Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Anger

  • trait anger

  • Terms modified by Anger

  • anger control
  • anger expression
  • anger expression inventory
  • anger management
  • anger regulation
  • anger score
  • anger treatment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Anger experience and expression across the anxiety disorders

    David A. Moscovitch Ph.D.
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore possible differences in the experience and expression of anger across four anxiety disorder groups and non-clinical controls. Anger was assessed by two measures, the Reaction Inventory and the Aggression Questionnaire, in 112 individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia (n=40), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=30), social phobia, (SOC; n=28), and specific phobia (SPC; n=14) as well as non-clinical controls (n=49). Patients with PD, OCD, and SOC reported a significantly greater propensity to experience anger than controls, whereas patients with SPC exhibited no differences in anger experience in comparison to controls. In addition, patients with PD reported significantly greater levels of anger aggression compared to both controls and patients with OCD, and patients with SOC reported significantly lower levels of verbal aggression than controls. Most, but not all, of these differences disappeared when symptoms of depression were controlled in the analyses. The implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed 0:1,7, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An exploration of anger phenomenology in multiple sclerosis

    U. Nocentini
    Background and purpose:, Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are often emotionally disturbed. We investigated anger in these patients in relation to demographic, clinical, and mood characteristics. Patients and methods:, About 195 cognitively unimpaired MS patients (150 relapsing,remitting and 45 progressive) were evaluated with the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. The patients' anger score distribution was compared with that of the normal Italian population. Correlation coefficients among scale scores were calculated and mean anger scores were compared across different groups of patients by analysis of variance. Results:, Of the five different aspects of anger, levels of withheld and controlled Anger were respectively higher and lower than what is expected in the normal population. Although anger was correlated with anxiety and depression, it was largely independent from these mood conditions. Mean anger severity scores were not strongly influenced by individual demographic characteristics and were not higher in more severe patients. Conclusions:, The presence of an altered pattern of anger, unrelated to the clinical severity of MS, suggests that anger is not an emotional reaction to disease stress. An alteration of anger mechanisms might be a direct consequence of the demyelination of the connections among the amygdale, the basal ganglia and the medial prefrontal cortex. [source]

    The structure of negative emotion scales: generalization over contexts and comprehensiveness

    Dirk J. M. Smits
    In this article, we tested whether a four-dimensional individual-difference structure of negative emotions (Sadness, Fear, Anger, Shame) as described e.g. by Diener, Smith and Fujita can be found in self-report data when the emotions are explicitly linked to three different specific contexts. In addition, we check the comprehensiveness of the structure by adding terms people spontaneously use to directly express negative affect. A situational questionnaire was constructed, based on the emotion terms from Diener et al., and it was administered to 161 participants. The structure we obtained was five dimensional instead of four dimensional: the Shame scale turned out to be two dimensional, with guilt and regret defining one factor, and shame and embarrassment defining another factor. Between these two, there is a moderate positive correlation. The structure is shown to be nearly identical for all three situations. The minor differences we found do contextualize the meaning of the emotional responses. The newly added terms could be captured quite well by the factor Anger. No separate factor was needed, meaning that the obtained five-dimensional structure may be considered comprehensive enough for the field of negative emotions. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Liberating Anger, Embodying Knowledge: A Comparative Study of María Lugones and Zen Master Hakuin

    HYPATIA, Issue 2 2010
    JEN MCWEENYArticle first published online: 9 DEC 200
    This paper strengthens the theoretical ground of feminist analyses of anger by explaining how the angers of the oppressed are ways of knowing. Relying on insights created through the juxtaposition of Latina feminism and Zen Buddhism, I argue that these angers are special kinds of embodied perceptions that surface when there is a profound lack of fit between a particular bodily orientation and its framing world of sense. As openings to alternative sensibilities, these angers are transformative, liberatory, and deeply epistemological. [source]

    Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2010
    Jie He
    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4 months of age. Infants' approach behaviors during play with an unpredictable toy and baseline frontal EEG asymmetry were assessed at 9 months of age. Inhibitory control during a Go/No-Go task and parent report of behavior problems were evaluated at 4 years of age. High anger-prone infants with left, but not right, frontal EEG asymmetry showed significantly more approach behaviors and less inhibitory control relative to less anger-prone infants. Although a link between anger proneness in infancy and behavior problems in early childhood was not found, a combination of low approach behaviors and poor inhibitory control was predictive of internalizing behaviors. [source]

    The generalizability of the Buss,Perry Aggression Questionnaire

    József Gerevich
    Abstract Aggressive and hostile behaviours and anger constitute an important problem across cultures. The Buss,Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), a self-rating scale was published in 1992, and has quickly become the gold-standard for the measurement of aggression. The AQ scale has been validated extensively, but the validation focused on various narrowly selected populations, typically, on samples of college students. Individuals, however, who are at risk of displaying aggressive and hostile behaviours may come from a more general population. Therefore, it is important to investigate the scale's properties in such a population. The objective of this study was to examine the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the AQ scale in a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian adult population. A representative sample of 1200 subjects was selected by a two-step procedure. The dimensionality and factorial composition of the AQ scale was investigated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Since spurious associations and increased factorial complexity can occur when the analysis fails to consider the inherently categorical nature of the item level data, this study, in contrast to most previous studies, estimated the correlation matrices subjected to factor analysis using the polychoric correlations. The resulting factors were validated via sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathological scales obtained from the respondents. The results showed that based on the distribution of factor loadings and factor correlations, in the entire nationally representative sample of 1200 adult subjects, from the original factor structure three of the four factors (Physical and Verbal Aggression and Hostility) showed a good replication whereas the fourth factor (Anger) replicated moderately well. Replication further improved when the sample was restricted in age, i.e. the analysis focused on a sample representing the younger age group, comparable to that used in the original Buss,Perry study. Similar to the Buss,Perry study, and other investigations of the AQ scale, younger age and male gender were robustly related to physical aggression. In addition, level of verbal aggression was different between the two genders (with higher severity in males) whereas hostility and anger were essentially the same in both genders. In conclusion, the current study based on a representantive sample of adult population lends support to the use of the AQ scale in the general population. The authors suggest to exclude from the AQ the two inverse items because of the low reliability of these items with regard to their hypothesized constructs. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Anger, Blame, and Dimensions of Perceived Norm Violations: Culture, Gender, and Relationships

    Ken-Ichi Ohbuchi
    From a social cognitive perspective on anger, we attempted to examine the structure of perceived norm violations and their relationships with anger. We asked 884 university students from 4 countries (United States, Germany, Japan, and Hong Kong) to rate their experiences of being harmed in terms of norm violations, angry feelings, blame, and relationship with the harm doers. We found 2 culturally common dimensions in perceived norm violations (informal interpersonal norms and formal societal norms), and these dimensions substantially increased both angry feelings and blame in almost all cultural groups. The violation of interpersonal norms generally evoked anger more frequently than that of societal norms, but there were interactions between culture and relationship closeness and between gender and relationship closeness. [source]

    Current Approaches to the Assessment and Management of Anger and Aggression in Youth: A Review

    APRN-BC, Christie S. Blake RN
    BACKGROUND:,Anger and its expression represent a major public health problem for children and adolescents today. Prevalence reports show that anger-related problems such as oppositional behavior, verbal and physical aggression, and violence are some of the more common reasons children are referred for mental health services. METHODS:,An extensive review of the literature was conducted using the following online search engines: Cochrane, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed. Published and unpublished articles that met the following criteria were included in the review: (a) experimental or quasi-experimental research designs; (b) nonpharmacologic, therapy-based interventions; and (c) study participants between 5 and 17 years of age. RESULTS:,Cognitive-behavioral and skills-based approaches are the most widely studied and empirically validated treatments for anger and aggression in youth. Commonly used therapeutic techniques include affective education, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills, social skills training, and conflict resolution. These techniques, tailored to the individual child's and/or family's needs, can foster the development of more adaptive and prosocial behavior. [source]

