Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Israel

  • ancient israel
  • northern israel

  • Selected Abstracts


    Noga Collins-Kreiner
    ABSTRACT. In order to view the establishment of new religions centers and how they are received by local populations, I analyze such basic geographical concepts as scale, space, location, and image. I see how these can alter the perception and further refine the concept of spatial transgression in three case studies in Israel: the building of the Mormon Center in Jerusalem, the establishment of the Bahá,í Gardens in Haifa, and the struggle to build a mosque in Nazareth. In this article I seek to identify the factors influencing the presence or absence of conflict to help explain the different "stories" revealed. The article also constitutes an addition to the literature on Israeli (and Palestinian) religiogeographical controversies by focusing on nonmainstream or nondominant cases and by comparing the relative roles of different factors that shape the success or failure of spatial transgressions in religious geography. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2005
    Few archaeological sites can claim a more celebrated position than Megiddo, the Armageddon of biblical revelation. Guardian to a strategic pass on the ancient land bridge that traverses the region, it has long been known that Megiddo played a prominent role in the emergence of the Iron Age nation-states of biblical fame. Given its pivotal location, Megiddo provides an ideal opportunity to examine the experience of a community that found itself at the centre of these developments. The archaeological and textual evidence indicates a community that enjoyed extensive contact with an array of culturally distinct sociopolitical groups emerging in its hinterland. To further explore the nature and extent of this interaction, an assemblage of 86 ceramic sherds was analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This paper presents the results of this analysis, together with an evaluation of potential geochemical and archaeological interconnections. Based on this comparative analysis, implications are drawn regarding Megiddo's role in the changing cultural and political landscape of this formative period in the history of the region. [source]

    The politics of community mediation: A study of community mediation in Israel

    Lee Li-On
    What is community mediation (CM), and how does it affect communities? Drawing on research that examined the politics of CM in the context of a complex, multicultural setting, this article portrays CM as a multifaceted discourse that stakeholders may use to achieve their particular goals. CM, it is suggested, is linked to multiple sources of power and is used by both state and residents to make contesting social claims. This article challenges the apolitical view of CM and its capacity to explain the complex character of power. It proposes considering CM from another perspective, suggesting that examining CM as discourse enables a broader understanding of its social role and significance and facilitates development of appropriate practice. The author suggests that to be socially meaningful CM should be practiced within a broader approach, in terms of social intervention, based on informed, context-related training and practice. Such an approach requires that the role, policies, and practices of community mediation programs (CMPs), and mediators' roles and training, be reconsidered. [source]

    Monitoring Lung Resistivity Changes in Congestive Heart Failure Patients Using the Bioimpedance Technique

    Sharon Zlochiver MSc
    The feasibility of a novel, dedicated system for monitoring lung resistivity in congestive heart failure patients, implementing a hybrid approach of the bioimpedance technique, was assessed in this preliminary study. Thirty-three healthy volunteers and 34 congestive heart failure patients were measured with the PulmoTrace system (Cardiolnspect, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel) during tidal respiration, and the ability to monitor the respective lung resistivity values was assessed. Mean left and right lung resistivity values of 1205±163 and 1200±165 ,·cm for the control group and 888±193 and 943±187 ,·cm for the congestive heart failure group were found, indicating a significant (p<2·10,7) difference between the two groups. The results of long-term monitoring of two patients during medical treatment are also shown. This hybrid approach system is believed to improve diagnostic capabilities and help physicians to better adjust medication dosage on a frequent basis. [source]

