxic. The Fwater and FKCl concentrations were positively related to soil organic matter content and negatively related to soil pH. Regression models relating Fwater and FKCl concentrations to soil organic matter content and soil pH suggest that F can be very soluble in extremely acidic soils (pH(water) < 4.9) with large organic matter contents and therefore F potentially may contaminate groundwater if these soils are also coarse-textured and the water table is shallow. [source]

    Effect of termites on clay minerals in tropical soils: fungus-growing termites as weathering agents

    P. Jouquet
    Summary Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae play an important role in tropical ecosystems: they modify the soil's physical properties and thereby make food available for other organisms. Clay is important in the architecture of Macrotermitinae termite nests, and it has been postulated that termites could modify the mineralogical properties of some clays. We have tested this hypothesis of clay transformation by termites in the laboratory under controlled conditions, using Odontotermes nr. pauperans termite species, one of the main fungus-growing species at Lamto Research Station (Cte d'Ivoire). Soil handled by termites in nest building was saturated with SrCl2, glycol or KCl and afterwards heated at 250C for X-ray diffraction analyses. Termite handling led to an increase in the expandable layers of the component clay minerals. Heating and saturation by potassium of modified clays did not close the newly formed expandable clay layers. However, differences occurred between parts of the constructions built by termites, and the clays can be ranked according to their degree of alteration in the following order: unhandled soils < galleries < chamber walls. Consequently, termites can be seen as weathering agents of clay minerals, as previously shown for micro-organisms and plants. [source]

    Increases in pH and soluble salts influence the effect that additions of organic residues have on concentrations of exchangeable and soil solution aluminium

    M. S. Mokolobate
    Summary It has been suggested that additions of organic residues to acid soils can ameliorate Al toxicity. For this reason the effects of additions of four organic residues to an acid soil on pH and exchangeable and soil solution Al were investigated. The residues were grass, household compost, filter cake (a waste product from sugar mills) and poultry manure, and they were added at rates equivalent to 10 and 20 t ha,1. Additions of residues increased soil pH measured in KCl (pH(KCl)) and decreased exchangeable Al3+ in the order poultry manure > filter cake > household compost > grass. The mechanism responsible for the increase in pH differed for the different residues. Poultry manure treatment resulted in lower soil pH measured in water (pH(water)) and larger concentrations of total (AlT) and monomeric (Almono) Al in soil solution than did filter cake. This was attributed to a soluble salt effect, originating from the large cation content of poultry manure, displacing exchangeable Al3+ and H+ back into soil solution. The considerably larger concentrations of soluble C in soil solution originating from the poultry manure may also have maintained greater concentrations of Al in soluble complexed form. There was a significant negative correlation (r = ,0.94) between pH(KCl) and exchangeable Al. Concentrations of AlT and Almono in soil solution were not closely related with pH or exchangeable Al. The results suggest that although additions of organic residues can increase soil pH and decrease Al solubility, increases in soluble salt and soluble C concentrations in soil solution can substantially modify these effects. [source]

    Hypertonic Saline Treatment of Severe Hyperkalemia in Nonnephrectomized Dogs

    Justin L. Kaplan MD
    Abstract. Objectives: To determine whether a hypertonic saline bolus improves cardiac conduction or plasma potassium levels more than normal saline infusion within 15 minutes of treatment for severe hyperkalemia. Previously with this model, 8.4% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) lowered plasma potassium equally effectively. Methods: This was a crossover study using ten conditioned dogs (14-20 kg) that received, in random order, each of three intravenous (IV) treatments in separate experiments at least one week apart: 1) 2 mmol/kg of 8.4% NaCl over 5 minutes (bolus); 2) 2 mmol/kg of 0.9% NaCl over one hour (infusion); or 3) no treatment (control). Using isoflurane anesthesia and ventilation (pCO2= 35-40 torr), 2 mmol/kg/hr of IV potassium chloride (KCl) was infused until conduction delays (both absent p-waves and ,20% decrease in ventricular rate in ,5 minutes) were sustained for 15 minutes. The KCl was then decreased to 1 mmol/kg/hr (maintenance) for 2 hours and 45 minutes. Treatment (0 minutes) began after 45 minutes of maintenance KCl. Results: From 0 to 15 minutes, mean heart rate increased 29.6 (95% CI = 12.2 to 46; p < 0.005) beats/min more with bolus than infusion and 23.4 (95% CI = 2.6 to 43.5; p < 0.03) beats/min more with bolus than control. No clinically or statistically significant difference was seen in heart rate changes from 0 to 30 minutes. Decreases in potassium from 0 to 15 minutes were similar with bolus, infusion, and control. Conclusions: In this model, 8.4% NaCl bolus reversed cardiac conduction abnormalities within the first 15 minutes after treatment, more rapidly than did the 0.9% NaCl infusion or control. This reversal occurred despite similar reductions in potassium levels. [source]

