Kcal Kg (kcal + kg)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The growth and gonadal maturation of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) broodstock fed differently heated soybean-based diets

Abstract An investigation was carried out to assess the growth and gonadal maturation of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fed differently heated soybean diets in concrete tanks. Four hundred and eighty male and female C. gariepinus (182 ± 10 g for females and 208 ± 5 g for males) were randomly distributed in groups into hapa nets. Iso-nitrogenous (310 g kg,1 crude protein) and iso-caloric diets (355 Kcal kg,1) prepared from raw soybean (D0) and soybean autoclaved for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min labelled D0, D5, D10, D15, D20, D25 and D30, were fed to the fish for 84 days. The fish meal based diet tagged DFM served as control. The male and female broodfish fed the fish-meal-based diet and diet D25 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) growth performance, gonad maturation, gonadosomatic index, relative fecundity and percentage egg fertilization and hatchability than the fish fed the other diets. The females had significantly higher (P < 0.05) weight increases and healthier condition over their male counterparts fed the same diets. This study showed that diet D25 was found to be the best substitute for fish meal that provided adequate nutrients required for the formation of genital products that produced strong offspring in C. gariepinus broodstock culture. [source]

Second Oestrus Synchronization and Precocious Embryo Viability after Puberty Induction in Gilts by the Use of Gonadotrophin Treatment

V Do Lago
Contents The use of exogenous gonadotrophins in puberty inducement and ovulation synchronization is a technique that has a positive influence on the management of swine. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a second gonadotrophin treatment [equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH), intramuscularly (i.m.)] upon the second oestrus synchronization and fertility in gilts. Seventy-one NAIMAź (Pen Ar Lan) gilts had their first oestrus (puberty inducement) induced by a hormonal treatment (eCG and LH). Then, they were randomly distributed into two treatments, with (T1) and without (C) gonadotrophin treatment at the second oestrus. The animals were fed with a single ration (16% of crude protein and 3286.73 kcal ME/kg), and timed artificial insemination performed at the second oestrus. Gilts were slaughtered for embryo recovery and ovary examination about 5 days after insemination. There was no evidence of a difference in the percentage of the second oestrus expression (T1 , 90.90% and C , 86.84%), the duration of the oestrus cycle (T1 , 19.62 ± 0.82 days and C , 19.67 ± 4.14 days), the percentage of follicular cysts (T1 , 15.15% and C , 18.42%) and number of ovulations (T1 , 14.60 ± 5.7 and C , 13.23 ± 4.8) between treatments (p > 0.05). However, the hormonal treatment (T1) showed minor oestrus dispersion and embryo viability (T1 , 8.4 ± 5.6 and C , 11.2 ± 4.6) (p < 0.05). These results indicate that the better synchronization and expression of the second oestrus when using gonadotrophins (eCG and LH) is followed by a lower embryo viability, which is probably the consequence of the heterogeneous follicle recruitment during the injection of eCG. [source]

Investigation of the derived fuel rod formation from auto shredder residue using an extrusion apparatus

Hua-Shan Tai
Abstract The objective of this study was to form auto shredder residue,derived fuel (ASRDF) by using an extrusion apparatus, to solve the disposal problems of auto shredder residue (ASR) and to recover the heat value in its combustible content. ASR is the waste material produced by shredding vehicles. In general, these materials contain 20,30% of each vehicle by weight. ASR should be preprocessed into extruded rods before being used for fuel to remove about 20,30% inorganic, incombustible materials and to accommodate easy transportation and storage. The analytical results of ASR indicated the moisture content to be <2%, ash was <20%, and combustibles were nearly 80% by weight. Concentrations of N and S in the ASR were very low, although the chlorine content of ASR was in the range of 1.32,2.79%, which is the main burden of the ASR utilization. The heat content of ASR was about 5000,6000 kcal kg,1 (9000,10,800 BTU lb,1). Particle size had no significant effect on the analytical chemical composition. All the data indicated that ASR had a significant potential use as RDF. Through observations of the appearance and density of the ASRDF rod, we found that better appearance and higher densities could be achieved at higher extrusion temperature and pressure. The heat content of ASRDF was much lower than that of ASR, and it decreased with increasing extrusion temperature and pressure. The reasons for the better appearance, higher densities, and heat loss on the conditions of higher extrusion temperature and pressure may be explained by the proposed die swell ratio and skin,core effect. © 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]