    Characterizing Core and Corridor Use by Nubian Ibex in the Negev Desert, Israel

    Yehoshua Shkedy
    To identify and characterize corridors used by Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), we analyzed sighting data recorded for the past 20 years in the Israel Nature Reserves Authority data banks. We categorized each recorded sighting as belonging to a corridor or a core zone based on the total number of sightings in its vicinity. We identified three main core populations, a natural corridor connecting two of them, and a corridor that was not evident connecting the third population. Ibex inside and outside core zones were sighted on steeper terrain than expected by chance; this was more pronounced inside the core zones than outside them. We hypothesize that because ibex outside core zones must move rapidly and directionally across unfamiliar habitats, they must use more moderate terrain. Although ibex sightings in core zones were mostly in the vicinity of water, we found no relationship between the location of the sightings and proximity to water sources in the corridor. Hence, water does not appear to be an important factor in movement through corridors. It was more common to observe ibex out of the core zones during the summer. Males, which can be twice the size of females, were found traveling alone in corridors more often than in core zones. There was no difference between males and females in the steepness of terrain in which they were sighted outside core zones. Our data show that protecting ibex habitat in core zones and corridors is important to ibex conservation in Israel's arid zones. In addition, protecting this habitat may benefit other rock-dwelling species in the area. Resumen: Los corredores son un factor clave en esfuerzos de conservación. Para identificar y caracterizar el uso de corredores por el íbice de Nubia (Capra ibex nubiana) analizamos datos de avistamiento de los últimos 20 años en las bases de datos de la Autoridad Israelí de Reservas Naturales. Categorizamos cada registro asignándolo a un corredor o a una zona núcleo basándonos en el total de registros cercanos. Identificamos tres poblaciones en zona núcleo, un corredor natural que conectaba a dos de ellas y un corredor, no muy evidente, conectando a la tercera población. Se registraron íbices en terrenos inclinados dentro y fuera de zonas núcleo más de lo esperado al azar; esto fue más marcado dentro de las zonas núcleo que afuera. Hipotetizamos que deben utilizar terrenos más moderados, debido a que los íbices fuera de las zonas núcleo deben moverse rápida y direccionalmente a través de hábitats no familiares. Aunque los registros de íbices en zonas núcleo estuvieron cercanos a agua, no encontramos relación entre la localización de los registros y la cercanía a fuentes de agua en el corredor. Por tanto, el agua no parece ser un factor importante en el movimiento en los corredores. Fue más común observar íbices afuera de las zonas núcleo en el verano. Los machos, que pueden ser dos veces más grandes que hembras, fueron registrados desplazándose solos en los corredores más a menudo que en las zonas núcleo. No hubo diferencia entre machos y hembras en la pendiente del terreno en que fueron registrados fuera de las zonas núcleo. Nuestros resultados indican que la protección del hábitat de íbices en zonas núcleo y corredores es importante para la conservación de íbices en las zonas áridas de Israel. Además, la protección de este hábitat puede beneficiar a otras especies en el área. [source]

    Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy.

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2010
    Part 2.
    This is the second part of a review article on formaldehyde-releasers used as durable press chemical finishes (DPCF) in textiles. The early finishes contained large amounts of free formaldehyde, which led to many cases of allergic contact dermatitis to clothes in the 1950s and 1960s. Currently, most finishes are based on modified dimethylol dihydroxyethyleneurea, which releases less formaldehyde. Nevertheless, recent studies in the United States and Israel have identified patients reacting to DPCF, considered to have allergic contact reactions to clothes, either from formaldehyde released by the DPCF therein or from the DPCF per se (in patients negative to formaldehyde). However, all studies had some weaknesses in design or interpretation and in not a single case has the clinical relevance been proven. The amount of free formaldehyde in most garments will likely be below the threshold for the elicitation of dermatitis for all but the most sensitive patients. The amount of free cyclized urea DPCF in clothes is unlikely to be high enough to cause sensitization. Patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasing DPCF will in most cases represent a reaction to formaldehyde released from the test material. [source]

    European Standard Series patch test results from a contact dermatitis clinic in Israel during the 7-year period from 1998 to 2004

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2006
    Aneta Lazarov
    The results of a 7-year retrospective study (1998,2004) from patch testing with the European Standard Series (ESS) establishing the frequency of sensitization in a contact dermatitis clinic in Israel are presented. 23 allergens were patch tested on 2156 patients, 1462 females (67.8%) and 694 males (32.2%). Atopy and asthma were present in 21.9% of the patients. One or more allergic reactions were observed in 937 patients (43.5%). The highest yield of patch test positives from the 1076 positive reactions were obtained from nickel sulfate (13.9%), fragrance mix (7.1%), potassium dichromate (3.8%), Balsam of Peru (3.6%), CL + Me-isothiazolinone (3.4%) and cobalt chloride (3.4%). Allergens which produced the least amount of positive results were primin and clioquinol. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was established in 32.8%, whereas occupationally related allergic (8.0) and irritant contact dermatitis (5.6%) affected a total of 13.6% of the cases studied. The most common clinical forms of dermatitis were chronic dermatitis (47.7%) followed by acute dermatitis (22.8%), and lichenification and hyperkeratosis (7.9%). The hands (30.7%), face and neck (23.9%) and extremities (11.3%) were the most frequently affected areas. Four allergens in our study differed from the top 10 allergens in Europe namely: Cl + Me-isothiazolinone, formaldehyde, 4-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin and sesquiterpene lactone mix reflecting an existing difference in environmental exposure. Our study is the first to provide data on the frequency of sensitization and important allergens in the aetiology of ACD in Israel. In spite of the existing differences with Europe, we conclude that ESS is an appropriate screening system for the diagnosis of ACD in Israel. [source]

