Juvenile Justice System (juvenile + justice_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Knowledge of Detained Juveniles About the Juvenile Justice System

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
THERESA RAJACK-TALLEY
ABSTRACT This article examines the knowledge and perceptions of detained juveniles about the roles of juvenile justice officials and the nature of the juvenile justice system. Data were collected through interviews in a group setting. The small sample size limited the generalizability of the findings but provided specific information important for future research and policymaking on an under-studied group. The study found that the experiences of the juveniles with the justice system provided only limited understanding of the system's processes and confusion about juvenile justice officials' roles. The juveniles did not have a clear understanding of how each official's role operated within a set of roles that constitutes the system. Further, they did not fully understand the cumulative effect of juvenile processing. [source]


The Impact of Time on Parent Perspectives on the Barriers to Services and the Service Needs of Youths in the Juvenile Justice System

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
GREGORY J. BENNER PH.D.
ABSTRACT The purposes of this study were: 1) to assess the overall perspectives of parents (N=115) of youths in the juvenile justice system on the barriers to and services needs of youths in the juvenile justice system; and 2) to assess the strength of the relationship between duration of time the youth has been involved in the juvenile justice system and parent perceptions of barriers and service needs. The top service need was case management. Statistically significant moderate negative correlations were found between duration of time in the juvenile justice system and Total Barrier score, and all composite barrier scores (i.e., Mismatch, Red Tape, and Inaccessibility). Statistically significant small negative correlations were found between duration of time in the juvenile justice system and the Total Service Needs score and two composite scores: Substance Abuse Services and Out-of-Home Services. [source]


Influences on Detention Decisions in the Juvenile Justice System

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2002
BRIAN F. O'NEILL MSW, PH.D.
ABSTRACT This paper examines the pretrial detention of juveniles in County X located in a northeastern state. The sample (N=642) included Black, White, and Hispanic males and females adjudicated delinquent in the summer of 2000. The following independent variables were analyzed with respect to the dependent variable of pretrial detention: age, sex, address, race, current offense (misdemeanors, violent misdemeanors, felonies, violent felonies, and probation violations), prior offense (misdemeanors, violent misdemeanors, felonies, and violent felonies), and previous dispositions (community or placement). Several variables were found to be significant in increasing the odds of pretrial detention: probation violations, prior misdemeanors, prior residential placements, prior community interventions, age, sex, urban address, felonies, prior violent misdemeanors, and prior violent felonies. It was expected that minority youths would be more likely to be detained, but race was only significant in the absence of the variable of address. Urban youths were more likely to be detained resulting in an over-representation of minorities in detention, since most of the minority population resides in the urban area. Also included is supplemental material based on interviews with defense lawyers, judges, masters, and juvenile probation officers. [source]


The RWJF Reclaiming Futures Initiative: Improving Substance Abuse Interventions for Justice-Involved Youths

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
LAURA BURNEY NISSEN
ABSTRACT Juvenile justice systems in the United States do not always respond effectively to substance abuse problems among young offenders. In 2002, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation launched a 10-community demonstration project to address this problem. Reclaiming Futures (RF) relies on community partnerships to improve treatment quality, strengthen local leadership, expand inter-organizational collaboration, and create systems of shared performance management. The initial findings of a cross-site evaluation suggest that Reclaiming Futures is yielding important and positive change. Bi-annual surveys of key informants measure the quality and integration of juvenile justice and substance abuse treatment systems in each community. Of 13 indices measured by the surveys, 11 showed significant improvements between 2003 and 2005. [source]


ESTIMATING A DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF STAY AND FUTURE RECIDIVISM IN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS,