Growth and survival of river catfish Mystus nemurus (Cuvier & Valenciennes) larvae fed isocaloric diets with different protein levels during weaning

R. V. Eguia
Summary The growth of river catfish Mystus nemurus (Cuvier & Valenciennes) larvae fed four isocaloric diets (4200 kcal kg,1) with different protein levels during weaning was determined. Diets containing 45, 50, 55, and 60% protein were formulated by linear programming using amino acid profiles based on that of 2-day-old river catfish larvae. Artificial diets were fed to the larvae beginning at day 5 after being initially fed Artemia nauplii for 4 days. The larvae thrived solely on artificial diets from day 8 to day 16. On the other hand, the control larvae were fed Artemia nauplii from day 1 to day 16. Results of the feeding trial showed that growth and survival of M. nemurus larvae given the diet containing 60% protein were high and comparable to those of the larvae given only live food (control). Larvae fed the 55% protein diet had significantly lower growth and survival than the larvae on the control and 60% diets but significantly higher growth and survival rates than did larvae fed with 45 and 50% protein diets. Carcass moisture and total lipids after 16 days of feeding did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but body protein increased with increasing dietary protein. Body protein of the control larvae was similar to that of larvae given the 60% protein diet. [source]

Estimation of metabolisable energy content of date pit and its effect on lipid and protein oxidation in broiler chicks

Mojtaba Zaghari
Abstract BACKGROUND: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate date pit as a feed ingredient in broiler chick diets. In the first experiment, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of date pit was determined using 72 Ross (308) broiler chicks. Broiler chicks received experimental diets from 25 to 30 days of age. Two diets were fed: diet 1, basal diet and diet 2, 60% basal diet + 40% date pit. Date pit ileal AMEn was estimated to be 704 kcal kg,1. The second study was conducted to evaluate the AMEn value obtained and also the effectiveness of using a commercial multi-enzyme in diets containing date pit. Diets with three levels of date pit (10, 20 and 30% date pit) with or without enzyme supplementation were fed to broiler chicks from day old to 42 days of age. RESULTS: Chicks receiving different levels of dietary date pit had comparable body weight to those fed on corn,soybean meal diet. Both date pit levels and enzyme supplementation had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio. Plasma total antioxidant levels of positive control were significantly lower than the experimental diets. CONCLUSION: Results obtained in our study suggested that date pit could be used as a feed ingredient in the diet of broiler chicks without any negative effect on performance. Furthermore, date pit may have beneficial effects on plasma antioxidant status in broiler chicks. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Nutrient utilisation and performance of broilers in response to processed flaxseed dietary levels and vitamin B6 supplementation

Yingran Shen
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing and dietary inclusion level of flaxseed on broiler performance and nutrient utilisation. Flaxseed was included in the diet fed to day-old broilers for the first 3 weeks as whole seed, ground seed, autoclaved whole seed, ground autoclaved whole seed or whole seed pelleted with the other ingredients, at levels of 0, 100, 120 and 140 g kg,1. Chicks fed the pelleted flaxseed-containing diets had heavier body weights, consumed more feed and had better feed/gain ratios than those fed the other flaxseed-containing diets during the 3 weeks period (P < 0.01). The flaxseed level in the diet also had very significant (P < 0.01) effects on body weight and feed/gain ratio at the end of weeks 1 and 3, with the diets containing 100 g kg,1 flaxseed resulting in better performance than the other flaxseed-containing diets. Among the flaxseed containing diets, the pelleted diets led to higher apparent ether extract digestibilities, with values of 778 and 770 g kg,1 for the diets containing 100 and 140 g kg,1 flaxseed respectively. This better utilisation of ether extract by young broilers may explain the significantly (P < 0.05) higher AMEn (apparent metabolisable energy) value of 2924 kcal kg,1 for the pelleted 140 g kg,1 flaxseed-containing diet. This was 15.4,17.5% higher than for the diets with the same level of flaxseed but provided as raw or autoclaved whole seed. The pelleting of flaxseed allowed an inclusion rate of 100 g kg,1 without any reduction in the performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effects on digestibility and growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum) fed fish or crab silage protein

