Intraepithelial Neoplasia (intraepithelial + neoplasia)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  • anal intraepithelial neoplasia
  • cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
  • pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia
  • prostate intraepithelial neoplasia
  • prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

  • Selected Abstracts

    The treatment of CIN: what are the risks?

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    W. Prendiville
    The treatment of squamous cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is to remove or destroy the transformation zone (TZ). It is likely that no method of treatment is superior to another if it is performed properly and the limited available evidence supports this view. The significant advantages of excision (simplicity, cost, outpatient procedure, histological examination of the entire TZ) mean that treatment thresholds may have lowered over the last decade. Long-term pregnancy-related morbidity associated with excision has been reported recently. The evidence would suggest that this increase equates to a genuine increase in serious adverse outcome for cone biopsy but not large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). The available data also point to an increase in both incomplete excision and premature labour associated with the excision of large endocervical TZs. The clinical implications arising from this are firstly that women with large type 2 and 3 TZs need appropriate counselling before treatment and that the threshold for treating young women with mild abnormalities needs review. [source]

    Trials update in wales

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2007
    A. Fiander
    Three ongoing studies will be presented and discussed. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in a South Wales Screening population Methods: A total of 10 000 consecutive, anonymous liquid based cytology screening samples were collected over a five month period in 2004. Age, cytology result and social deprivation score was provided for each specimen. The methodology was chosen to ensure inclusion of all women attending routine cervical screening, avoiding potential constraints associated with obtaining individual informed consent. The liquid based cytology samples were processed and reported by the receiving cytology laboratory and the residual specimens sent to the HPV Research Laboratory, Wales College of Medicine, where they were processed and stored at -80C until analysis. High risk and low risk HPV Typing was undertaken using PCR , EIA (Jacobs et al 1997). Full high risk typing was performed on HPV positive specimens. Results: The study population had a mean age of 38 years with 92% negative, 5% borderline and 3% dyskaryotic cytology. The average social deprivation score was 17.4 (based upon the Welsh Index of multiple deprivation). The following results will be presented: HPV prevalence by age. HPV prevalence by cytology result. Type specific HPV prevalence in single and multiple infection. Conclusion: This study represents the largest type specific HPV Prevalence Study in the UK to date. As such it will form a useful base line against which to access performance of marketed HPV tests and evaluating the impact following implementation of HPV vaccination. [Funded by Welsh Office for Research and Development] CRISP , 1 Study (Cervical Randomized Intervention Study Protocol -1) Background: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and Diindolylmethane (DIM) are found in cruciferous vegetables and have been identified as compounds that could potentially prevent or halt carcinogenesis. I3C spontaneously forms DIM in vivo during acid digestion. I3C has been shown to prevent the development of cervical cancer in HPV 16 transgenic mice and both I3C and DIM have been shown to promote cell death in cervical cancer cell models. DIM is the major active bi-product of I3C and preliminary data indicate that DIM is active in cervical dysplasia and may be better tolerated than I3C. Aim: To investigate chemoprevention of high grade cervical neoplasia using Diindolylmethane (DIM) supplementation in women with low grade cytological abnormalities on cervical cytology. Objectives: To observe any reduction in the prevalence of histological proven high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after 6 months of supplementation. ,,To observe any reduction in the prevalence of cytological abnormalities. ,,To observe any changes in the clinical appearance of the cervix. To assess acceptability and monitor any side effects of DIM supplementation. ,,To assess whether any benefit is seen in relation to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) status including HPV Type, Viral load and integration. Methods: This is a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial involving 600,700 women with low grade cytological abnormalities on a cervical smear. Randomization is in the ratio of 2 : 1 in favour of active medication. Women with first mildly dyskaryotic smear or second borderline smear are eligible. They are asked to take two capsules daily for 6 months. At the end of 6 months they undergo repeat cervical cytology, HPV testing and colposcopy. Results: A progress report will be given for this ongoing study. [Funded: - Cancer Research UK] Type Specific HPV Infection in Welsh Cervical Cancers Background: Whilst there have been numerous studies of HPV infection associated with cervical cancer and on prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in diverse populations there have been no studies of these variables in the same population. Against a background of prophylactic HPV vaccination it is important to assess potential protection against cervical cancer within a given population. The most comprehensive analysis of HPV type specific cervical cancer is a meta-analysis published by the IARC in 2003. This however included only three UK based studies, totalling 118 cases, 75 of which were only investigated by HPV type PCR for four high risk types. None of this data was presented with associated population based prevalence data. Therefore, the research objectives for this study in combination with the first study above, are as follows: To determine the frequency of specific HPV types in cervical cancers in Wales. To compare the distribution of specific HPV types amongst cervical cancers with their prevalence in the general population. This will allow accurate delineation of the relationship between prevalence of specific HPV types in the general population and their association with clinically relevant disease. This information is a pre-requisite to assess the potential impact of prophylactic vaccination against HPV infection in Wales. Methods: Welsh Cervical Cancer specimens from 2000,2005 will be identified from pathology departments within Wales. The pathology of each tumour will be reviewed by a single Gynaecological Pathologist. The age of the patient and pathological features of the tumour will be noted. DNA will be extracted from the paraffin sections and HPV typed by PCR-EIA. Results: A progress report will be given for this ongoing study. [Funded by Welsh Office for Research and Development] [source]

    Borderline nuclear change; can a subgroup be identified which is suspicious of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, i.e. CIN 2 or worse?