    ISC1-encoded inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C is involved in Na+/Li+ halotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2002
    Christian Betz
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxic concentrations of Na+ orLi+ ions induce the expression of the cation-extrusion ATPase gene, ENA1. Several well-studied signal transduction pathways are known correlating high salinity to the transcriptional activation of ENA1. Nevertheless, information on the actual sensing mechanism initiating these pathways is limited. Here, we report that the ISC1 -encoded phosphosphingolipid-specific phospholipase C appears to be involved in stimulation of ENA1 expression and, consequently, in mediating Na+ and Li+ tolerance in yeast. Deletion of ISC1 distinctly decreased cellular Na+ and Li+ tolerance as growth of the ,isc1::HIS5 mutant, DZY1, was severely impaired by 0.5 m NaCl or 0.01 m LiCl. In contrast,K+ tolerance and general osmostress regulation wereunaffected. Isc1, mutant growth with 0.9 m KCl and glycerol accumulation in the presence of 0.9 m NaCl or 1.5 m sorbitol were comparable to that of the wild-type. ENA1 -lacZ reporter studies suggested that the increased salt sensitivity of the isc1, mutant is related to a significant reduction of Na+/Li+ -stimulated ENA1 expression. Correspondingly, Ena1p-dependent extrusion of Na+/Li+ ions was less efficient in the isc1, mutant than in wild-type cells. Itis suggested that ISC1 -dependent hydrolysis of an unidentified yeast inositol phosphosphingolipid represents an early event in one of the salt-induced signalling pathways of ENA1 transcriptional activation. [source]

    Purification and characterization of the single-strand-specific and guanylic-acid-preferential deoxyribonuclease activity of the extracellular nuclease from Basidiobolus haptosporus

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2000
    Neelam A. Desai
    An extracellular nuclease from Basidiobolus haptosporus (designated as nuclease Bh1) was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, heat treatment, negative adsorption on DEAE-cellulose, and chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose followed by FPLC on phenyl-Superose. The overall yield was 26%. The Mr of the purified enzyme, determined by gel filtration, was 41 000 whereas by SDS/PAGE (after deglycosylation) it was 30 000. It is a glycoprotein with a pI of 6.8. The optimum pH and temperature for DNA hydrolysis were 8.5 and 60 C, respectively. Nuclease Bh1 is a metalloprotein but has no obligate requirement for metal ions to be active, nor is its activity stimulated in the presence of metal ions. The enzyme was inhibited by Zn2+, Ag2+, Hg2+, Fe3+ and Al3+, inorganic phosphate, pyrophosphate, dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, NaCl and KCl. It was stable to high concentrations of organic solvents and urea but susceptible to low concentrations of SDS and guanidine hydrochloride. Nuclease Bh1 is a multifunctional enzyme and its substrate specificity is in the order of ssDNA , 3,AMP , RNA > dsDNA. Studies on its mode of action showed that it cleaved supercoiled pUC 18 DNA and phage M13 DNA, endonucleolytically, generating single base nicks. The enzyme hydrolyzed DNA with preferential liberation of 5,dGMP, suggesting it to be a guanylic acid preferential endoexonuclease. 5,dGMP, the end product of hydrolysis, was a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The absence of 5,dCMP as a hydrolytic product, coupled with the resistance of (dC)10 and deoxyribodinucleoside monophosphates having cytosine either at the 3, or the 5, end, indicates that C-linkages are resistant to cleavage by nuclease Bh1. [source]

    Growth response of the bacterial community to pH in soils differing in pH

    David Fernndez-Calvio
    Abstract The effect of pH on the instantaneous growth of soil bacterial communities was studied in five soils with different pH (4.5,7.8) using leucine (Leu) and thymidine (TdR) incorporation. The pH dependency of bacterial growth was modelled using three different unimodal functions, and the pHopt for growth and the pH range in which growth was >50% of the optimal growth were compared. Leu and TdR incorporation yielded very similar results. The best fits were obtained using a third-degree polynomial function and the cardinal pH model. However, a simple second-degree function was adequate in most cases, yielding very similar pHopt values to the other two models. Bacterial growth was highly influenced by pH, showing optimum growth at a pH related to the soil pH. The lowest pHopt was found in the most acidic soil and the highest pHopt in the soil with the highest pH. The pHopt for bacterial growth was close to the soil pH measured in water, but higher (0.7,2.1 units) than the pH measured with 0.1 M KCl. The pH range in which bacterial growth was >50% of that at optimum was, on average, 1.7 units below and above the optimum pH. [source]

    Lack of main K+ uptake systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells affects yeast performance in both potassium-sufficient and potassium-limiting conditions

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 5 2010
    Clara Navarrete
    Abstract A new YNB medium containing very low concentrations of alkali metal cations has been developed to carry out experiments to study potassium homoeostasis. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 strain and the corresponding mutant lacking the main potassium uptake systems (trk1 trk2) under potassium nonlimiting and limiting concentrations was performed, and novel important differences between both strains were found. At nonlimiting concentrations of KCl, the two strains had a comparable cell size and potassium content. Nevertheless, mutants were hyperpolarized, had lower pH and extruded fewer protons compared with the BY4741 strain. Upon transfer to K+ -limiting conditions, cells of both strains became hyperpolarized and their cell volume and K+ content diminished; however, the decrease was more relevant in BY4741. In low potassium, trk1 trk2 cells were not able to accomplish the cell cycle to the same extent as in BY4741. Moreover, K+ limitation triggered a high-affinity K+/Rb+ uptake process only in BY4741, with the highest affinity being reached as soon as 30 min after transfer to potassium-limiting conditions. By establishing basic cellular parameters under standard growth conditions, this work aims to establish a basis for the investigation of potassium homoeostasis at the system level. [source]