Kcal Min (kcal + min)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Oxytocin stimulates colonic motor activity in healthy women

B. Ohlsson
Abstract, The effects of oxytocin in the gastrointestinal tract are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of infusion of oxytocin on colonic motility and sensitivity in healthy women. Fourteen healthy women were investigated twice. A 6-channel perfusion catheter, with three recording points (2 cm apart) proximally and three recording points distally to a barostat balloon, was inserted to the splenic flexure. An intestinal feeding tube was placed in the mid-duodenum. A 90-min duodenal lipid infusion of 3 kcal min,1 was administered. Thirty minutes after the start of the lipid infusion, the subject randomly received either 20 or 40 mU min,1 of oxytocin, or isotonic saline as intravenous infusions for 90 min. Meanwhile, the colonic motility was recorded. During the last 30 min of oxytocin and saline infusion, the visceral sensitivity to balloon distensions was examined. During lipid infusion the number of antegrade contractions per hour was 0.7 ± 0.3 after saline and 3.9 ± 1.4 after oxytocin (P = 0.03), indicating more pronounced lumen-occlusive contractile activity after oxytocin administration. Some of these consisted of high-amplitude (> 103 mmHg in amplitude) antegrade contractions. Lipid infusion evoked a decrease of the balloon volume, reflecting increased colonic tone, but there was no difference between saline and oxytocin. Sensory thresholds did not differ significantly between saline and oxytocin. Infusion of oxytocin stimulates antegrade peristaltic contractions in stimulated colon in healthy women. The effects of oxytocin on colonic motor activity deserve to be further explored, especially in patients with colonic peristaltic dysfunction. [source]

Effects of duodenal fat, protein or mixed-nutrient infusions on epigastric sensations during sustained gastric distension in healthy humans

Duodenal fat modulates sensory and motor responses to gastric distension and raises plasma cholecystokinin compared with glucose. The effects of protein (also releasing cholecystokinin), or mixed nutrients (with a balanced macronutrient composition), on gastrointestinal sensations in relation to gastric relaxation and plasma cholecystokinin concentrations are not known. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effects of duodenal infusion of fat, protein or mixed nutrients during sustained gastric distension (mimicking the intragastric presence of food) on these parameters. In 10 healthy subjects, gastric distension to fullness was maintained for 90 min, while gastric volume, sensations and plasma cholecystokinin were monitored during duodenal infusion of isotonic saline or nutrients (2 kcal min,1). During saline infusion, all parameters remained unchanged for 90 min. Initially, only lipid increased plasma cholecystokinin, gastric volume and scores for sensations. Cholecystokinin and gastric volume responses to protein and mixed nutrients were delayed and not associated with significant changes in sensations. In conclusion, the intensity of gastrointestinal sensations is related to, but not entirely explained by, the magnitude in intragastric volume and plasma cholecystokinin changes. Our results offer new insights into the role of dietary nutrient composition in gastrointestinal sensations, and may have implications for the dietary management of digestive symptoms. [source]

The effect of equicaloric medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on pancreas enzyme secretion

T. Symersky
Summary It has been shown previously that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) do not affect gallbladder emptying and cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The effect of MCT on exocrine pancreas secretion in humans is unknown. We have compared the effect of enteral administration of MCT versus long chain triglycerides (LCT) on exocrine pancreatic secretion. Eight healthy subjects (three female, five male; mean age 22 ± 1·9 years) participated in two experiments, performed in random order. Duodenal contents, obtained by aspiration, were used to calculated the output of pancreatic enzymes and bilirubin. An equicaloric amount of either MCT or LCT (2 kcal min,1) oil was continuously administered in the proximal jejunum for 2 h. Gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasonography and blood samples were drawn for determination of CCK. The experiments consisted of 1 h basal secretion, 2 h of continuous oil administration and 1 h poststimulation. During the LCT feeding the pancreatic enzyme secretion, bilirubin output, gallbladder emptying and CCK release increased significantly (P<0·05) over basal levels. MCT had no effect on pancreatic enzyme secretion nor gallbladder emptying or CCK release. We conclude that enteral administration of MCT in the proximal jejunum does not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion nor gallbladder contraction or CCK release, in contrast to an equicaloric amount of LCT. [source]

The validity of the Computer Science and Applications activity monitor for use in coronary artery disease patients during level walking

Ulf Ekelund
Summary The principal aim of the present study was to examine the validity of the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) activity monitor during level walking in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the usefulness of two previously published energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations. Thirty-four subjects (29 men and five women), all with diagnosed CAD, volunteered to participate. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured by indirect calorimetry during walking on a motorized treadmill at three different speeds (3·2, 4·8 and 6·4 km h,1). Physical activity was measured simultaneously using the CSA activity monitor, secured directly to the skin on the lower back (i.e. lumbar vertebrae 4,5) with an elastic belt. The mean (±SD) activity counts were 1208 ± 429, 3258 ± 753 and 5351 ± 876 counts min,1, at the three speeds, respectively (P<0·001). Activity counts were significantly correlated to speed (r=0·92; P<0·001), VO2 (ml kg,1 min,1; r=0·87; P<0·001) and EE (kcal min,1; r=0·85, P<0·001). A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that activity counts and body weight together explained 75% of the variation in EE. Predicted EE from previously published equations differed significantly when used in this group of CAD patients. In conclusion, the CSA activity monitor is a valid instrument for assessing the intensity of physical activity during treadmill walking in CAD patients. Energy expenditure can be predicted from body weight and activity counts. [source]