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
THOMAS A. LOUGHRAN
The effect of sanctions on subsequent criminal activity is of central theoretical importance in criminology. A key question for juvenile justice policy is the degree to which serious juvenile offenders respond to sanctions and/or treatment administered by the juvenile court. The policy question germane to this debate is finding the level of confinement within the juvenile justice system that maximizes the public safety and therapeutic benefits of institutional confinement. Unfortunately, research on this issue has been limited with regard to serious juvenile offenders. We use longitudinal data from a large sample of serious juvenile offenders from two large cities to 1) estimate a causal treatment effect of institutional placement, as opposed to probation, on future rate of rearrest and 2) investigate the existence of a marginal effect (i.e., benefit) for longer length of stay once the institutional placement decision had been made. We accomplish the latter by determining a dose-response relationship between the length of stay and future rates of rearrest and self-reported offending. The results suggest that an overall null effect of placement exists on future rates of rearrest or self-reported offending for serious juvenile offenders. We also find that, for the group placed out of the community, it is apparent that little or no marginal benefit exists for longer lengths of stay. Theoretical, empirical, and policy issues are outlined. [source]


THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION ADDRESSES THE NATIONAL PROBLEM OF YOUTH AT RISK

FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
Karen J. Mathis
During the 2006,2007 American Bar Association (ABA) year, a special ABA Presidential Youth at Risk Initiative has addressed several important topics: addressing the needs of juvenile status offenders and their families; foster children aging out of the foster care system; increases in girls, especially girls of color, in the juvenile justice system; the need to better hear the voices of youth in court proceedings affecting them; and improving how laws can better address youth crossing over between juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Lawyers are encouraged to use their skills to improve the systems addressing at-risk youth and their families and to help facilitate coordination of youth-related community efforts. Learning how to effectively communicate with youth is an important skill attorneys must learn. Through the Youth at Risk Initiative, the ABA has held continuing legal education programs, hosted community roundtables among youth-serving stakeholders, and developed projects on: juvenile status offenders; lawyer assistance to youth transitioning from foster care; educating young girls on violence prevention, conflict resolution, and careers in law and justice; and provision of useful information to youth awaiting juvenile court hearings. New ABA policy has addressed services and programs to at-risk youth, assuring licensing, regulation, and monitoring of residential facilities serving at-risk youth, enhanced support for sexual minority foster and homeless youth, juvenile status offenders, and improving laws and policies related to youth exiting the foster care system. [source]


BUILDING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY, COLLABORATIVE CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEM

FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2003
The Challenge to Law Schools
The process of preparing lawyers and other professionals to work for the benefit of troubled children requires an understanding of concepts that extend far beyond the traditional course structure currently employed in American law schools. It is clear that mental health problems of children and families, compounded by substance abuse, influence behavior, resulting in children entering family and juvenile courts as victims of abuse or neglect and committing criminal acts. It is incumbent on law schools to incorporate training in fields far different from the traditional didactic experience in legal curricula if they are to address the current needs of children and familes who are ensnared in the nation's juvenile justice system. The beginning point of this process is within the legal training apparatus of America. Law schools must expand their curriculum to incorporate other disciplines to produce an advocate capable of serving the interest of children and society. [source]