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    J. M. Edwards
    Borderline nuclear change; can a subgroup be identified which is suspicious of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, i.e. CIN 2 or worse? Only 10% of first borderline smears are associated with a histological high-grade (HG) abnormality, i.e. CIN 2,3, invasive malignancy or glandular neoplasia on subsequent investigation. The advantages of highlighting this subgroup are obvious but is this possible? From 1996 and 1997, 242 borderline smears with histological follow-up were examined by two independent experienced observers (observer 1 and 2) without prior knowledge of further investigation results. For each smear a profile of nuclear details was produced, also noting the type of cell mainly affected by the process; then the observers were asked to assess the degree of worry of HG disease for each smear i.e. whether the smear fell into group 1 borderline changes indicative of low-grade (normal, inflammatory, CIN1/HPV) disease (BL/LG) or group 2 difficult borderline smear, HG disease (CIN 2,3, invasive neoplasia or glandular neoplasia) cannot be excluded (BL/HG). Observer 1 selected a group of BL/HG with a PPV for HG disease of 38%, with observer 2 having a PPV of 50%; this compared with the overall laboratory HG disease PPV for borderline smears of 14%. Both observers found the most useful criterion to be the increase in nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio. Our results show that it is possible to separate a small group of borderline smears which should be classified as ,borderline/high grade lesion difficult to exclude' (BL/HG). Both observers had some success in arriving at this classification although their method of selecting out this group was quite different. [source]

    How predictive is a cervical smear suggesting glandular neoplasia?

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    How predictive is a cervical smear suggesting glandular neoplasia The prevalence of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors has increased, in part due to increased diagnostic awareness of these lesions. To date, limited information has been published regarding the predictive value of glandular abnormalities in cervical smears. This study details the histological follow up of 418 cervical smears showing glandular abnormality, reported in our department over a six year period from 1993 to 1998. Histological follow up was available for 395 of the 418 smears (94.50%). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) for this group of smears was 72.66% for either significant glandular or squamous pathology (at least low grade cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN2 on follow up biopsy), and 55.70% for significant glandular pathology alone. Examination of subcategories of abnormal glandular smear showed that the PPV increased with the degree of abnormality reported within the smears. [source]

    Anal cytology: Is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing?

    A.E. Walts M.D.
    Abstract There is an increased incidence of anal squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia [AIN]) among persons who engage in anal-receptive sex. Analogous to cervical cancer screening, anal Papanicplaou (Pap) smears currently are used to screen these high-risk populations. Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in anal carcinoma pathogenesis and this study was performed to assess the potential role of HPV DNA testing as an adjunct to anal cytology. We correlated cytological diagnoses and HPV DNA (Digene Hybrid Capture [HC II] assay) in anal specimens collected in SurePath liquid medium from 118 patients; 54.8% of cases diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 87.8% diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or above tested positive for high- risk HPV DNA (B+). High-grade SIL (HSIL) was present in 31 of the 51 patients with follow-up. Although a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US or above was a reliable indicator for AIN, cytology frequently did not accurately predict the grade of SIL in subsequent biopsy. Our findings suggest that reflex HPV DNA testing would be helpful in triaging patients diagnosed with ASC-US. However, patients diagnosed with LSIL or above should go directly to ansocopic biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2005;33:152,156. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cytology of the central zone of the prostate

    Lars Egevad M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract The prostate has three anatomical regions: the peripheral, transition, and central zones (CZ). The CZ has distinct histological features, but its cytological morphology has not been described. This study was done on surgical specimens to ensure that samples were representative of the CZ, and that no prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or cancer contaminated the smears. An incision was made in the CZ of 51 prostatectomy specimens, and cells were scraped from cut surfaces. After exclusion of samples contaminated by PIN or cancer or with poor cell yield, 39 Giemsa-stained smears remained for analysis. Large branching epithelial sheets with geographic architecture and crowded nuclei were seen in 97% of smears. Epithelial clusters with elongated palisaded nuclei were identified in 80% of cases, but were always a minor component. Visible nucleoli (97%), cytoplasmic vacuoles (97%), and smooth muscle cells in the background (95%) were common. Blue-green cytoplasmic granules resembling seminal vesicle pigment were seen in 97%. Magenta-colored cytoplasmic pigment, similar to granules seen in other regions of the prostate, was found in 74%. Recognition of CZ epithelium as a benign constituent of prostate cytology is important because elongated cells, crowded nuclei, and visible nucleoli may otherwise be misinterpreted as PIN or cancer. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2003;28:239,244. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Peripheral T,cell tolerance occurs early during spontaneous prostate cancer development and can be rescued by dendritic cell immunization

    Elena Degl'Innocenti
    Abstract In the tumor-prone transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model we followed the fate of the immune response against the SV40 large T,antigen (Tag) selectively expressed in the prostate epithelium during the endogenous transformation from normal cells to tumors. Young (5,7-week-old) male TRAMP mice, despite a dim and patchy expression of Tag overlapping foci of mouse prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, displayed a strong Tag-specific cytotoxic T,lymphocyte (CTL) response after an intradermal injection of peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DC). This response was weaker than the one found in vaccinated wild-type littermates, and was characterized by a reduced frequency and avidity of Tag-specific CTL. Early DC vaccination also subverted the profound state of peripheral tolerance typically found in TRAMP mice older than 9,10,weeks. The DC-induced CTL response indeed was still detectable in TRAMP mice of 16,weeks, and was associated with histology evidence of reduced disease progression. Our findings suggest that tumor antigens are handled as self antigens, and peripheral tolerance is associated with in situ antigen overexpression and cancer progression. Our data also support a relevant role for DC-based vaccines in controlling the induction of peripheral tolerance to tumor antigens. [source]

    Expression patterns of epiplakin1 in pancreas, pancreatic cancer and regenerating pancreas