    Differences in Trait Anger Among Children with Varying Levels of Anger Expression Patterns

    Marti Rice PhD
    PROBLEM:,Little research has been done with children to determine effects of using various patterns of anger expression on trait anger. The purpose was to examine differences in trait anger of children who indicated high, moderate, or low use of three patterns of anger expression. METHODS:,A convenience sample of 1,060 third through sixth graders completed trait anger and patterns of expressing anger instruments. FINDINGS:,High users of anger-out (anger expressed outwardly) had the highest trait anger for every grade while high users of anger-reflection/control had the lowest. CONCLUSIONS:,Anger-reflection/control may be more effective than anger-out in reducing trait anger in school-age children. [source]

    Anger and assaultiveness of male forensic patients with developmental disabilities: links to volatile parents

    Raymond W. Novaco
    Abstract This study with 107 male forensic patients with developmental disabilities investigated whether exposure to parental anger and aggression was related to anger and assaultiveness in a hospital, controlling for background variables. Patient anger and aggression were assessed by self-report, staff-ratings, and archival records. Exposure to parental anger/aggression, assessed by a clinical interview, was significantly related to patient self-reported anger, staff-rated anger and aggression, and physical assaults in hospital, controlling for age, intelligence quotient, length of hospital stay, violent offense history, and childhood physical abuse. Results are consonant with previous findings concerning detrimental effects of witnessing parental violence and with the theory on acquisition of cognitive scripts for aggression. Implications for clinical assessment and cognitive restructuring in anger treatment are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 34:380,393, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Motivation Behind Serial Sexual Homicide: Is It Sex, Power, and Control, or Anger?,

    Wade C. Myers M.D.
    ABSTRACT: Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. [source]

    Longitudinal Studies of Anger and Attention Span: Context and Informant Effects

    Jungmeen Kim
    ABSTRACT This study examined stabilities of informant and context (home vs. classroom) latent factors regarding anger and attention. Participants included children from the National Institute of Child Health and Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development who were measured at 54 months, first grade, and third grade. Latent factors of anger and attention span were structured using different indicators based on mothers', fathers', caregivers', teachers', and observers' reports. We used structural equation modeling to examine the autoregressive effects within a context (stability), the concurrent associations between home and classroom contexts, and informant effects. The results indicated that for both anger and attention (1) there were significant informant effects that influenced stability in a context, (2) there was higher stability in home context than nonhome context, and (3) stability within a context increased over time. The findings suggested that anger was more prone to context effects and informant effects than attention. [source]

    The Anatomy of Anger: An Integrative Cognitive Model of Trait Anger and Reactive Aggression

    Benjamin M. Wilkowski
    ABSTRACT This paper presents an integrative cognitive model, according to which individual differences in 3 cognitive processes jointly contribute to a person's level of trait anger and reactive aggression. An automatic tendency to attribute hostile traits to others is the first of these cognitive processes, and this process is proposed to be responsible for the more frequent elicitation of anger, particularly when hostile intent is ambiguous. Rumination on hostile thoughts is the second cognitive process proposed, which is likely to be responsible for prolonging and intensifying angry emotional states. The authors finally propose that low trait anger individuals use effortful control resources to self-regulate the influence of their hostile thoughts, whereas those high in trait anger do not. A particular emphasis of this review is implicit cognitive sources of evidence for the proposed mechanisms. The authors conclude with a discussion of important future directions, including how the proposed model can be further verified, broadened to take into account motivational factors, and applied to help understand anger-related social problems. [source]