The French Riots: Questioning Spaces of Surveillance and Sovereignty

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 2 2006
Susan Ossman
ABSTRACT This paper examines the riots in France in late 2005 in terms of how they lead to a reconceptualization of the spaces of danger, culture, territory, and sovereignty. It traces a brief history of danger zones and immigration, noting how these two terms have increasingly overlapped. We analyse key discursive formations - legal, political, social scientific, and media - whose explanation for the emergence of the "immigrant" delinquent is linked to what is identified as a culture of poverty. They provide a sustained examination of recent legal reforms of juvenile law as well as judicial practices within the juvenile justice system to show the systematic exclusionary practices of what is claimed to be a colour blind republican system. They reveal a consensus across the political spectrum and among police, prosecutors, investigating magistrates, and new security experts on the need to privilege accountability, restitution, and retribution in the treatment of juvenile offenders. We present evidence from interviews and ethnographic observation among youths of all backgrounds. Ironically, while the children of immigrants seek to claim a voice in the national community, their peers from more privileged social milieu express increasing distance from national concerns, seeking to lead lives as Europeans or global citizens. We end by arguing that this needs to be taken into account in any analysis of frustrated and disenfranchised suburban youths. A transnational or supra-national sociology that accounts for the itineraries of immigrants of all kinds must be developed. LES ÉMEUTES EN FRANCE: QU'EN EST-IL DES ESPACES DE SURVEILLANCE ET DE LA SOUVERAINETÉ? Les émeutes qui ont éclaté en France fin 2005 conduisent à une reconceptualisation des notions de danger, de culture, de territoire et de souveraineté. Cet article, qui présente un bref historique des zones de danger et de l'immigration, montre combien ces deux concepts ont tendance à se rejoindre. Nous analysons les principales formations discursives - juridique, politique, sociale, scientifique et médiatique - qui expliquent l'émergence du délinquant « immigré » en l'associant à ce qui est décrit comme une culture de la pauvreté. Elles nous offrent un examen soutenu des réformes récentes du droit des mineurs et des pratiques judiciaires au sein du système de justice des mineurs, et montrent les pratiques d'exclusion systématiques d'un système républicain prétendant ignorer les préjugés raciaux. Elles montrent que, d'un bout à l'autre de l'échiquier politique, dans la police, chez les procureurs, les juges d'instruction et les nouveaux spécialistes de la sécurité, il existe un consensus sur la nécessité de privilégier l'obligation de rendre des comptes, la réparation et le châtiment dans le traitement des mineurs délinquants. Nous étayons cet argument à partir d'entretiens et d'observations ethnographiques de jeunes de tous les milieux. De façon assez ironique, alors que les enfants d'immigrés veulent avoir leur mot à dire au sein de la communauté nationale, les enfants de milieux plus privilégiés se disent de moins en moins concernés par les préoccupations nationales et cherchent à mener une vie d'Européen ou de citoyen du monde. En conclusion, nous avançons que cette situation doit être prise en compte dans toute analyse des jeunes des banlieues frustrés et privés de droits. Une sociologie transnationale ou supranationale qui rendrait compte des itinéraires des immigrés, tous milieux sociaux confondus, serait une bonne chose. LAS REVUELTAS FRANCESAS: CUESTIONAMIENTO DE LOS ESPACIOS DE VIGILANCIA Y SOBERANÍA En este artículo se examinan las revueltas de Francia a finales de 2005 en la medida en que conducen a una reconceptualización de los espacios de peligro, cultura, territorio y soberanía. Se traza una breve historia de las zonas de peligro y de la inmigración, señalando a la atención cómo estos dos conceptos han ido solapándose crecientemente. Se analizan formaciones discursivas clave -jurídicas, políticas, propias de las ciencias sociales y mediáticas - cuyas explicaciones de la aparición del delincuente "inmigrante" se vinculan con lo que se ha descrito como una cultura de la pobreza. Se ofrece un examen sostenido de las recientes reformas jurídicas de las leyes sobre los menores, así como de las prácticas judiciales dentro del sistema de justicia de menores para mostrar las prácticas de exclusión sistemática de lo que se considera que es un sistema republicano daltónico. Se revela un consenso entre los políticos y entre la policía, los fiscales, los jueces de instrucción y los nuevos expertos en seguridad sobre la necesidad de dar prelación a la asunción de responsabilidades, la restitución y la retribución en el tratamiento de los menores delincuentes. Se presentan pruebas extraídas de entrevistas y de la observación etnográfica de los jóvenes de todos los ambientes. Irónicamente, mientras los hijos de inmigrantes tienden a reclamar una voz en la comunidad nacional, sus iguales de medios sociales más privilegiados expresan un creciente distanciamiento de las preocupaciones nacionales y prefieren vivir como europeos o ciudadanos del mundo. Se termina arguyendo que es preciso tener en cuenta este factor en cualquier análisis de los jóvenes frustrados y privados de voto que viven en los barrios periféricos. Será preciso desarrollar una sociología transnacional o supranacional que explique los itinerarios de todo tipo de inmigrantes. [source]