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2008
    Tetsu Yoshida
    Epiplakin1 (Eppk1) is a plakin family gene with its function remains largely unknown, although the plakin genes are known to function in interconnecting cytoskeletal filaments and anchoring them at plasma membrane-associated adhesive junction. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of Eppk1 in the developing and adult pancreas in the mice. In the embryonic pancreas, Eppk1+/Pdx1+ and Eppk1+/Sox9+ pancreatic progenitor cells were observed in early pancreatic epithelium. Since Pdx1 expression overlapped with that of Sox9 at this stage, these multipotent progenitor cells are Eppk1+/Pdx1+/Sox9+ cells. Then Eppk1 expression becomes confined to Ngn3+ or Sox9+ endocrine progenitor cells, and p48+ exocrine progenitor cells, and then restricted to the duct cells and a cells at birth. In the adult pancreas, Eppk1 is expressed in centroacinar cells (CACs) and in duct cells. Eppk1 is observed in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), previously identified as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions. In addition, the expansion of Eppk1-positive cells occurs in a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, an acinar cell regeneration model. Furthermore, in the partial pancreatectomy (Px) regeneration model using mice, Eppk1 is expressed in "ducts in foci", a tubular structure transiently induced. These results suggest that Eppk1 serves as a useful marker for detecting pancreatic progenitor cells in developing and regenerating pancreas. [source]

    CK17 and p16 expression patterns distinguish (atypical) immature squamous metaplasia from high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III)

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    S Regauer
    Aims:, Atypical immature metaplasia (AIM) refers to a full-thickness intraepithelial basaloid lesion in the uterine cervix that features both metaplasia and atypia and is therefore difficult to distinguish from high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III). p16 is a marker for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced dysplasia. Cytokeratin (CK) 17 is a marker for cervical reserve (stem) cells, which give rise to metaplasia. The aim was to determine whether AIM can be reclassified into metaplasia and CIN III based on p16 and CK17 immunohistochemistry. Material and results:, Seventy-five cervical biopsy specimens, curettings and cone excisions containing varying proportions of dysplasia and metaplasia and 20 cases regarded as AIM were analysed immunohistochemically with antibodies to CK17, p16 and p63. In immature metaplasia all proliferating cells were immunoreactive with antibodies to CK17 and p63, while p16 was negative. All dysplastic cells of CIN III demonstrated uniform immunoreactivity for p16 and p63, but were CK17,. Based on the reciprocal immunoreactivity of p16 and CK17, 17/20 cases of AIM were reclassified as metaplasia (n = 10) and CIN III (n = 7). Three cases of AIM stained for both CK17 and p16 and were classified as CIN III. Conclusion:, ,AIM' is a helpful histological descriptor but it should not be used as a final diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry for p16 and CK17 allows distinction between metaplasia and high-grade CIN. [source]

    The health and economic effects of HPV DNA screening in The Netherlands,

    Johannes Berkhof
    Abstract We studied the health and economic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in cervical screening using a simulation model. The key data source was a Dutch longitudinal screening trial. We compared cytological testing with repeat cytology (for borderline/mildly abnormal smears) to HPV testing with cytology triage (for HPV-positive smears), combination testing (combined HPV and cytology) and cytological testing with HPV triage (for borderline/mildly abnormal smears). We varied the screening interval from 5 to 10 years. The main outcome measures were the number of cervical cancer cases, the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The base-case estimates were accompanied with ranges across 118 calibrated parameter settings (calibration criteria: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3, cancer and mortality rates). In comparison to 5-yearly cytology, 5-yearly HPV testing with cytology triage gave a reduction in the number of cancer cases of 23% (range, 9,27%). The reduction was 26% (range, 10,29%) for combination testing and 3% (range, ,1 to 8%) for cytology with HPV triage. For strategies with primary HPV testing, the model also estimated a reduction in cancer cases when the screening interval was extended to 7.5 years. Five-yearly cytology with HPV triage and 5 to 7.5-yearly HPV testing with cytology triage were cost effective for the base-case settings and the majority of calibrated parameter settings (ICER below Dutch willingness-to-pay threshold of ,20,000/QALY). Our model indicates that HPV testing with cytology triage is likely to be cost effective. An extension of the screening interval may be considered to control costs. [source]

    Incidence and outcome of acquisition of human papillomavirus infection in women with normal cytology,A population-based cohort study from Taiwan

    Angel Chao
    Abstract Little is known about acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its outcome among older women with negative HPV testing and normal cytology. A longitudinal 3-yr follow-up of nested-cohort subjects (n = 8825) from a population-based cervical cancer screening study whose Pap and HPV tests were negative at baseline were conducted. Every active HPV-negative (n = 413) participant had 12-mo follow-ups of Pap smear and HPV testing. Colposcopy was performed if either HPV-positive or cytology was abnormal. The cytology and histology information of the remaining subjects (passive HPV-negative, n = 8412) was obtained from national registry database. Median age of participants was 45 yr (range, 30,73 yr). The incidence of new acquisition was 4.2/100 woman-years. The 3-yr cumulative total HPV acquisition rate was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1,14.1). Increased number of sexual partners (,2 vs. 1) of the participant was associated with risk of acquisition (odds ratio [OR]: 5.0, 95% CI: 2.0,12.6) by multivariate analysis. Three cases of , cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 were identified in 3-yr follow-up in active HPV-negative subjects. HPV genotypes in the dysplastic tissue were actually present at baseline samples after reanalysis. From the passive HPV-negative group, only 1 case progressed to CIN2 probably after HPV acquisition. Negative Pap and HPV tests assured a very low risk of developing , CIN2 within 3 yr despite incident HPV infection. [source]

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from dietary bitter melon induce apoptosis and inhibit histone deacetylase-1 selectively in premalignant and malignant prostate cancer cells

