K+ Channel Activation (k+ + channel_activation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Role of Protein Kinases in the Prolactin-Induced Intracellular Calcium Rise in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing the Prolactin Receptor

B. Sorin
Abstract There is still only limited understanding of the early steps of prolactin signal transduction in target cells. It has been shown that prolactin actions are associated with cell protein phosphorylation, Ca2+ increases, and so on. However, the link between the activation of kinases and calcium influx or intracellular Ca2+ mobilization has not yet been clearly established. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, stably transfected with the long form of rabbit mammary gland prolactin receptor (PRL-R) cDNA were used for PRL-R signal transduction studies. Spectrofluorimetric techniques were used to measure intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cell populations with Indo1 as a calcium fluorescent probe. We demonstrate that, although protein kinase C activation (PMA or DiC8) caused a calcium influx in CHO cells, prolactin-induced PKC activation was not responsible for the early effect of prolactin on [Ca2+]i. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase G did not modify [Ca2+]i and inhibition of PKA pathway did not affect the prolactin response. In the same way, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinaseinhibition had no effect on the prolactin-induced Ca2+ increase. On the other hand, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (herbimycin A, lavendustin A, and genistein) completely blocked the effect of prolactin on [Ca2+]i (influx and release). W7, a calmodulin-antagonist, and a specific inhibitor of calmodulin kinases (KN-62), only blocked prolactin-induced Ca2+ influx but had no significant effect on Ca2+ release. Using pharmacological agents, we present new data concerning the involvement of protein phosphorylations in the early effects of prolactin on ionic channels in CHO cells expressing the long form of PRL-R. Our results suggest that, at least in the very early steps of prolactin signal transduction, serine-threonine phosphorylation does not participate in the prolactin-induced calcium increase. On the other hand, tyrosine phosphorylation is a crucial, very early step, since it controls K+ channel activation, calcium influx, and intracellular calcium mobilization. Calmodulin acts later, since its inhibition only blocks the prolactin-induced Ca2+ influx. [source]

Hydrogen Peroxide-Dependent Arteriolar Dilation in Contracting Muscle of Rats Fed Normal and High Salt Diets

Paul J. Marvar
ABSTRACT Objective: High dietary salt intake decreases the arteriolar dilation associated with skeletal muscle contraction. Because hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be released from contracting muscle fibers, this study was designed to assess the possible contribution of H2O2 to skeletal muscle functional hyperemia and its sensitivity to dietary salt. Methods: The authors investigated the effect of catalase treatment on arteriolar dilation and hyperemia in contracting spinotrapezius muscle of rats fed a normal salt (0.45%, NS) or high salt (4%, HS) diet for 4 weeks. Catalase-sensitive 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence was measured as an index of H2O2 formation, and the mechanism of arteriolar dilation to H2O2 was probed in each group using pharmacological inhibitors. Results: DCF fluorescence increased with muscle contraction, but not if catalase was present. Catalase also reduced arteriolar dilation and hyperemia during contraction in both dietary groups. Exogenous H2O2 dilated arterioles in both groups, with greater responses in HS rats. Guanylate cyclase inhibition did not affect arteriolar responses to H2O2 in either group, but KCa or KATP channel inhibition equally reduced these responses, and KATP channel inhibition equally reduced functional hyperemia in both groups. Conclusions: These results indicate that locally produced H2O2 contributes to arteriolar dilation and hyperemia in contracting skeletal muscle, and that the effect of H2O2 on arteriolar tone in this vascular bed is mediated largely through K+ channel activation. High dietary salt intake does not reduce the contribution of H2O2 to active hyperemia, or alter the mechanism through which H2O2 relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle. [source]

Apical SK potassium channels and Ca2+ -dependent anion secretion in endometrial epithelial cells

Melissa L. Palmer
Apical uridine triphosphate (UTP) stimulation was shown to increase short circuit current (Isc) in immortalized porcine endometrial gland epithelial monolayers. Pretreatment with the bee venom toxin apamin enhanced this response. Voltage-clamp experiments using amphotericin B-permeablized monolayers revealed that the apamin-sensitive current increased immediately after UTP stimulation and was K+ dependent. The current,voltage relationship was slightly inwardly rectifying with a reversal potential of ,52 2 mV, and the PK/PNa ratio was 14, indicating high selectivity for K+. Concentration,response relationships for apamin and dequalinium had IC50 values of 0.5 nm and 1.8 ,m, respectively, consistent with data previously reported for SK3 channels in excitable cells and hepatocytes. Treatment of monolayers with 50 ,m BAPTA-AM completely blocked the effects of UTP on K+ channel activation, indicating that the apamin-sensitive current was also Ca2+ dependent. Moreover, channel activation was blocked by calmidazolium (IC50= 5 ,m), suggesting a role for calmodulin in Ca2+ -dependent regulation of channel activity. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated expression of mRNA for the SK1 and SK3 channels, but not SK2 channels. Treatment of monolayers with 20 nm oestradiol-17, produced a 2-fold increase in SK3 mRNA, a 2-fold decrease in SK1 mRNA, but no change in GAPDH mRNA expression. This result correlated with a 2.5-fold increase in apamin-sensitive K+ channel activity in the apical membrane. We speculate that SK channels provide a mechanism for rapidly sensing changes in intracellular Ca2+ near the apical membrane, evoking immediate hyperpolarization necessary for increasing the driving force for anion efflux following P2Y receptor activation. [source]

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ inhibits capsaicin-induced guinea-pig airway contraction through an inward-rectifier potassium channel

Yanlin Jia
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous opioid-like orphan receptor (NOP receptor, previously termed ORL1 receptor) agonist, has been found to inhibit capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction in isolated guinea-pig lungs and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present studies, we tested the effect of N/OFQ on VR1 channel function in isolated guinea-pig nodose ganglia cells. Capsaicin increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in these cells through activation of vanilloid receptors. Capsaicin-induced Ca2+ responses were attenuated by pretreatment of nodose neurons with N/OFQ (1 ,M). N/OFQ inhibitory effect on the Ca2+ response in nodose ganglia cells was antagonized by tertiapin (0.5 ,M), an inhibitor of inward-rectifier K+ channels, but not by verapamil, a voltage gated Ca2+ channel blocker, indicating that an inward-rectifier K+ channel is involved in N/OFQ inhibitory effect. In isolated guinea-pig bronchus, N/OFQ (1 ,M) inhibited capsaicin-induced airway contraction. Tertiapin (0.5 ,M) abolished the N/OFQ inhibition of capsaicin-induced bronchial contraction. Capsaicin (10 ,g) increased pulmonary inflation pressure in the isolated perfused guinea-pig lungs. This response was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with N/OFQ (1 ,M). Tertiapin also abolished the N/OFQ inhibitory effect on capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction in perfused lungs. Capsaicin increased the release of substance P and neurokinin A from isolated lungs. N/OFQ (1 ,M) blocked the capsaicin-induced tachykinin release. These results indicate that N/OFQ-induced hyperpolarization of tachykinin containing airway sensory nerves, through an inward-rectifier K+ channel activation, accounts for the inhibition of capsaicin-evoked broncoconstriction. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 764,770; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704515 [source]