    Self-Pity: Exploring the Links to Personality, Control Beliefs, and Anger

    Joachim Stöber
    Self-pity is a frequent response to stressful events. So far, however, empirical research has paid only scant attention to this subject. The present article aims at exploring personality characteristics associated with individual differences in feeling sorry for oneself. Two studies with N=141 and N=161 university students were conducted, employing multidimensional measures of personality, control beliefs, anger, loneliness, and adult attachment. With respect to personality, results showed strong associations of self-pity with neuroticism, particularly with the depression facet. With respect to control beliefs, individuals high in self-pity showed generalized externality beliefs, seeing themselves as controlled by both chance and powerful others. With respect to anger expression, self-pity was primarily related to anger-in. Strong connections with anger rumination were also found. Furthermore, individuals high in self-pity reported emotional loneliness and ambivalent-worrisome attachments. Finally, in both studies, a strong correlation with gender was found, with women reporting more self-pity reactions to stress than men. Findings are discussed with respect to how they support, extend, and qualify the previous literature on self-pity, and directions for future empirical research are pointed out. There are a hundred ways to overcome an obstacle and one sure way not to,self-pity. Dale Dauten, columnist [source]

    A Three-Factor Model of Trait Anger: Dimensions of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition

    René Martin
    The structure of trait anger was tested in a study of 24 self-report scales. Exploratory factor analyses in an undergraduate sample (N= 457) yielded a two-factor model (comprising cynicism and aggression) and a three-factor model (representing angry emotions, aggressive behaviors, and cynicism). Subsequent evaluations, including confirmatory factor analyses, indicated that the three-factor model provided the best characterization of the trait anger domain. The three-factor solution was consistent with an ,ABC' conceptualization of trait anger, consisting of the dimensions of affect, behavior, and cognition. The three factors showed strikingly different associations with the Big Five personality traits. Angry Affect was most strongly related to Neuroticism, whereas Behavioral Aggression was associated with low Agreeableness. Cynical Cognition represented a blend of neurotic and disagreeable characteristics. Modest mean-level differences were observed between the genders for each factor. [source]

    Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD

    Matthew Jakupcak
    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were grouped by level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and compared on self-report measures of trait anger, hostility, and aggression. Veterans who screened positive for PTSD reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the subthreshold-PTSD and non-PTSD groups. Veterans in the subthreshold-PTSD group reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD and subthreshold-PTSD groups did not differ with respect to aggression, though both groups were significantly more likely to have endorsed aggression than the non-PTSD group. These findings suggest that providers should screen for anger and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who exhibit symptoms of PTSD and incorporate relevant anger treatments into early intervention strategies. [source]

    Anger and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder

    Raymond W. Novaco
    Abstract We examined whether combat-related PTSD was differentially associated with particular dimensions of anger on two multi-index, psychometric instruments and whether the proportion of variation in PTSD scores explained by anger was significantly greater than that by demographic and exposure variables. We also examined the reliability and validity of a subset of Mississippi Scale items as an anger measure. Participants were 143 Vietnam combat veterans. Anger accounted for over 40% of the variance in Mississippi PTSD scores (minus the anger items) above that associated with age, education, and combat exposure. Veterans with structured-interview,diagnosed PTSD were significantly differentiated from those without PTSD on all anger indices. The results point to anger treatment as a high priority for combat-related PTSD. [source]

    Emotional Hazard Exemplified by Taxation-Induced Anger

    Frans Van Winden
    First page of article [source]

    The Influence of Anger Expressions on Outcomes in Organizations

    Donald E. Gibson
    Abstract Anger can lead to positive organizational outcomes. Anger is an important emotion in negotiations and organizations create situations that promote anger, yet little research has examined the conditions under which anger expressions can lead to positive outcomes in organizations. We analyzed 129 anger episodes across six organizations. In these episodes we link the form of anger expression, characteristics of the expresser, and the organizational norms surrounding anger expressions with the valence of individual, relationship, and organizational outcomes. We find that outcomes are better when anger expressions are of low intensity, expressed verbally rather than in a physical way, and expressed in settings where anger expressions are normatively appropriate. Compared to expressions of anger by men, expressions of anger by women are associated with less positive organizational outcomes. [source]

    Some Like It Hot: Teaching Strategies for Managing Tactical Versus Genuine Anger in Negotiations

    Holly A. Schroth
    Abstract A critically important skill in any negotiation is the ability to manage the emotions that are inevitably evoked by conflict. Anger is one of the most widely studied emotions that occur in negotiation. The purpose of this article is to introduce strategies for managing tactical and genuine anger in negotiations. The difference between tactical and genuine anger is discussed along with different strategies for managing each of these types of anger. The article concludes with advice for instructors to help negotiation students acquire experience in managing both their own and the other party's anger. [source]