    Jacob's Wound: Homoerotic Narrative in the Literature of Ancient Israel , Theodore W. Jennings

    Richard Coggins
    First page of article [source]

    The Art and Science of Surge: Experience from Israel and the U.S. Military

    Boaz Tadmor MD
    In a disaster or mass casualty incident, health care resources may be exceeded and systems may be challenged by unusual requirements. These resources may include pharmaceuticals, supplies, and equipment as well as certain types of academic and administrative expertise. New agencies and decision makers may need to work together in an unfamiliar environment. Furthermore, large numbers of casualties needing treatment, newer therapies required to care for these casualties, and increased workforce and space available for these casualties all contribute to what is often referred to as "surge." Surge capacity in emergency care can be described in technical, scientific terms that are measured by numbers and benchmarks (e.g., beds, patients, and medications) or can take on a more conceptual and abstract form (e.g., decisions, authority, and responsibility). The former may be referred to as the "science" of surge, whereas the latter, an equal if not more important component of surge systems that is more conceptual and abstract, can be considered the "art" of surge. The experiences from Israel and the U.S. military may serve to educate colleagues who may be required to respond or react to an event that taxes the current health care system. This report presents concrete examples of surge capacity strategies used by both Israel and the U.S. military and provides solutions that may be applied to other health care systems when faced with similar situations. [source]

    "Let's Go to MY Museum": Inspiring Confident Learners and Museum Explorers at Children's Museums

    Carol Enseki
    Recent guests have arrived from as far away as Israel, Ecuador, Japan, and Australia, and as nearby as the Bronx. In the United States, children's museums represent one of the youngest and fastest growing cultural sectors. Our field was founded in 1899 with the opening of the Brooklyn Children's Museum. Anna Billings Gallup, an influential curator and director at the museum from 1902 to 1937, spoke widely about the value of bringing the child into the forefront of museum activities. In the United States, the field grew slowly but steadily to four children's museums in 1925 and to approximately 38 by 1975. In the last three decades, sparked by the groundbreaking work of Michael Spock at the Boston Children's Museum, the field has been energized by an extraordinary boom in new and expanding children's museums. Today there are approximately 350 worldwide. [source]

    Education and the Dangerous Memories of Historical Trauma: Narratives of Pain, Narratives of Hope

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2008
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to explore the meanings and implications of dangerous memories in two different sites of past traumatic memories: one in Israel and the other in Cyprus. Dangerous memories are defined as those memories that are disruptive to the status quo, that is, the hegemonic culture of strengthening and perpetuating existing group-based identities. Our effort is to outline some insights from this endeavor,insights that may help educators recognize the potential of dangerous memories to ease pain and offer hope. First, a discussion on memory, history and identity sets the ground for discussing the meaning and significance of dangerous memories in the history curriculum. Next, we narrate two stories from our longitudinal ethnographic studies on trauma and memory in Israel and Cyprus; these stories are interpreted through the lens of dangerous memories and their workings in relation to the hegemonic powers that aim to sustain collective memories. The two different stories suggest that collective memories of historical trauma are not simply "transmitted" in any simple way down the generations,although there are powerful workings that support this transmission. Rather, there seems to be much ambivalence in the workings of memories that under some circumstances may create openings for new identities. The final section discusses the possibilities of developing a pedagogy of dangerous memories by highlighting educational implications that focus on the notion of creating new solidarities without forgetting past traumas. This last section employs dangerous memories as a critical category for pedagogy in the context of our general concern about the implications of memory, history and identity in educational contexts. [source]

    Education and Social Change: The Case of Israel's State Curriculum

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2007
    ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to explore, through the case of the official Israeli state curriculum, how the educational system is affected by social changes and how it responds to them, and to suggest curricular directions that go along with the new social reality that has emerged in Israel during the past decade. We offer a conceptual-theoretical analysis based on the examination of 10 subject areas taught at Israeli schools by leading experts who investigated the curriculum documents of the Ministry of Education in their disciplines. We identify three stages of curriculum development in Israel since its establishment: promotion of hegemonic national goals, emphasis on academic structure of knowledge, and in recent decades, multiple conflicting goals. Changes in the Israeli state curricula indeed reflect a response to broader social changes, yet these changes are partial, irresolute, and scattered. There is a need for a transcultural approach, promoting a core curriculum common to all groups in Israel, beyond which each group may express its uniqueness. [source]