Migration, Displacement, and Violence: Prosecuting Romanian Street Children at the Paris Palace of Justice

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 5 2004
Susan J. Terrio
This paper examines the displacement and vulnerability associated with the migration of unaccompanied illegal Romanian minors who came as economic migrants to Western Europe, found no legal opportunities for work or education, and were forced into criminal activity on the streets of French cities such as Paris, Lyon, and Nice. Beginning in 1997 growing numbers of unaccompanied Romanians, mostly boys, some as young as age ten, many younger than age 15, were subject to systematic prosecution rather than protection in Paris, the site of the largest and most influential juvenile court in the nation. They were arrested, detained, indicted, released pending trial, judged, and sentenced in absentia, multiple times with different identities. The Romanian minors were caught without legal papers or visas, claimed to be squatters living in abandoned buildings, trailers, or camps outside Paris, and gave little reliable information about their families or lives. Initially arrested for the destruction of city property and the theft of the proceeds from city parking meters, they gradually turned to begging, shoplifting, and prostitution when the city switched from coin to card payment. Deeply concerned by the penalization of a vulnerable population, the president of the Paris juvenile court created a special court to deal more humanely with unaccompanied minors in general, and Romanian children in particular, by establishing their identities and reconnecting them with their families. This article explores the contradictions that emerged between the representation of Romanian children in the media, the legal establishment, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the Government, on the one hand, and their treatment in the juvenile justice system, on the other. It examines the discourse and the context of judging as well as the interactions between court personnel and Romanian minors from in-take interviews in jail and indictment hearings in chambers to judgment in absentia in the formal court. It compares and contrasts cases heard before and after the creation of the special court and centres on the gaps between official rhetoric, legal norms, and judicial practice. It concludes that the creation of the special court may be having the unintended effect of reinforcing and institutionalizing the very judicial practice it was designed to prevent, namely the penalization of marginality. [source]


Patterns of Treatment Services and Costs for Young Offenders with Mental Disorders

JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 3 2005
Deborah Shelton PhD
PROBLEM:,This study describes mental health treatment service delivery patterns and costs for youth in a juvenile justice system. METHODS:,A secondary data analysis on a random sample of juvenile offenders (N = 312) was completed. Service patterns and costs were described. Selected variables were examined for their ability to predict who received treatment. FINDINGS:,Only 23% of youth diagnosed with a mental disorder received any treatment. Older youth and African American youth received fewer services, and race was the only significant predictor for receiving treatment (p = .001). CONCLUSIONS:,Mental health treatment services were scarce, and the data reflects a race bias in the provision of services. Although the law protects the right to treatment for these individuals, provision of services remains a challenge. [source]


Mental Health Promotion for Vulnerable African American Youth

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC NURSING, Issue 1 2006
Deborah Shelton
Fifty-six African American youth between 10,14 years of age participated in a community-based 14-week expressive arts program designed for youth at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system. Positive and statistically significant findings for pre-post changes in self-control, protective factors, and resilience were found. Difficulty in engaging parents and the strong racial biases of the community appear to have influenced the lack of improvement in self-esteem scores. [source]