    Relations Among Social Support, Burnout, and Experiences of Anger: An Investigation Among Emergency Nurses

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 3 2009
    Müge Ersoy-Kart PhD
    BACKGROUND., The aim of the present study was to determine whether social support, burnout, and anger expression are related with each other among emergency nurses working in private- or public-sector hospitals. DESIGN AND SAMPLE., The sample consisted of 100 emergency nurses working in the private or public sector in Ankara, Turkey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and The Trait-Anger and Anger Expression Scale were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS., The results demonstrated that social support did not differentiate among the nurses working in the private sector or in the public sector according to the burnout subscales' scores. However, nurses in the private sector find it more difficult to express their anger. The state-trait anger levels of the nurses differ according to the burnout levels and also according to the sector that they are working in. The congruence between this study's findings and the literature is discussed. [source]

    St John's Wort treating patients with autistic disorder

    Helmut Niederhofer
    Abstract Problems of eye contact and expressive language limit the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions in patients suffering from pervasive developmental disorders. For that reason, additive psychopharmacological interventions are sometimes needed to improve symptomatology. In our preliminary open trial, three male patients with autistic disorder, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria, completed an open trial of St John's Wort. Subjects were included in the study if their eye contact and expressive language was inadaequate for their developmental level and if they had not tolerated or responded to other psychopharmacologic treatments (methylphenidate, clonidine or desipramine). Parent and mentor ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, irritability, stereotypy, and inappropriate speech factors improved slightly during treatment with St John's Wort. Clinician ratings (Psychiatric Rating Scale Autism, Anger and Speech Deviance factors; Global Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impressions efficacy) did not improve significantly. St John's Wort was only modestly effective in the short-term treatment of irritability in some patients with autistic disorder. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Understanding anger and aggression

    Mark Greener
    Anger and aggression are part of the human condition, but problems can arise when they run out of control. Mark Greener reports on some recent studies that are helping to increase our understanding of these behaviours and offer the prospect of developing novel treatment strategies. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Victimization, Anger, and Gender: Low Anger and Passive Responses Work

    Kelly M. Champion PhD
    This study examined the contributions of gender, anger, expectations of positive outcomes, and frequency of victimization by and bullying of peers among school-aged children to predict individual differences in intentions to respond to provocative events with nonassertive behavior. Children between the ages of 9 and 13 (N = 505, 246 female, 259 male) completed the Anger Response Inventory, Child Version (Tangney et al., 1996) and measures of victimization and bullying. Results of regression procedures demonstrated that female gender and low anger predicted ignoring and using distraction. Nonassertive responses, low anger, and low victimization predicted expecting more positive outcomes following provocation. Victimization was unrelated to intentions to use nonassertive responses but bullying negatively predicted walking away and using distraction. No modifying effects for gender, victimization, or bullying were found. [source]

    Aristotle's Account of Anger: Narcissism and Illusions of Self-Sufficiency

    RATIO, Issue 1 2002
    Stephen Leighton
    This paper considers an allegation by M. Stocker and E. Hegeman that Aristotle's account of anger yields a narcissistic passion bedevilled by illusions of self-sufficiency. The paper argues on behalf of Aristotle's valuing of anger within a virtuous and flourishing life, showing that and why Aristotle's account is neither narcissistic nor involves illusions of self-sufficiency. In so arguing a deeper appreciation of Aristotle's understanding of a self-sufficient life is reached, as are some interesting contrasts between Aristotle's understanding of anger, its connections to value and our own understanding of these matters. [source]