Abstract The study was conducted in Cam Ranh, Vietnam, in 1000-L tanks supplied with recirculated and biofiltered saltwater (33, and 28.4 °C) to evaluate the potential use of lizard fish (Saurida undosquamis) or blue crab (Portunus pelagicus) acid silage protein for juvenile cobia (23,25 g). Six isoenergetic test moist diets (4915,5125 kcal kg,1), using either raw fish diet, fish silage diet (FSD), raw crab diet, crab silage diet (CSD), mixed raw fish/raw crab diet or mixed fish/crab silage diet (MSD), as part of the protein sources in the steam-cooked diets, were fed to satiety to triplicate groups of 20 fish each for a 6-week growth trial. Y2O3 was added as an inert indicator to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for macro nutrients and gross energy. Weight gain (185,286%) and specific daily growth rate (2.5,3.2% per day) were significantly higher in cobia fed the raw-based diets and FSD than in fish fed CSD and MSD (34,90 and 0.7,1.5% per day). Feed conversion ratios (FCR) were significantly higher in the groups fed CSD and MSD diets (2.1,6.5) than the groups fed the other diets (1.0,1.2), resulting in significantly lower protein productive values (0.1,0.2) in the groups fed CSD and MSD than in the other groups (0.3,0.4). The FCR results were confirmed by significantly lower ADC values in fish fed CSD and MSD than those in fish fed the other diets. We thus conclude that the present raw-based diets were better utilized by juvenile cobia than silage-based diets, particularly the diet made from crab silage. [source]

Mineral status of Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton) fingerlings in relation to supplemental phytase: absorption, whole-body and bone mineral content

Dipesh Debnath
Abstract A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to quantify the effects of microbial phytase supplementation on apparent absorption, whole body and bone contents of minerals in Pangasius pangasius fingerlings. Seven isoprotein (35.67%) and isocaloric (3870 kcal kg,1) diets were prepared with graded levels of supplemental phytase at 0 (T1), 150 (T2), 250 (T3), 350 (T4), 500 (T5), 1000 (T6) and 2000 (T7) FTU (Phytase Units) kg,1. Three hundred and fifteen fingerlings of P. pangasius (1.97,2.05 g) were randomly distributed in seven treatments with three replicates each. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in tissue protein content in phytase-supplemented groups compared with the control. Apparent absorptions of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the phytase-supplemented groups than the control group. Faecal ash and P contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the control (T1) than the phytase-supplemented groups. Whole-body contents of Ca, P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Co were significantly (P<0.05) improved by the dietary supplementation of phytase-barring Mg and Mn. Concentrations of bone Ca, P, K, Cu and Co were significantly (P<0.05) higher in phytase-supplemented groups. Bone ash contents (40.77,44.85%) were increased concomitantly with the increased level of phytase inclusion upto 500 FTU kg,1 diet. It was observed that a minimum dose of 250 FTU phytase kg,1 diet improved the mineral absorption and utilization in P. pangasius fingerlings. [source]

Body composition in infants with chronic lung disease after treatment with dexamethasone

RJ Bolt
The aim of this study was to study the effect of chronic lung disease (CLD) and dexamethasone treatment on body composition in preterm infants (birthweight > 1500g). In addition, anthropo-metric measurement of body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fourteen preterm infants with CLD and a comparison group of 18 preterm infants were studied until 3 mo corrected age. CLD infants received approximately 20 kcal kg -1 per day extra nutritional intake during dexamethasone treatment until term. At term no differences were found between CLD and no CLD infants for percentage bone mass (1.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.4 ± 0.1%), fat mass (18.7 ± 4.5 vs 17.4 ± 3.5%), lean body mass (79.9 ± 4.6 vs 81.2 ± 3.5%) or bone mineral density (0.15 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.01%). At 3 mo corrected age both groups were also similar for bone mass (1.6 ± 0.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.2%), fat mass (22.6 ± 5.5 vs 24.5 ± 5.7%), lean body mass (75.8 ± 5.7 vs 74.0 ± 5.8%) and bone mineral density (0.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.20 ±0.01%). All anthropometric measurements showed a high correlation with body composition. However, calculated fat mass was 56.7 ± 8.8% lower than fat mass measured with DXA. Conclusion: Body composition at term and 3 mo corrected age in preterm infants treated with dexamethasone for CLD, who received extra caloric intake until term, did not differ from that in preterm infants without CLD. [source]