    The Effect of Full-Face Broadband Light Treatments Alone and in Combination With Bilateral Crow's Feet Botulinum Toxin Type A Chemodenervation

    Jean Carruthers MD
    Background. Broadband light (BBL; Intense Pulsed Light; Lumenis Ltd., Yokneam, Israel) is a powerful, nonablative, light-based technology that targets melanin and hemoglobin and stimulates the formation of collagen and elastin. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A; BOTOX; Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA) treatment of the lateral periocular region relaxes the vertical fibers of the orbicularis oculi and results in softening of the lateral orbital crow's feet rhytides and widening of the palpebral aperture. Objective. To compare the effects of full-face BBL in combination with BTX-A and BBL alone in female subjects with Fitzpatrick I,III skin types, Glogau II,III rhytides, and significant associated facial lentigines and telangiectasia. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized study of 30 women with moderate to severe crow's feet rhytides. Half of the subjects were treated with BTX-A and BBL and the other half with BBL alone. Their response was assessed clinically and photographically. Skin biopsies of the temporal skin were taken from two subjects in each group and were stained with Masson trichrome. Results. Patients treated with a combination of BTX-A and BBL experienced a better response to treatment, both at rest and on maximum smile, as well as a slightly improved response in associated lentigines, telangiectasia, pore size, and facial skin texture compared with patients who received BBL treatment alone. Skin biopsies showed an increase in dermal collagen in each group. Conclusions. The patients in this study benefited from both treatments. Although BBL led to a remarkable improvement in full-face telangiectasias, lentigines, and skin texture, the improvement increased in all categories with combination therapy. In addition, an added improvement in the full-face aesthetic with both BTX-A and BBL therapy combined was obvious. These results suggest that both treatments,although evidently complementary,may also act synergistically to produce optimal clinical effects, revolutionizing the treatment of facial aging. [source]

    Bright light therapy for seasonal affective disorder in Israel (latitude 32.6°N): a single case placebo-controlled study

    L. Moscovici
    Introduction:, We describe a patient diagnosed as having seasonal affective disorder (SAD, winter depression), an unlikely condition in Israel (latitude 32.6°N), a country with relatively minor daylight photoperiodic changes between seasons. Method:, Case report. Results:, A 46-year-old woman with a clinical picture of depression (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria for ,major depression with seasonal pattern') reacted positively to 3 weeks of daily bright light therapy of 10 000 lux/wide spectrum. She was asked to wear dark sunglasses during placebo sessions to accommodate an A-B-C single-case-design. The intervention resulted in an improvement of 74,80% in the Hamilton anxiety and depression scales (clinician-rated) and the Beck depression inventory, similar to results obtained in high latitude regions. The depression and anxiety levels returned close to baseline levels following 1 week of the placebo intervention. Conclusion:, Seasonal affective disorder is apparently not limited to certain latitudes. The effect of light therapy was short-lived after discontinuation of the treatment, with rapid relapse occurring in the placebo phase. [source]

    Comparison of Outcomes of Two Skills-teaching Methods on Lay-rescuers' Acquisition of Infant Basic Life Support Skills