Developmental Assets: Profile of Youth in a Juvenile Justice Facility

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 2 2010
Weslee Chew
BACKGROUND: Possessing high numbers of developmental assets greatly reduces the likelihood of a young person engaging in health-risk behaviors. Since youth in the juvenile justice system seem to exhibit many high-risk behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess the presence of external, internal, and social context areas of developmental assets in at-risk youth attending a northeast Missouri juvenile justice center. METHODS: Male and female middle and high school students moved to a residential juvenile justice center voluntarily completed the Developmental Assets Profile (DAP) instrument during a regularly scheduled "intake" session. RESULTS: Most respondents reported lacking risk-protective factors in the internal and social context areas. Respondents noted their lack of community involvement in the social context area and their overinvolvement with negative influences in the internal context area. Specifically in the internal and external context areas, most respondents reported having trouble with substance abuse and not having positive peer or parental support. In the social context area, many noted that they wanted to do well in activities and were encouraged to do well; however, they scored service to others and involvement in religious groups or activities as low. CONCLUSIONS: Students who lack protective qualities, especially those who do not feel committed to their community, are more likely to be involved in substance abuse and risky behaviors. School-community partnerships may provide the targeted health protective factors that encourage more community involvement and more positive health behaviors in these youth. [source]


Juvenile Court Variations: Procedural and Processing Differences in a Midwestern State

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
Elizabeth Ann Maier
ABSTRACT This study examined whether location and type of juvenile court impacted processing for juveniles in a Midwestern state.1 For the analysis, the author used qualitative data. This article was built on the opinions and observations of those who work in the juvenile justice system on a daily basis. The author observed juvenile courts and interviewed judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys. The information contained herein verifies the differences between rural and urban juvenile justice practice and procedure. The results of this study also revealed that processing varies across jurisdictions and type of court in the juvenile justice system. [source]


Guidelines for Collecting and Recording the Race and Ethnicity of Juveniles in Conjunction with Juvenile Delinquency Disposition Reporting to the Juvenile Court Judges' Commission

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
PATRICIA TORBET
ABSTRACT One of the most compelling reasons for accurate racial coding of juveniles involved in the juvenile justice system is to ensure that all youth are treated fairly, regardless of race or ethnicity. Pennsylvania juvenile courts and probation departments now have instructions and guidelines for collecting and recording race and ethnicity in compliance with Federal standards. These guidelines can be easily adopted by other states and jurisdictions. [source]


Advancing Accountability: Moving Toward Victim Restoration

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
VALERIE BENDER
ABSTRACT One of the goals of Pennsylvania's juvenile justice system is the "imposition of accountability" for offenses committed. This White Paper, originally published in 2006, takes the position that true accountability requires juvenile offenders to repair the harm caused by their offending behavior and to understand and acknowledge the wrongfulness of their actions, their responsibility for causing harm, and the impact of the crime on the crime victim and community. It identifies system responsibilities, restorative practices, and outcomes relative to accountability. This White Paper was the result of debate among focus group participants under the auspices of the State Advisory Group. [source]


Advancing Competency Development: A White Paper for Pennsylvania

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2006
PATRICIA TORBET
ABSTRACT One of the fundamental purposes of Pennsylvania's juvenile justice system is to develop "competencies" in delinquent youth. But what does that mean? Why is it important? How is it done? The White Paper. originally published in 2005, attempted to answer those questions, articulating basic principles and identifying research-supported practices for competency development, the least understood of the three balanced and restorative justice goals. Practitioners and policy makers in other states who are interested in helping juvenile offenders acquire the knowledge and skills they need to become productive, connected, and law-abiding community members will find it directly relevant. [source]


The Knowledge of Detained Juveniles About the Juvenile Justice System

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
THERESA RAJACK-TALLEY
ABSTRACT This article examines the knowledge and perceptions of detained juveniles about the roles of juvenile justice officials and the nature of the juvenile justice system. Data were collected through interviews in a group setting. The small sample size limited the generalizability of the findings but provided specific information important for future research and policymaking on an under-studied group. The study found that the experiences of the juveniles with the justice system provided only limited understanding of the system's processes and confusion about juvenile justice officials' roles. The juveniles did not have a clear understanding of how each official's role operated within a set of roles that constitutes the system. Further, they did not fully understand the cumulative effect of juvenile processing. [source]


Health Status of Incarcerated Adolescents: Implications for Juvenile Justice Decision Making