    Su Dao Xiong
    Abstract Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa) development. Although several dietary compounds have been tested in preclinical PCa prevention models, no agents have been identified that either prevent the progression of premalignant lesions or treat advanced disease. Momordica charantia, known as bitter melon in English, is a plant that grows in tropical areas worldwide and is both eaten as a vegetable and used for medicinal purposes. We have isolated a protein, designated as MCP30, from bitter melon seeds. The purified fraction was verified by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry to contain only 2 highly related single chain Type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), ,-momorcharin and ,-momorcharin. MCP30 induces apoptosis in PIN and PCa cell lines in vitro and suppresses PC-3 growth in vivo with no effect on normal prostate cells. Mechanistically, MCP30 inhibits histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) activity and promotes histone-3 and -4 protein acetylation. Treatment with MCP30 induces PTEN expression in a prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and PCa cell lines resulting in inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. In addition, MCP30 inhibits Wnt signaling activity through reduction of nuclear accumulation of ,-catenin and decreased levels of c- Myc and Cyclin-D1. Our data indicate that MCP30 selectively induces PIN and PCa apoptosis and inhibits HDAC-1 activity. These results suggest that Type I RIPs derived from plants are HDAC inhibitors that can be utilized in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. 2009 UICC [source]

    Prognostic evaluation of epidermal fatty acid-binding protein and calcyphosine, two proteins implicated in endometrial cancer using a proteomic approach

    Zhengyu Li
    Abstract With the aim to translate the discovery from proteomic research into clinical applications, we identified epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) and calcyphosine (CAPS) by MALDI-Q-TOF MS and validated their overexpressions by immunoblotting. Their expression statuses were examined by immunohistochemistry in 39 normal endometrium, 29 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and 84 endometrial cancer (EC) cases. We evaluated the correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and determined whether these proteins had prognostic significance. Expressions of E-FABP and CAPS were increased 2.64- and 2.18-fold in EC by immunoblotting. Immunoreactivity of both E-FABP and CAPS were stronger in EC than in EIN or normal tissues (p < 0.001 and < 0.001). Stronger immunoreactivity of E-FABP and CAPS were shown to present with poor differentiation (p = 0.032 and 0.001), but no relevance was observed with staging (p = 1.368 and 4.306). Survival analysis indicated that immunoreactivity of CAPS was correlated to poor survival (p = 0.018), but E-FABP status appeared to be no correlation to the clinical outcome of patients (p = 0.865). Multivariate analysis indicated that CAPS might be an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with EC (p = 0.008). Results demonstrated the ubiquitous overexpressions of E-FABP and CAPS in EC and the correlations to the clinicopathologic parameters. CAPS might be a potential prognostic factor for survival in patients with EC. The research pattern from proteomics to clinical specimens would have widespread applications. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cervical cancer screening program integrating Pap smear and HPV DNA testing: A population-based study

    Angel Chao
    Abstract We conducted a population-based cohort study to evaluate the complementary value of HPV testing to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV in Taiwan. In this report, we described the design of the whole study and analyzed the cross-sectional results. Female residents (age , 30 years) of Taoyuan, Taiwan were invited. After signing informed consent, every participant had a Pap smear and a HPV testing. Patients with Pap , atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (Group I) or those with HPV-positive but normal cytology (Group II) were referred for a colposcopic examination. A total of 10,014 women were eligible. The overall HPV prevalence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval 10.5%,11.4%) in the study population. A total of 37 types of HPV were identified and the leading three were HPV-52, -18 and -58. There was a significant positive correlation of HPV prevalence with older age, postmenopausal status, current-user of oral contraceptives and never-user of hormone replacement therapy. Past users of oral contraceptives and never users of Pap were associated with higher risk of abnormal Pap, while age 40,49 strata had lower risk. Fifty-nine cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 from Group I and additional 11 from Group II were identified. The improvement of sensitivity with additional HPV testing was 15.3%. Besides, no specific subgroup was found to most benefit from the combined strategy. The value of adding HPV test to conventional Pap smear has to be evaluated after longer-term follow-up of this population-based cohort. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Flutamide reduced prostate cancer development and prostate stem cell antigen mRNA expression in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

    Zhao Zhigang
    Abstract High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) appears to represent an ideal target for chemoprevention of prostate cancer (PCa). HGPIN responds to androgen ablation and has prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA expression. One hundred and seventy two patients with isolated HGPIN were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive flutamide 250 mg/day (86 cases) or a placebo (86 cases) for 12 months and were rebiopsied at 12 and 60 months. PSCA mRNA expression was assessed in the prestudy and 12-month biopsies by in situ hybridization. The incidence of subsequent PCa was 11.6% in the flutamide group when compared with 30.2% in the placebo group over a follow-up period of 5 years (p = 0.0027). PSCA mRNA expression levels were significantly declined after treatment compared with that before treatment (p < 0.001). After treatment, 66 patients had reduced PSCA mRNA expression, in whom none was found with cancer on follow-up, however, 13 cases had increased PSCA mRNA expression levels, in whom 11 were found with cancer. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that HGPIN with increased PSCA mRNA expression after flutamide had an increased relative risk of 4.33 to develop subsequent cancer (95% confidence intervals: 2.48,7.36; p < 0.001). Seventeen (19.8%) cases had the flutamide-associated side effects, which were graded as mild, but all did not discontinue study. Flutamide can effectively and safely reduce PCa development and significantly suppress PSCA mRNA expression in men with isolated HGPIN, whereas the increased PSCA mRNA expression after therapy may be a clinically adverse predictor for cancer onset. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Vaccination trial with HPV16 L1E7 chimeric virus-like particles in women suffering from high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3)