    Itai Shavit MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:979,986 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine if lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support (BLS) skills would be better when skills teaching consisted of videotaping practice and providing feedback on performances, compared to conventional skills-teaching and feedback methods. Methods:, This pilot-exploratory, single-blind, prospective, controlled, randomized study was conducted on November 12, 2007, at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion,Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. The population under study consisted of all first-year medical students enrolled in the 2007,2008 year. BLS training is part of their mandatory introductory course in emergency medicine. Twenty-three students with previous BLS training were excluded. The remaining 71 were randomized into four and then two groups, with final allocation to an intervention and control group of 18 and 16 students, respectively. All the students participated in infant BLS classroom teaching. Those in the intervention group practiced skills acquisition independently, and four were videotaped while practicing. Tapes were reviewed by the group and feedback was provided. Controls practiced using conventional teaching and feedback methods. After 3 hours, all subjects were videotaped performing an unassisted, lone-rescuer, infant BLS resuscitation scenario. A skills assessment tool was developed. It consisted of 25 checklist items, grouped into four sections: 6 points for "categories" (with specific actions in six categories), 14 points for "scoring" (of accuracy of performance of each action), 4 points for "sequence" (of actions within a category), and 1 point for "order" of resuscitation (complete and well-sequenced categories). Two blinded expert raters were given a workshop on the use of the scoring tool. They further refined it to increase scoring consistency. The main outcome of the study was defined as evidence of better skills acquisition in overall skills in the four sections and in the specific skills sets for actions in any individual category. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results:, Means and mean percentages were greater in the intervention group in all four sections compared to controls: categories (5.72 [95.33%] and 4.69 [92.66%]), scoring (10.57 [75.50%] and 7.41 [43.59%]), sequence (2.28 [57.00%] and 1.66 [41.50%]), and order of resuscitation (0.96 [96.00%] and 0.19 [19.00%]). The means and mean percentages of the actions (skill sets) in the intervention group were also larger than those of controls in five out of six categories: assessing responsiveness (1.69 [84.50%] and 1.13 [56.50%]), breathing technique (1.69 [93.00%] and 1.13 [47.20%]), chest compression technique (3.19 [77.50%] and 1.84 [46.00%]), activating emergency medical services (EMS) (3.00 [100.00%] and 2.81 [84.50%]), and resuming cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.97 [97.00%] and 0.47 [47.00%]). These results demonstrate better performance in the intervention group. Conclusions:, The use of videotaped practice and feedback for the acquisition of overall infant BLS skills and of specific skill sets is effective. Observation and participation in the feedback and assessment of nonexperts attempting infant BLS skills appeared to improve the ability of this group of students to perform the task. [source]

    Strike at Samu: Jordan, Israel, the United States, and the Origins of the Six-Day War*

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 1 2008
    Clea Lutz Bunch
    First page of article [source]

    Long-Distance Relationship: The United States and Israel in the 1950s,

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2007
    Avinoam J. Patt
    First page of article [source]

    The effect of different educational interventions on schoolchildren's knowledge of earthquake protective behaviour in Israel

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2010
    Yechiel Soffer
    Knowledge of appropriate behaviour during an earthquake is crucial for prevention of injury and loss of life. The Israeli Home Front Command conducts a yearly earthquake education programme in all Israeli schools, using three types of educational interventions: lectures, drills and a combination of the two. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions in providing students with knowledge. We distributed a questionnaire to 2,648 children from the 5th and 6th grades in 120 schools nationwide. Knowledge scores for both 5th and 6th grades were increased, regardless of type of intervention, compared to the non-exposure group. A combined intervention of lectures and drills resulted in the highest knowledge scores. Our findings suggest that for the age group studied a combination of lectures and drills will likely prepare students best for how to behave in the event of an earthquake. [source]

    Impact of wastewater discharge on the channel morphology of ephemeral streams

    Marwan A. Hassan
    Abstract The impact of wastewater flow on the channel bed morphology was evaluated in four ephemeral streams in Israel and the Palestinian Territories: Nahal Og, Nahal Kidron, Nahal Qeult and Nahal Hebron. Channel changes before, during and after the halting of wastewater flow were monitored. The wastewater flow causes a shift from a dry ephemeral channel with intermittent floods to a continuous flow pattern similar to that of humid areas. Within a few months, nutrient-rich wastewater flow leads to rapid development of vegetation along channel and bars. The colonization of part of the active channel by vegetation increases flow resistance as well as bank and bed stability, and limits sediment availability from bars and other sediment stores along the channels. In some cases the established vegetation covers the entire channel width and halts the transport of bed material along the channel. During low and medium size flood events, bars remain stable and the vegetation intact. Extreme events destroy the vegetation and activate the bars. The wastewater flow results in the development of new small bars, which are usually destroyed by flood flows. Due to the vegetation establishment, the active channel width decreases by up to 700 per cent. The deposition of fine sediment and organic material changed the sediment texture within the stable bar surface and the whole bed surface texture in Nahal Hebron. The recovery of Nahal Og after the halting of the wastewater flow was relatively fast; within two flood seasons the channel almost returned to pre-wastewater characteristics. The results of the study could be used to indicate what would happen if wastewater flows were introduced along natural desert streams. Also, the results could be used to predict the consequences of vegetation removal as a result of human intervention within the active channel of humid streams. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Age-related change in canopy traits shifts conspecific facilitation to interference in a semi-arid shrubland