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
ROBERT E. MORRIS
ABSTRACT Adolescents arriving in detention often bring with them significant medical, dental, and psychological problems. These issues have important implications for courts that must decide the best disposition for offending youths. Appropriate treatment benefits the individual by enhancing his/her well-being and improving his/her chances of successful rehabilitation. Society also benefits by avoiding the higher cost of caring for neglected conditions later in life. A comprehensive health care program for detention facilities involves establishing standardized procedures that address both common adolescent problems plus those more peculiar to detainees. Health care professionals working in a correctional setting have unique duties such as clearing youths for boot camp, monitoring injuries, dealing with resistant patients, monitoring for safe activities, and planning aftercare for youths who may face impediments to accessing care such as poor motivation and poverty. Research concerning issues specific to the needs of incarcerated youths remains infrequent and should be undertaken by health care providers. This article provides an overview of medical issues confronting juvenile offenders that should be considered when a juvenile becomes involved in the juvenile justice system. [source]


Girls and Culture, in Delinquency Intervention: A Case Study of RYSE

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2003
THAO LE
ABSTRACT Given the growing trend of girls in the juvenile justice system, there has been increasing attention toward providing gender-specific programming. The Reaffirming Young Sisters' Excellence (RYSE) program was one of Alameda County, Calif., Probation Department's intervention programs designed to address both gender and cultural factors in girls programming. ANCOVA analyses of 350 randomized girls did not provide support for the gender-specific hypothesis that girls who received RYSE intervention will have a lower recidivism score than girls who received traditional probation services. However, the cultural hypothesis was partially supported with African American girls who participated in the RYSE intervention faring better than Hispanic, White, and Asian RYSE girls, and their African American control counterparts. [source]


Bringing Justice Back to the Community

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2003
SANDRA O'BRIEN
ABSTRACT As states and local governments struggle to meet the demands of increasing workloads with decreasing revenues, a strategy is emerging that brings new energy and resources to the juvenile justice system. This strategy, Community Justice, empowers the community to prevent and resolve problems once thought to be the exclusive responsibility of the justice system. Juvenile courts operating within this new approach are discovering that community residents are willing to become actively involved when allowed to participate in defining the goals, objectives, and their roles in furthering community safety. This article describes this new approach, provides examples of promising practices, and articulates the crucial role of the court in promoting community justice strategies. [source]


The Impact of Time on Parent Perspectives on the Barriers to Services and the Service Needs of Youths in the Juvenile Justice System

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
GREGORY J. BENNER PH.D.
ABSTRACT The purposes of this study were: 1) to assess the overall perspectives of parents (N=115) of youths in the juvenile justice system on the barriers to and services needs of youths in the juvenile justice system; and 2) to assess the strength of the relationship between duration of time the youth has been involved in the juvenile justice system and parent perceptions of barriers and service needs. The top service need was case management. Statistically significant moderate negative correlations were found between duration of time in the juvenile justice system and Total Barrier score, and all composite barrier scores (i.e., Mismatch, Red Tape, and Inaccessibility). Statistically significant small negative correlations were found between duration of time in the juvenile justice system and the Total Service Needs score and two composite scores: Substance Abuse Services and Out-of-Home Services. [source]


Screening the Mental Health Needs of Youths in Juvenile Detention

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2002
PHILIP D. NORDNESS
ABSTRACT There is an increasing number of juveniles coming into the justice system with a variety of mental health and substance abuse concerns. While the actual number of youths with mental health disorders in the juvenile justice system has been difficult to determine, it is estimated to be substantially higher than it is for youths in the general population. In addition, researchers have estimated that a high number of these juveniles experience co-morbid mental health disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of youths who present symptoms of a mental health disorder at intake into a juvenile detention center in the Midwest. Two hundred-four youths were assessed with the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2; Grisso & Barnum, 2000), a mental health screening instrument. At least 68% of the youths identified symptoms of a mental health disorder at intake. Given the significant number of youths who identified symptoms of a mental health disorder at intake into detention, the need to provide mental health services for juvenile detainees should not be ignored. [source]