    Andreas M. Kaufmann
    Abstract Persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLP) has demonstrated efficacy in prophylaxis but lacks therapeutic potential. HPV16 L1E7 chimeric virus-like particles (CVLP) consist of a carboxy-terminally truncated HPV16L1 protein fused to the amino-terminal part of the HPV16 E7 protein and self-assemble by recombinant expression of the fusion protein. The CVLP are able to induce L1- and E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We have performed a first clinical trial to gain information about the safety and to generate preliminary data on the therapeutic potential of the CVLP in humans. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been conducted in 39 HPV16 mono-infected high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients (CIN 2/3). Two doses (75 ,g or 250 ,g) of CVLP were applied. The duration of the study was 24 weeks with 2 optional visits after another 12 and 24 weeks. The vaccine showed a very good safety profile with only minor adverse events attributable to the immunization. Antibodies with high titers against HPV16 L1 and low titers against HPV16 E7 as well as cellular immune responses against both proteins were induced. Responses were equivalent for both vaccine concentrations. A trend for histological improvement to CIN 1 or normal was seen in 39% of the patients receiving the vaccine and only 25% of the placebo recipients. Fifty-six percent of the responders were also HPV16 DNA-negative by the end of the study. Therefore, we demonstrated evidence for safety and a nonsignificant trend for the clinical efficacy of the HPV16 L1E7 CVLP vaccine. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CD4+CD25hi regulatory T-cell frequency correlates with persistence of human papillomavirus type 16 and T helper cell responses in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Johan W. Molling
    Abstract CD4+CD25hiCTLA4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to maintain immune tolerance against self antigens and increased circulating frequencies have been reported in various types of cancers. Circulating invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKT) are reduced in cancer patients and low iNKT frequency is related to poor prognosis. It is not yet clear whether high Treg numbers and low iNKT cell numbers pose an increased risk for the progression of premalignant lesions or whether Treg and iNKT cell numbers are influenced by dysplasia. We therefore studied prospectively the relation between iNKT cell and Treg frequencies and the natural course of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) induced pre-malignant cervical dysplasia in 82 patients who participated in a nonintervention cohort study of women with abnormal cytology. Treg frequencies were significantly increased in women who had persistent HPV16 infection. Within the HPV16 persistence group there was no difference in Treg frequencies among patients who developed a CIN3 lesion and patients who did not progress to CIN3. Furthermore, Treg frequencies were increased in patients who had detectable HPV16 E7 specific IL-2 producing T-helper cells, which suggests a causal role of HPV infection in Treg development in parallel with HPV16 specific T helper cells. No evidence was found for a role for iNKT cells in persistence of HPV16 and progression of HPV16 induced CIN lesions. However, HPV-persistence-associated Tregs may explain the inefficacy of concomitant persistence associated immunity and may contribute to subsequent progression to neoplasia. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    HPV related VIN: Highly proliferative and diminished responsiveness to extracellular signals

    Lindy A.M. Santegoets
    Abstract Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a premalignant disorder caused by human papillomaviruses. Basic knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis of VIN is sparse. Therefore, we have analyzed the gene expression profile of 9 VIN samples in comparison to 10 control samples by using genome wide Affymetrix Human U133A plus2 GeneChips. Results were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis and immunostaining of a few representative genes (TACSTD1, CCNE2, AR and ESR1). Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) showed that 1,497 genes were differentially expressed in VIN compared to controls. By analyzing the biological processes affected by the observed differences, we found that VIN appears to be a highly proliferative disease; many cyclins (CCNA, CCNB and CCNE) and almost all prereplication complex proteins are upregulated. Thereby, VIN does not seem to depend for its proliferation on paracrine or endocrine signals. Many receptors (for example ESR1 and AR) and ligands are downregulated. Furthermore, although VIN is not an invasive disease, the inhibition of expression of a marked number of cell,cell adhesion molecules seems to indicate development towards invasion. Upon reviewing apoptosis and angiogenesis, it was observed that these processes have not become significantly disregulated in VIN. In conclusion: although VIN is still a premalignant disease, it already displays several hallmarks of cancer. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Increasing cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) gene expression in the progression of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma correlates with that of Bcl-2