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Orna Reisman-Berman
    Shifts between facilitation and interference and their importance in shaping plant population and community dynamics have received wide recognition. Nevertheless, the causes and spatio-temporal scales of these shifts are poorly understood, yet strongly debated. This study tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in canopy structure shift the effect of a nurse shrub on their protégé from facilitation to interference, using as a model system the interaction between the dwarf shrub Sarcopoterium spinosum and conspecific new recruits, in the shrubland of the transition area between the Mediterranean and the semi-arid climatic zones of Israel. Foliation level (i.e. the percentage of canopy surface area covered with leaves), a measure of shrub canopy structure, increased with age. Shading level was significantly and positively related to foliation level. Densities of new recruits in the shrubland showed a unimodal response to canopy structure and cover: the highest densities were associated with canopies presenting low and medium foliation levels (providing 71 and 82% shade, respectively), while high foliation levels (93% shade) and open spaces among canopies were characterized by very low densities. A related field experiment using shading nets revealed that seedling survival rates followed a similar unimodal pattern, with the highest survival (ca 60%) detected in moderate shade (70%), twice as much as in full sun, and the lowest survival (ca 10%) observed in extreme shade (90%). These results support the study hypothesis on age-dependent interactions. Thus, in a semi-arid shrubland ecosystem, the transition of the "nurse shrub" from "young" to "old" stage can shift facilitation to interference. Hence, the age structure of established shrub populations determines a) the availability of suitable sites for seedling recruitment and b) the balance between facilitation versus interference effects on seedling establishment. [source]

    Size traits and site conditions determine changes in seed bank structure caused by grazing exclusion in semiarid annual plant communities

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2006
    Yagil Osem
    1. Contrasting patterns of change in the seed bank of natural grasslands are frequently found in response to grazing by domestic herbivores. Here, we studied the hypotheses that a) patterns of change in seed bank density and composition in response to grazing depend on spatial variation in resource availability and productivity, and b) that variation among species in patterns of seed bank response to grazing is linked to differences in species size traits (i.e. size of plant, dispersal unit and seed). 2. Effects of sheep grazing exclusion on the seed bank were followed during five years in a semiarid Mediterranean annual plant community in Israel. Seed bank density and composition were measured in autumn, before the rainy season, inside and outside fenced exclosures in four neighboring topographic sites differing in vegetation characteristics, soil resources and primary productivity: Wadi (dry stream terraces, high productive site), Hilltop, South- and North-facing slopes (less productive sites). 3. Topographic sites differed in seed density (range ca 2500,18000 seed m,2) and in seed bank response to grazing exclusion. Fencing increased seed density by 78, 51 and 18% in the Wadi, South- and North-facing slopes, respectively, but had no effect in the Hilltop. At the species level, grazing exclusion interacted with site conditions in determining species seed bank density, with larger or opposite changes in the high productive Wadi compared to the other less productive sites. 4. Changes in seed bank structure after grazing exclusion were strongly related to species size traits. Grazing exclusion favored species with large size traits in all sites, while seed density of tiny species decreased strongly in the high productive Wadi. Species with medium and small size traits showed lesser or no responses. 5. The size of plants, dispersal units and seeds were strongly correlated to each other, thus confounding the evaluation of the relative importance of each trait in the response of species to grazing and site conditions. We propose that the relative importance of plant size vs seed size in the response to grazing changes with productivity level. [source]

    The influence of scale and patchiness on spider diversity in a semi-arid environment

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2002
    Mary E. A. Whitehouse
    Semi-arid scrubland in the Middle East consists of a soil crust matrix overlain with patches of perennial shrubs. To understand factors influencing biodiversity in this vulnerable landscape we need to understand how this mosaic of habitats influences associated fauna. Spiders are particularly abundant in this habitat so we asked if spider diversity differed between habitat patches and if different patch types contained either a subset of the regional species pool or specific species guilds. We also asked whether changes in the fractal nature of the microphytic and macrophytic patch mosaic altered spider diversity in this habitat. We found that the semi-arid scrubland at Sayeret Shaked Park (Israel) contains different spider communities that require patches of a certain quality to develop fully. Different patch types contain communities of different species, but the community structure of the patches is similar. We suggest that large-scale environmental factors typical of the site as a whole influence coarse-grained community structure, while small-scale differences between patch types result in the specialisation of species to different patch types. [source]

    Distribution patterns of the Q and B biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean Basin based on microsatellite variation

