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Intraarterial Chemotherapy (intraarterial + chemotherapy)
Altered fractionation and adjuvant chemotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomaHEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 7 2010
William M. Mendenhall MD
Abstract Background The aim of this review was to discuss the role of altered fractionation and adjuvant chemotherapy for patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods This review explores the pertinent literature and discusses the optimal management of previously untreated patients with stage III,stage IVA and/or -B HNSCCs. Results Depending on the schedule, altered fractionation improves locoregional control and survival. Both hyperfractionation and concomitant boost RT improve locoregional control and are associated with improved overall survival (OS). Adjuvant chemotherapy improves OS; the greatest impact is observed after concomitant versus induction or maintenance chemotherapy. Monochemotherapy appears to be equivalent to polychemotherapy. Drugs associated with the greatest survival benefit include fluorouracil and cisplatin. Intraarterial chemotherapy offers no advantage over intravenous chemotherapy. Concomitant cetuximab and RT results in improved outcomes similar to those observed after concomitant cisplatin-based chemotherapy and RT. Conclusions Altered fractionation and/or concomitant chemotherapy result in improved outcomes compared with conventionally fractionated definitive RT alone for stage III,stage IV HNSCC. The optimal combination of RT fractionation and chemotherapy remains unclear. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]
Seizure-Promoting Effect of Blood,Brain Barrier DisruptionEPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2007
Summary:,Purpose: It is generally accepted that blood,brain barrier (BBB) failure occurs as a result of CNS diseases, including epilepsy. However, evidences also suggest that BBB failure may be an etiological factor contributing to the development of seizures. Methods: We monitored the onset of seizures in patients undergoing osmotic disruption of BBB (BBBD) followed by intraarterial chemotherapy (IAC) to treat primary brain lymphomas. Procedures were performed under barbiturate anesthesia. The effect of osmotic BBBD was also evaluated in naive pigs. Results: Focal motor seizures occurred immediately after BBBD in 25% of procedures and originated contralateral to the hemisphere of BBBD. No seizures were observed when BBB was not breached and only IAC was administered. The only predictors of seizures were positive indices of BBBD, namely elevation of serum S100, levels and computed tomography (CT) scans. In a porcine model of BBBD, identical procedures generated an identical result, and sudden behavioral and electrographic (EEG) seizures correlated with successful BBB disruption. The contribution of tumor or chemotherapy to acute seizures was therefore excluded. Conclusion: This is the first study to correlate extent of acute BBB openings and development of seizures in humans and in a large animal model of BBB opening. Acute vascular failure is sufficient to cause seizures in the absence of CNS pathologies or chemotherapy. [source]
Hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumorsCANCER, Issue 8 2005
Variables affecting response rates, survival
Abstract BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic variables that influence response and survival in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who are treated with hepatic arterial embolization (HAE) or chemoembolization (HACE). METHODS Patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who underwent HAE or HACE were included in this retrospective study. Follow-up imaging studies were compared with baseline imaging to determine the radiologic response. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan,Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the prognostic variables that affected response and survival. RESULTS The study included 69 patients with carcinoid tumors and 54 patients with pancreatic islet cell carcinomas. Patients who had carcinoid tumors had a higher response rate (66.7% vs. 35.2%; P = 0.0001) and had longer PFS (22.7 mos vs. 16.1 mos; P = 0.046) and OS (33.8 mos vs. 23.2 mos; P = 0.012) compared with patients who had islet cell carcinomas. For patients with carcinoid tumors, multivariate analysis identified male gender as the only independent risk factor for poor survival (P = 0.05). Octreotide was predictive marginally for PFS (P = 0.06). Patients who were treated with HAE had a higher response rate than patients who were treated with HACE (P = 0.004). For patients with islet cell carcinoma, an intact primary tumor, , 75% liver involvement, and extrahepatic metastases were associated with reduced OS in the univariate analysis; the presence of bone metastases was the only risk factor (P = 0.031) in the multivariate analysis. Patients who were treated with HACE had a prolonged OS (31.5 mos vs. 18.2 mos) and improved response (50% vs. 25%) compared with patients who were treated with HAE, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Patients with carcinoid tumors had better outcomes than patients with islet cell carcinomas. The addition of intraarterial chemotherapy to HAE did not improve the outcome of patients with carcinoid tumors, but it seemed to benefit patients with islet cell carcinomas. In patients who had carcinoid tumors, male gender predicted a poor outcome, and a trend toward prolonged PFS was observed in patients who received concomitant octreotide. An intact primary tumor, extensive liver disease, and bone metastases were associated with reduced survival in patients with islet cell carcinomas. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]
Echogenicity of liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma is an independent prognostic factor in patients treated with regional chemotherapyCANCER, Issue 6 2002
Thomas Gruenberger M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Echogenicity of liver metastases was found to be a predictive biologic factor influencing long-term outcome after curative liver resection. The current analysis focuses on the influence of echogenicity on survival in patients treated with intraarterial chemotherapy for unresectable colorectal carcinoma liver metastases. METHODS A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data at the Department of Surgery at the University of New South Wales-affiliated St. George Hospital was performed. Two hundred twelve consecutive patients with unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma treated between May 1992 and September 2000 were analyzed. Echogenicity of metastases was measured intraoperatively using a 5 MHz probe. Overall survival difference was compared between hyper- and hypoechoic metastases on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS At a median followup of 15.1 months, 47 patients (22%) were alive and 165 (78%) had died. A significant survival benefit was observed in patients having hyperechoic lesions (median survival 16.2 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.9,18.5) compared to hypoechoic lesions (median survival 11.6 months, 95% CI 8,15.2), P < 0.01. Other prognostic factors were differentiation of the primary tumor (P < 0.02), percentage hepatic replacement (P < 0.05) and carcinoembryonic antigen decrease (P < 0.03). Echogenicity was identified as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P < 0.009). CONCLUSIONS Echogenicity is an important prognostic survival parameter. Cancer 2002;94:1753,9. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10386 [source]
Results of multimodality therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinusCANCER, Issue 5 2002
Ken-ichi Nibu M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND A wide variety of modalities, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, alone or in combination, have been used for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the maxillary sinus to obtain better local control and maintain functions. However, there is still much controversy with regard to the optimum treatment. METHODS From 1987 to 1999, 33 patients with SCC of maxillary sinus were treated at the Department of Otolaryngology,Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital. The treatment consisted of 30,40 grays (Gy) of preoperative radiotherapy with concomitant intraarterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin followed by surgery and 30,40 Gy of postoperative radiotherapy, for tumors without skull base invasion. For tumors invading the skull base, preoperative systemic chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy was performed, instead of intraarterial chemotherapy, then followed by skull base surgery. The surgical procedures varied according to the extent of tumor. Results were compared with those of the 108 patients treated in our hospital from 1976 to 1982. RESULTS Partial maxillectomy was performed in 2 T2 patients and 12 T3 patients. Total maxillectomy was performed in 1 T2 patient, 3 T2 patients, and 7 T4 patients. Skull base surgery was performed in eight T4 patients. Orbital content and hard palate were preserved in 22 patients and 18 patients, respectively. The overall 5-year survival rates were 86% in T 3 patients and 67 % in T4 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our multimodal treatment has provided favorable local control and survival outcome with good functional results. Cancer 2002;94:1476,82. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10253 [source]