    Daisuke Shimizu
    Abstract Previous studies from our laboratory and others have suggested that increased expression of cox-2 is important in the genesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma. In vitro studies suggest that cox-2 regulates expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2, thus possibly accounting for reduced apoptosis in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of these 2 genes in the development of Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma. Histologic sections from endoscopic biopsies or esophagectomy specimens were classified as non-dysplastic Barrett's (n = 30), intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 12) and adenocarcinoma (n = 48). The desired tissue was isolated by laser capture microdissection and expression levels of cox-2 and bcl-2 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (Taqman). Gene expression levels were compared to samples of the distal esophageal squamous epithelium (n = 55) and reflux-esophagitis (n = 25), without Barrett's or cancer. Expression of both bcl-2 and cox-2 were increased in non-dysplastic Barrett's (p = 0.0077, p = 0.0037), intraepithelial neoplasia (p = 0.0053, p = 0.0220) and adenocarcinoma (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) compared to squamous epithelium or reflux-esophagitis. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between these two genes, especially in carcinoma (p < 0.0001). 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cross-sectional analysis of oncogenic HPV viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Roberto Flores
    Abstract In human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, HPV infection characteristics such as viral load may play an important role in lesion development. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between quantitative assessment of oncogenic HPV viral load, and abnormal cytology among women residing along the United States,Mexico border. A cross-sectional study of 2,319 women was conducted between 1997 and 1998. Viral load of oncogenic HPV types (16, 18, 31, 39, 45, 51, 52, and 58) was measured among 173 HPV (+) women using quantitative real-time PCR. Overall, HPV 16, 31, 52 and 58 showed the highest viral load. Single type infection had higher viral loads compared to multiple type infections. HPV viral load declined significantly (p = 0.04) with age. No significant association was observed with other known HPV risk factors such as oral contraceptive use, parity, sexual and STD history. Viral load was independently associated with degree of cervical lesions. An adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 4.7 for the association between increasing total viral load and Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS)/Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance (AGUS) was observed (p for trend <0.01). Increased risk of low-grade SIL was observed with higher viral load compared with HPV negative women (AOR = 47.7 for total viral load; AOR = 37.1 for HPV viral load not including HPV16, and AOR = 25.9 for HPV16 viral load). Likewise, increased risk of high-grade SIL with higher viral loads was observed (AOR = 58.4 for high total viral load compared with HPV negative women, AOR = 58.1 for HPV viral load not including HPV16, and AOR = 69.8 for HPV16 high viral load). Results from this study suggest a dose,response relationship between increasing oncogenic HPV viral load and risk of LSIL and HSIL. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quantitative analysis of MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA in pancreatic juice for preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Kenoki Ohuchida
    Abstract Pancreatic juice is a promising type of diagnostic sample for pancreatic cancer, and members of the mucin (MUC) family are diagnostic candidates. To evaluate the utility of MUC family members as diagnostic markers, we measured MUC mRNA expression in pancreatic tissues and pancreatic juice obtained from patients with different pancreatic diseases as well as in pancreatic cancer cell lines by real-time PCR. Furthermore, to support the possibility of early diagnosis by quantification of MUC1 and MUC5AC, immunohistochemistry and microdissection-based quantitative analysis of mRNA were carried out. There was no significant correlation between MUC1 and MUC5AC expression in cell lines. When ,-actin was used as a reference gene, median MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were remarkably greater in tumoral tissues than in non-tumoral tissues, but median MUC4 and MUC6 mRNA expression levels were not. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that quantitative analysis of MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA in pancreatic juice is better diagnostic modality than that of MUC4 and MUC6 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry showed that MUC1 and MUC5AC were highly expressed in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) and moderately expressed in high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN); no staining was observed in normal ducts. Analysis of cells isolated by microdissection showed stepwise upregulation of MUC1 and MUC5AC in the development of high-grade PanIN to IDC. Our results suggest that MUC1 and MUC5AC are upregulated stepwise in pancreatic carcinogenesis and that quantitative assessment of MUC1 and MUC5AC mRNA in pancreatic juice has high potential for preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Escape from microenvironmental control and progression of intraepithelial neoplasia

    Weitian Zhang
    Abstract We previously reported that normal human keratinocytes controlled neoplastic progression of tumor cells at an early stage of transformation in stratified squamous epithelium. We now studied if cells at a more advanced stage of transformation were also subject to such microenvironmental control. To accomplish this, 3D human tissues that mimic intraepithelial neoplasia were fabricated by mixing genetically marked (,-gal), early-stage (II-4 cells) or advanced-stage (SCC13) transformed keratinocytes with normal keratinocytes, and tumor cell fate and phenotype were monitored in organotypic culture and after surface transplantation to nude mice. In vivo, SCC13 cells evaded local growth suppression to undergo connective tissue invasion at significantly lower tumor cell volumes (12:1, 50:1 normal:tumor cells) than II-4 cells. This behavior was explained by the growth suppression of II-4 cells, while advanced-stage tumor cells escaped this control and continued to undergo clonal expansion in mixed cultures to form large, intraepithelial tumor clusters. These communities of tumor cells underwent autonomous growth that was associated with altered expression of markers of differentiation (keratin 1) and cell,cell communication (connexin-43). Furthermore, significantly greater numbers of SCC13 cells expanded into a basal position after low-calcium stripping of suprabasal cells of mixed cultures compared to II-4 cells, suggesting that expansion of these cells enabled tumor cell invasion after transplantation. These findings demonstrated that early tumor development in human stratified squamous epithelium required escape from microenvironmental growth control that was dependent on the transformation stage of intraepithelial tumor cells during the premalignant stage of cancer progression. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    RM2 antigen (,1,4-GalNAc-disialyl-Lc4) as a new marker for prostate cancer