    B. Simón
    Abstract At least five of the biotypes described in the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) complex are known to be present in the Mediterranean Basin area. Only two of them, however, are economically relevant, that is, biotypes B and Q. Biological and genetic differences between the two biotypes have been well studied, but less is known about their patterns of genetic variation and population structure. To address these issues, a study was undertaken based on variation at six microsatellite loci among a subset of nine B. tabaci populations (five belonging to the Q and four to the B biotype). The data obtained show that (i) these loci showed considerable polymorphism in the Q and B biotypes populations although the presence of null alleles can obscure the picture; (ii) the Iberian-Q, Canarian-Q, and Egyptian-B populations exhibit heterozygosity excess as a result of bottleneck events; (iii) the low genetic differentiation between the Israeli, Iberian Peninsula, and Italian populations suggest that these populations share a common gene pool; (iv) the genetic distances between the Canarian-Q population and the geographically close population from Morocco indicates spatial isolation and a limited gene flow; and finally (v) the microsatellite data for the B populations indicate that the whiteflies from Egypt and Israel have a close phylogenetic relationship, but the source of these biotype B invasions into the Mediterranean area remains unknown. [source]

    Effect of temperature on development, overwintering and establishment potential of Franklinothrips vespiformis in the UK

    Eleni Larentzaki
    Abstract This study investigated the effect of temperature on the development and overwintering potential of the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Crawford) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae), a biological control agent used against glasshouse pests in continental Europe and Israel. Developmental rates increased linearly with rearing temperatures. It was estimated that 304.9 degree days, above a lower threshold temperature of 11.9 °C, were required for F. vespiformis to complete development from egg to adult eclosion. The effect of low temperatures (,5, 0, and 5 °C) was examined on adult female and larval survival. Subsequent reproductive and developmental attributes of survivors were also investigated. Lethal time experiments indicated that larval stages are more cold tolerant than adult F. vespiformis females. Surviving larvae increased their developmental times to adults with decreasing temperature and increasing exposure periods and second instars were significantly more successful than first instars in reaching adulthood. Surviving adult females decreased their oviposition rate with decreasing temperature and increasing exposure periods, and exposures to low temperatures affected the number of viable eggs produced. The results are discussed in the context of overwintering and establishment potential of F. vespiformis in the UK in the event of introducing the predatory thrips as a biological control agent against glasshouse pests. [source]

    In situ measurement of methane fluxes and analysis of transcribed particulate methane monooxygenase in desert soils

    Roey Angel
    Summary Aerated soils are a biological sink for atmospheric methane. However, the activity of desert soils and the presence of methanotrophs in these soils have hardly been studied. We studied on-site atmospheric methane consumption rates as well as the diversity and expression of the pmoA gene, coding for a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase, in arid and hyperarid soils in the Negev Desert, Israel. Methane uptake was only detected in undisturbed soils in the arid region (,90 mm year,1) and vertical methane profiles in soil showed the active layer to be at 0,20 cm depth. No methane uptake was detected in the hyperarid soils (,20 mm year,1) as well as in disturbed soils in the arid region (i.e. agricultural field and a mini-catchment). Molecular analysis of the methanotrophic community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning/sequencing of the pmoA gene detected methanotrophs in the active soils, whereas the inactive ones were dominated by sequences of the homologous gene amoA, coding for a subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase. Even in the active soils, methanotrophs (as well as in situ activity) could not be detected in the soil crust, which is the biologically most important layer in desert soils. All pmoA sequences belonged to yet uncultured strains. Transcript analysis showed dominance of sequences clustering within the JR3, formerly identified in Californian grassland soils. Our results show that although active methanotrophs are prevalent in arid soils they seem to be absent or inactive in hyperarid and disturbed arid soils. Furthermore, we postulate that methanotrophs of the yet uncultured JR3 cluster are the dominant atmospheric methane oxidizers in this ecosystem. [source]

    The association between non-biting midges and Vibrio cholerae

    Meir Broza
    Summary Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, yet its interactions within this habitat are poorly understood. Here we describe the current knowledge on the interaction of V. cholerae with one group of co-inhabitants, the chironomids. Chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae, Diptera), are an abundant macroinvertebrate group encountered in freshwater aquatic habitats. As holometabolous insects, chironomids start life when their larvae hatch from eggs laid at the water/air interface; through various feeding strategies, the larvae grow and pupate to become short-lived, non-feeding, adult flying insects. The discovery of the connection between V. cholerae and chironomids was accidental. While working with Chironomus transavaalensis, we observed the disintegration of its egg masses and searched for a possible microbial agent. We identified V. cholerae as the primary cause of this phenomenon. Haemagglutinin/protease, a secreted extracellular enzyme, degraded the gelatinous matrix surrounding the eggs, enabling bacterial growth. Observation of chironomids in relation to V. cholerae continuously for 7 years in various types of water bodies in Israel, India, and Africa revealed that environmental V. cholerae adhere to egg-mass surfaces of various Chironomini (,bloodworms'). The flying adults' potential to serve as mechanical vectors of V. cholerae from one water body to another was established. This, in turn, suggested that these insects play a role in the ecology of V. cholerae and possibly take part in the dissemination of the pathogenic serogroups during, and especially between, epidemics. [source]