    Assessment of Emotions: Anxiety, Anger, Depression, and Curiosity

    Charles D. Spielberger
    Anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity are major indicators of psychological distress and well-being that require careful assessment. Measuring these psychological vital signs is of critical importance in diagnosis, and can facilitate treatment by directly linking intense emotions to the events that give rise to them. The historical background regarding theory and research on anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity is briefly reviewed, and the nature and assessment of these emotional states and personality traits are examined. The construction and development of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the State-Trait Anger EXpression Inventory (STAXI-2), and the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) to assess anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity, and the major components of these emotional states and personality traits, are described in detail. Findings demonstrating the diverse utility and efficacy of these measures are also reported, along with guidelines for their interpretation and utilisation in research and clinical practice. Research with the STAI, STAXI and STPI over the last 40 years has contributed to understanding vitally important measurement concepts that are especially applicable to the assessment of emotions. These concepts included the state,trait distinction, item intensity specificity, and the importance of items that describe the presence or absence of emotions. [source]

    I,Seeing the Anger in Someone's Face

    Rowland Stout
    Starting from the assumption that one can literally perceive someone's anger in their face, I argue that this would not be possible if what is perceived is a static facial signature of their anger. There is a product,process distinction in talk of facial expression, and I argue that one can see anger in someone's facial expression only if this is understood to be a process rather than a product. [source]

    Managing anger for teamwork in Hong Kong: goal interdependence and open,mindedness

    Dean Tjosvold
    Anger is part of working in a team, as is dealing with its frustrations and conflicts. The cooperative,competitive approach to conflict suggests that how open,mindedly the anger incident is discussed impacts on its dynamics and outcomes. Results from critical incident interviews of organization members in Hong Kong clarify how team members can manage their anger. Structural equation and other analyses suggest that open,minded discussion of the anger,inducing incident promotes productivity and strengthens relationships; thereby developing commitment and a belief that team members are resourceful. These constructive dynamics and outcomes were found to occur when team members had co,operative but not competitive nor independent goals. Results were interpreted as suggesting that even in a society where collectivist and conflict,negative values are influential, anger can be managed constructively through an open,minded discussion of the incident. [source]

    Development of an imaginal provocation test to evaluate treatment for anger problems in people with intellectual disabilities

    John L. Taylor
    Anger and associated aggressive behaviour are significant clinical issues for many people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) that can lead to serious constraints to their liberty, which, in turn, adversely affects their quality of life. There is some evidence to support cognitive,behavioural anger treatment in this client group; however, anger assessment protocols for people with IDs should be diversified. In this regard, a method for anger assessment using imaginal provocation scenes was extended for use with this client population and the context in which treatment takes place. Two studies of the Imaginal Provocation Test (IPT) were conducted: the first with 48 patients examined its internal reliability and concurrent validity with anger psychometric scales; the second investigated whether it was sensitive to change associated with anger treatment in a small outcome study involving men with IDs and histories of offending. The IPT was found to successfully induce anger, be internally reliable, have strong concurrent validity and detect statistically significant changes in anger following anger treatment (N = 9), compared with a routine care waiting-list control group (N = 8). The IPT also had value in highlighting clinical improvements for anger treatment condition participants compared with the control group.,Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Heteroduplex mobility assay for the identification of Listeria sp. and Listeria monocytogenes strains: application to characterisation of strains from sludge and food samples

    N Garrec
    Abstract One hundred and ten Listeria sp. isolates from sewage sludge were identified according to phenotypic and genotypic methods. The Listeria sp. strains isolated from five types of sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Angers (France) and the surrounding area included L. monocytogenes (55.5%), L. innocua (29.1%), L. seeligeri (13.6%) and L. welshimeri (1.8%). The majority of L. monocytogenes strains belonged to serotypes 4b, 1/2b and 1/2a. Moreover, a heteroduplex mobility assay based on the 16S rRNA sequences was tested for its ability to identify the six species of the genus Listeria. This study, performed on 283 Listeria sp. strains from human, food and sewage sludge samples, showed that all the species were distinguishable from one another. L. innocua and L. seeligeri showed respectively three and two distinct banding patterns. Within L. monocytogenes, four groups (I,IV) were defined. The majority of food and environmental isolates were clustered in group I and it is noteworthy that group IV clustered epidemiologic isolates and strains belonging to serotypes 4b, 1/2a and 1/2b. [source]