    Seiichi Saito
    Abstract Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used for early detection of prostate cancer, PSA has problems with specificity and prediction of pathological stage. Therefore, a new marker for prostate cancer is urgently required. We examined expression of a novel carbohydrate antigen, ,1,4-GalNAc-disialyl-Lc4, defined by the monoclonal antibody RM2, in prostate cancer using 75 cases of radical prostatectomy specimens. RM2 immunoreactivity was negative to weak in all benign glands, and weak to moderate in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In prostatic adenocarcinoma, RM2 immunoreactivity was negative to weak (lower expression) in 20 cases, and moderate to strong (higher expression) in 55 cases. A clear difference of RM2 expression level was observed between Gleason patterns 3 and ,4. Higher expression of RM2 antigen was significantly associated with primary Gleason pattern ,4, high Gleason score (,8), larger tumor volume and advanced tumor stage. Furthermore, 5-year PSA failure-free survival was significantly lower in the higher expression group. However, no significant relationship was observed between RM2 expression level and preoperative serum PSA. Western blot analysis in prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and LNCap revealed that major 49-kDa and minor 39-kDa glycoproteins were common to both cells, but there was an increase of 59- and 125-kDa glycoproteins unique to LNCap and an increase of 88- and 98-kDa glycoproteins unique to PC3. RM2 antigen is a new histological marker for prostate cancer that may reflect the Gleason grading system. Identification of the glycoproteins carrying the RM2 antigen will provide new insights into the properties of prostate cancer. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The role of genotype-specific human papillomavirus detection in diagnosing residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Ruud LM Bekkers
    Abstract We assessed prospectively whether residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after treatment for high-grade CIN can be predicted by genotype-specific high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) detection in follow-up cervical scrapes. A broad spectrum, highly sensitive SPF10 -LiPA-PCR HPV detection technique was used on cervical scrapes before large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), on the LLETZ biopsy and on follow-up scrapes of 90 patients treated for high-grade CIN. HR-HPV was detected in the biopsies of 93% (n = 84) of the patients and in the follow-up scrapes of 48% (n = 43) of the patients. In 12 patients, genotype-specific HR-HPV persistence was detected in both follow-up scrapes. In 10 patients, residual CIN was detected. In 5 of these patients (including all patients with residual CIN 3), the follow-up scrapes showed genotype-specific HR-HPV persistence. In 2 patients, a different HR-HPV was detected, and 3 patients had HR-HPV-negative follow-up scrapes. Conventional cytologic follow-up was abnormal in 13 patients including all 10 patients with residual CIN. The negative predictive value (NPV) of HR-HPV detection on follow-up scrapes was high (94%). Repeat detection of genotype-specific HR-HPV showed a lower sensitivity and NPV than repeat detection of any HR-HPV, but its specificity was higher. Repeat conventional cytologic follow-up showed the highest sensitivity and NPV. In conclusion, the presence of HR-HPV in cervical scrapes after LLETZ for high-grade CIN is a risk factor for the presence of residual CIN. HR-HPV genotype-specific persistence is specifically present in patients with residual CIN 3. However, HR-HPV detection cannot predict or exclude the presence of residual CIN in the individual patient and additional procedures remain necessary. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Predictors of prostate cancer on repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic prostate biopsy

    AbstractBackground: We analyzed the outcome of repeated transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic prostate biopsy in Japanese men whose clinical findings were suspected of prostate cancer after previous negative biopsies. Methods: Between January 1993 and March 2002, 1045 patients underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Among them, 104 patients underwent repeat biopsy due to indications of persistent elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) or TRUS, increased PSA velocity, and/or previous suspicious biopsy findings. Several clinicopathological factors were evaluated for their ability to predict the detection of prostate cancer on repeat biopsy. Results: Prostate cancer was detected in 22 of 104 patients (21.2%) who underwent repeat biopsies. PSA concentration and PSA density at both the initial and repeat biopsies, and PSA velocity in men with positive repeat biopsy were significantly greater than those in men with negative repeat biopsy. The incidence of abnormal findings in DRE and TRUS at initial biopsy in men with positive repeat biopsy was also significantly higher than that in men with negative repeat biopsy. However, neither the presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia nor number of biopsy cores at initial biopsy had a significant association with the results of the repeat biopsy. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that PSA and PSA density at both the initial and repeat biopsies, PSA velocity, and DRE and TRUS findings at initial biopsy were independent predictors of malignant disease on repeat biopsy. Conclusion: Despite an initial negative biopsy, repeat TRUS-guided biopsy should be carried out to exclude prostate cancer in cases of suspicious clinical findings, such as elevated PSA or PSA-related parameters, or abnormal findings of DRE or TRUS. [source]

    Molecular aspects of diagnostic nucleolar and nuclear envelope changes in prostate cancer

    Andrew H. Fischer
    Abstract Prostate cancer is still diagnosed by pathologists based on subjective assessment of altered cell and tissue structure. The cellular-level structural changes diagnostic of some forms of cancer are known to be induced by cancer genes, but the relation between specific cellular-level structural features and cancer genes has not been explored in the prostate. Two important cell structural changes in prostate cancer,nucleolar enlargement and nuclear envelope (NE) irregularity,are discussed from the perspective that they should also relate to the function of the genes active in prostate cancer. Enlargement of the nucleolus is the key diagnostic feature of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), an early stage that appears to be the precursor to the majority of invasive prostate cancers. Nucleolar enlargement classically is associated with increased ribosome production, and production of new ribosomes appears essential for cell-cycle progression. Several cancer genes implicated in PIN are known (in other cell types) to augment ribosome production, including c-Myc, p27, retinoblastoma, p53, and growth factors that impact on ERK signaling. However, critical review of the available information suggests that increased ribosome production per se may be insufficient to explain nucleolar enlargement in PIN, and other newer functions of nucleoli may therefore need to be invoked. NE irregularity develops later in the clonal evolution of some prostate cancers, and it has adverse prognostic significance. Nuclear irregularity has recently been shown to develop dynamically during interphase following oncogene expression, without a requirement for post-mitotic NE reassembly. NE irregularity characteristic of some aggressive prostate cancers could reflect cytoskeletal forces exerted on the NE during active cell locomotion. NE irregularity could also promote chromosomal instability because it leads to chromosomal asymmetry in metaphase. Finally, NE irregularity could impact replication competence, transcriptional programming and nuclear pore function. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The association between leukocyte telomere length and cigarette smoking, dietary and physical variables, and risk of prostate cancer