    Changes in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II and the integrity of cell membranes relative to the elemental content of the epilithic desert lichen Ramalina maciformis

    Jacob Garty
    Abstract The present study used the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis to investigate the occurrence of mineral elements, including heavy metals, at a distance of up to 50 km from the industrial region in Ramat Hovav in the Negev Desert, Israel. The major objective of this study was an analytical comparison of elemental content and physiological parameters of lichen vitality, apart from a test of the applicability of this specific lichen in investigations of air pollution. The Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Pb, S, Sr, and Zn content of thalli from the unpolluted Tellalim site collected in August 1997, transferred to 24 biomonitoring sites, and retrieved in April 1998 was analyzed in comparison with the following parameters: The potential quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), and the integrity of cell membranes. Transplanted thalli in several sites at Ramat Hovav accumulated large amounts of most of the elements. The K content of the transplants located in the polluted sites indicated a leakage of this element, because this content was lower than that of thalli in unpolluted sites. Calcium, Cu, Mn, and Na showed an inverse correlation with the K content of the lichen. Calcium, Cu, and Sr showed an inverse correlation with the Fv/Fm ratio expressing the potential quantum yield of PSII. Calcium, Cr, Cu, Mg, Na, S, and Sr showed a positive correlation with the electrical conductivity corresponding with cell-membrane disintegration. The present study demonstrated a meaningful connection between enlarged concentrations of certain elements and physiological phenomena. The capability of the lichen to detect air pollution was found to be satisfactory. The dispersion of airborne heavy metals was found, however, to be local and limited to a few hundred meters from the source of pollution. [source]

    Tospoviruses infecting vegetable crops in Israel

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2000
    A. Gera
    Symptoms of vein clearing, stem necrosis, curling, necrotic spots and rings on the leaves associated with infection by tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) were documented among vegetable crops growing in commercial glasshouses and open fields in Israel. Plants exhibiting symptoms were collected, from 1994-01 to 1998-12. Among cultivated vegetable crops analysed for TSWV by ELISA, the following plants were found to be infected: tomato, capsicum, aubergine, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber. These incidences of the virus were all correlated with the occurrence in high population of Frankliniella occidentalis. Transmission of the virus from infected Datura stramonium to Petunia leaf discs, by F. occidentalis, was up to 26%. TSWV antigens were readily detected by ELISA in seeds harvested from naturally infected vegetable crops. However, we failed to show virus transmission to the progeny plants. Iris yellow spot tospovirus (IYSV) was detected in onion. High incidence of the disease was associated with large populations of Thrips tabaci. [source]

    Structured Looseness: Everyday Social Order at an Israeli Kindergarten

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2006
    Deborah Golden
    In this article, I address notions of social order as these are conveyed to young children in an early education setting. On the basis of an ethnographic account of an Israeli kindergarten, I describe the routine structuring of everyday life at the kindergarten, as well as the ways in which this routine structuring was consistently undermined, primarily by the teacher herself. Specifically, the study shows how the relatively enfeebled routine structuring of daily life facilitated the emergence of alternative models of social order, namely, collective order and personal order embodied by the teacher. The interplay of structure and looseness discerned at the kindergarten is addressed in terms of the institutional distinctiveness of early education settings, as well as with reference to the Israeli sociocultural context. It is suggested that the study of the organization of daily life in early education settings may enrich our understanding of socialization into enduring perceptions of social order and of the sources of its legitimacy. [education, classroom ethnography, children, Israel, kindergarten] [source]

    The Macabre Style: Death Attitudes of Old-Age Home Residents in Israel

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2003
    Tova Gamliel
    An inductive, ethnographic analysis of death attitudes among old-age home residents in Israel is employed to describe the construction of a peculiar death-related discourse termed "the macabre style." This authentic voice of elderly residents emerges from interviews, conversations, and observations as a form of self-immersion in a particular collective consciousness generated by expectations of impending death. The macabre style's rhetorical devices include grim and direct references to death and dying, black humor, historical archetypes, and biblical myths. This construct is further used in order to reflect on and criticize the conceptual circularity of conventional academic categories regarding death attitudes such as "acceptance" and "denial," and as an indication of an old age metonymic discourse of self-transcendence. [source]