Appellate Juvenile Justice: Canadian Style

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2001
RICK RUDDELL M.C.J.
ABSTRACT While appeals are relatively rare in Canada, they have significant outcomes in a juvenile justice system where dispositions are determinate and either the offender or prosecution can appeal the severity of a disposition. Examining the outcomes of ten years of appeals in one province produced two noteworthy findings. First, youths initiate most appeals in Canada, but few are successful in reducing the severity of their dispositions. Second, prosecution-initiated appeals are comparatively rare but almost always result in substantial increases in the severity of a youth's disposition. Despite the importance of these due process protections, however, Canadian youths do not have the right to state-funded counsel for appeals, reducing their ability to redress errors or modify unusually harsh dispositions. [source]


Flashpoint: An Innovative Media Literacy Intervention For High-Risk Adolescents

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 2 2000
JANE MOORE MSW
ABSTRACT This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of a media literacy, media based intervention for high-risk adolescents. The program described, Flashpoint, was developed to (1) moderate the influence of media presentations of violence, substance abuse and prejudice on adolescents; and t (2) teach participants cognitive skills which would enable them to resist impulses to engage in behavior involving violence, substance abuse or prejudice. The evaluation described studied the pilot testing of the program with three groups of adolescents (N=33) involved in the juvenile justice system: adolescents in a diversion program (first time, nonviolent offenders); adolescents on probation; and adolescents in residential custody of the Department of Youth Services. Qualitative findings are reviewed in detail. [source]


The Referral of Juvenile Offenders to the Adult Court in Belgium: Theory and Practice

THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 2 2005
Catherine Van Dijk
As in the UK and the USA, this transfer mechanism is increasingly pushed forward as a preferential solution for serious juvenile offenders. With this, a more classic penal angle and an increased repressive tenor seem to have entered the juvenile justice system and are replacing the individualised justice and rehabilitative ideal. That this new culture of control with facilitated waiver conditions and ,populist' policy discourse does not necessarily result in more repressive judicial practices can be illustrated with Belgian transfer statistics and interviews with magistrates. [source]


MENTAL HEALTH AND JUVENILE ARRESTS: CRIMINALITY, CRIMINALIZATION, OR COMPASSION?,

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
PAUL HIRSCHFIELD
Juveniles in secure confinement allegedly suffer from more mental health problems than their peers. This may reflect background and behavioral characteristics commonly found in clients of both mental health and juvenile justice systems. Another explanation is that mental disorders increase the risk of arrest. These interpretations were tested on a sample of Pittsburgh boys (n = 736). Findings indicate that arrested youth exhibit more attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems, oppositional defiant (OD) problems, and nondelinquent externalizing symptoms prior to their first arrests compared to their never-arrested peers. However, arrested and nonarrested youth score similarly on prior affective and anxiety problems and internalizing symptoms. Net of delinquency, substance use, and other selection factors, internalizing problems lower the risk of subsequent arrest, whereas OD problems and nondelinquent externalizing symptoms increase it. ADH problems have no effect on arrest net of delinquency and substance use. These findings lend only partial support to the criminalization hypothesis. Whereas some mental health symptoms increase the risk of arrest, others elicit more cautious or compassionate official responses. [source]


A Practical Approach to Evaluating and Improving Juvenile Justice Programs

JUVENILE AND FAMILY COURT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
JAMES C. HOWELL
ABSTRACT For more than a decade, the juvenile justice field in the United States has been dominated by the seventh "moral panic" over juvenile delinquency. This panic led to an overreaction to juvenile delinquency by legislators and juvenile justice officials. The main consequence is a "crisis of overload" in many state and local juvenile justice systems across the country. Tools are available to help juvenile courts effectively manage the overload of court clients. Most important, a new method has been developed for evaluating existing programs against research-based standards that have been synthesized from juvenile justice program evaluations. This tool enables states and localities to take a practical approach to improving juvenile justice system programs. [source]