    AGING CELL, Issue 4 2009
    Lisa Mirabello
    Summary Telomeres consist of nucleotide repeats and a protein complex at chromosome ends that are essential to maintaining chromosomal integrity. Several studies have suggested that subjects with shorter telomeres are at increased risk of bladder and lung cancer. In comparison to normal tissues, telomeres are shorter in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. We examined prostate cancer risk associated with relative telomere length as determined by quantitative PCR on prediagnostic buffy coat DNA isolated from 612 advanced prostate cancer cases and 1049 age-matched, cancer-free controls from the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. Telomere length was analyzed as both a continuous and a categorical variable with adjustment for potential confounders. Statistically significant inverse correlations between telomere length, age and smoking status were observed in cases and controls. Telomere length was not associated with prostate cancer risk (at the median, OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.08); associations were similar when telomere length was evaluated as a continuous variable or by quartiles. The relationships between telomere length and inflammation-related factors, diet, exercise, body mass index, and other lifestyle variables were explored since many of these have previously been associated with shorter telomeres. Healthy lifestyle factors (i.e., lower BMI, more exercise, tobacco abstinence, diets high in fruit and vegetables) tended to be associated with greater telomere length. This study found no statistically significant association between leukocyte telomere length and advanced prostate cancer risk. However, correlations of telomere length with healthy lifestyles were noted, suggesting the role of these factors in telomere biology maintenance and potentially impacting overall health status. [source]

    1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer: In vivo,ex vivo profiles and effect of tumor load

    Marrita M. Mahon PhD
    Abstract Purpose To compare in vivo 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectra of preinvasive and invasive cervical lesions with ex vivo magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra of intact biopsies from the same subjects and to establish the effects of tumor load in the tissue sampled on the findings. Materials and Methods A total of 51 subjects (nine with normal cervix, 10 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN], and 32 with cervical cancer) underwent endovaginal MR at 1.5 T. Single-voxel (3.4 cm3) 1H MR spectra were acquired and voxel tumor load was calculated (tumor volume within voxel as a percentage of voxel volume). Resonances from triglycerides ,CH2 and ,CH3 and choline-containing compounds (Cho) were correlated with voxel tumor load. Biopsies analyzed by 1H MAS-MR spectroscopy (MRS) had metabolite levels correlated with tumor load in the sample at histology. Results In vivo studies detected Cho in normal, CIN, and cancer patients with no significant differences in levels (P = 0.93); levels were independent of voxel tumor load. Triglyceride ,CH2 and ,CH3 signals in-phase with Cho were present in 77% and 29%, respectively, of cancer subjects (but not in normal women or those with CIN), but did not correlate with voxel tumor load. Ex vivo cancer biopsies showed levels of triglycerides ,CH2 and ,CH3 and of Cho that were significantly greater than in normal or CIN biopsies (P < 0.05); levels were independent of the tumor load in the sample. The presence of ,CH2 in vivo predicted the presence of cancer with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.4% and 93.8% respectively, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 96% and 68.2%; for ,CH2 ex vivo, sensitivity was 100%; specificity, 69%; PPV, 82%; and NPV, 100%. Conclusion Elevated lipid levels are detected by MRS in vivo and ex vivo in cervical cancer and are independent of tumor load in the volume of tissue sampled. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;19:356,364. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cervical and oral human papillomavirus types in HIV-1 positive and negative women with cervical disease in South Africa

    Dianne J. Marais
    Abstract This study tested cervical and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-1 seropositive (HIV+) and seronegative (HIV,) women to determine any association between infections at both sites and the difference in prevalence of the HPV types infecting these women. Participants were 115 women referred to a colposcopy clinic after diagnosis of abnormal cervical cytology. The women showed low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) or high grade disease (CIN2/3) or no CIN based on colposcopy and histology. Typing of HPV in cervical and oral cells was by Roche linear array and included direct sequencing on selected oral samples. Cervical HPV prevalence was 86.5% and 97.1% in HIV, and HIV+ women respectively. With the exception of HPV-45, prominent in HIV+ women, the hierarchy of predominant types were similar in HIV, and HIV+ women. HPV-16 was most prevalent in both HIV+ (41.7%) and HIV, women (38.5%) with CIN2/3. Significantly more HIV+ women had multiple cervical (>1) infections than HIV, women (36.1% vs. 88.2%, P,<,0.001) and more oral HPV infections (45.5% and 25% respectively; P,=,0.04). The most prevalent oral HPV types were HPV-33, -11, and -72. The majority of women did not have concordant oral and cervical HPV types, reflecting possible independence of infection at the two sites. HIV immune suppression did not impact significantly on the predominant types of cervical HPV infection (except for HPV-45). HIV+ women had more multiple HPV infections and those with severe cervical disease a similar prevalence of HIV-16 but a lower HPV-18 prevalence than HIV, women. J. Med. Virol. 80:953,959, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular variants of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 and risk for cervical Neoplasia in Portugal

    Angela Pista
    Abstract Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered as the central cause of invasive cervical cancer. Specific HPV 16 and 18 sequence variations were associated with an increased risk for progression. The purpose of this study was to analyze intratypic variations of HPV 16 and 18 within the E6 gene, MY09/11 and LCR regions, and to evaluate the risk of these variants for cervical neoplasia among Portuguese women. Cervical samples from 187 HPV 16-positive and 41 HPV 18-positive women with normal epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or invasive cervical cancer were amplified by type-specific PCR, followed by sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Sixteen new HPV 16 and 18 patterns are described in this paper. European HPV 16 variants were the most frequent (74.3%), particularly Ep-T350 (44.4%), followed by African (16.1%), and Asian-American (9.6%). Non-European HPV 16 variants were more frequent in pre-invasive lesions than in normal tissue and low-grade lesions. However, when analyzed separately, only African variants were associated significantly with an increased risk for cervical cancer. For HPV 18, the AsAi variant showed a trend, which was not statistically significant to an enhanced oncogenicity. European variants seemed to be significantly associated with a lower risk for cervical cancer development. The distribution of HPV 16 and 18 variants was not related to age or race among women living in the same geographical region. Knowledge of variants will be important for risk determination as well as for designing primers or probes for HPV detection methods, and for appropriate cervical cancer prevention strategies. J. Med. Virol. 79:1889,1897, 2007. Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]