Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intra

  • ad intra
  • considerable intra

  • Selected Abstracts


    B. Santelices
    Classical ecological theory predicts that whenever growing individuals share a common and limiting resource, such as substratum in mid-intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, preemptive competition will occur determining species abundance and distribution patterns. However, conspecificity of several ecologically dominant Rhodophyta may coalesce when grown in laboratory cultures. The extent at which intraspecific coalescence occurs in the field and whether the process may also happens during interspecific encounters remain to be determined. If intra- and interspecific coalescence effectively occurs, then coexistence through coalescence rises as an alternative to competition among red-algal dominated intertidal and shallow subtidal communities. Populations of Mazzaella laminarioides and Nothogenia fastigiata living in mid-intertidal, semi-exposed rocky habitats in Central Chile are being used to test the above ideas. Intra- and interspecific encounters occur in the field throughout the year. Coalescence does occur among conspecific partners but it has not been detected in interspecific encounters. Rather, a thick interface of compressed cells, necrotic tissues and cyanobacterial nodules is formed between the two contacting partners. In addition, observations of laboratory cultures indicate that spore germination, germling survival and differentiation of erect axes in bispecific cultures may be reduced when compared to single-species controls. Interspecific differences in growth and differentiation rates appear as the mechanisms explaining a lack of coalescence and negative effects during interspecific contacts. On the other hand, the existence of conspecific coalescence in the field suggests this process should be considered as a real alternative to intraspecific competition among coalescing Rhodophyta. [source]

    Spatiotemporal changes of beetle communities across a tree diversity gradient

    Stephanie Sobek
    Abstract Aim, Plant and arthropod diversity are often related, but data on the role of mature tree diversity on canopy insect communities are fragmentary. We compare species richness of canopy beetles across a tree diversity gradient ranging from mono-dominant beech to mixed stands within a deciduous forest, and analyse community composition changes across space and time. Location, Germany's largest exclusively deciduous forest, the Hainich National Park (Thuringia). Methods, We used flight interception traps to assess the beetle fauna of various tree species, and applied additive partitioning to examine spatiotemporal patterns of diversity. Results, Species richness of beetle communities increased across the tree diversity gradient from 99 to 181 species per forest stand. Intra- and interspecific spatial turnover among trees contributed more than temporal turnover among months to the total ,-beetle diversity of the sampled stands. However, due to parallel increases in the number of habitat generalists and the number of species in each feeding guild (herbivores, predators and fungivores), no proportional changes in community composition could be observed. If only beech trees were analysed across the gradient, patterns were similar but temporal (monthly) species turnover was higher compared to spatial turnover among trees and not related to tree diversity. Main conclusions, The changes in species richness and community composition across the gradient can be explained by habitat heterogeneity, which increased with the mix of tree species. We conclude that understanding temporal and spatial species turnover is the key to understanding biodiversity patterns. Mono-dominant beech stands are insufficient to conserve fully the regional species richness of the remaining semi-natural deciduous forest habitats in Central Europe, and analysing beech alone would have resulted in the misleading conclusion that temporal (monthly) turnover contributes more to beetle diversity than spatial turnover among different tree species or tree individuals. [source]

    Determination of ethyl sulfate , a marker for recent ethanol consumption , in human urine by CE with indirect UV detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 23 2006
    Francesc A. Esteve-Turrillas
    Abstract A CE method for the determination of the ethanol consumption marker ethyl sulfate,(EtS) in human urine was developed. Analysis was performed in negative polarity mode with a background electrolyte composed of 15,mM maleic acid, 1,mM phthalic acid, and 0.05,mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at pH,2.5 and indirect UV detection at 220,nm (300,nm reference wavelength). This buffer system provided selective separation conditions for EtS and vinylsulfonic acid, employed as internal standard, from urine matrix components. Sample pretreatment of urine was minimized to a 1:5 dilution with water. The optimized CE method was validated in the range of 5,700,mg/L using seven lots of urine. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values, determined at 5, 60, and 700,mg/L with each lot of urine, fulfilled the requirements according to common guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. The application to forensic urine samples collected at autopsies as well as a successful cross-validation with a LC-MS/MS-based method confirmed the overall validity and real-world suitability of the developed expeditious CE assay (sample throughput 130 per day). [source]

    Intra- and interlaboratory calibration of the DR CALUX® bioassay for the analysis of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals in sediments

    Harrie T. Besselink
    Abstract In the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management in the Netherlands [1], it is defined that in 2003, in addition to the assessment of chemical substances, special guidelines for the assessment of dredged material should be recorded. The assessment of dredged material is based on integrated chemical and biological effect measurements. Among others, the DR CALUX® (dioxin responsive,chemically activated luciferase expression) bioassay has tentatively been recommended for inclusion in the dredged material assessment. To ensure the reliability of this bioassay, an intra- and interlaboratory validation study, or ring test, was performed, organized by the Dutch National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ) in cooperation with BioDetection Systems BV (BDS). The intralaboratory repeatability and reproducibility and the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the DR CALUX bioassay were determined by analyzing sediment extracts and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) blanks. The highest observed repeatability was found to be 24.1%, whereas the highest observed reproducibility was calculated to be 19.9%. Based on the obtained results, the LOD and LOQ to be applied for the bioassay are 0.3 and 1.0 pM, respectively. The interlaboratory calibration study was divided into three phases, starting with analyzing pure chemicals. During the second phase, sediment extracts were analyzed, whereas in the third phase, whole sediments had to be extracted, cleaned, and analyzed. The average interlaboratory repeatability increased from 14.6% for the analysis of pure compound to 26.1% for the analysis of whole matrix. A similar increase in reproducibility with increasing complexity of handlings was observed with the interlaboratory reproducibility of 6.5% for pure compound and 27.9% for whole matrix. The results of this study are intended as a starting point for implementing the integrated chemical,biological assessment strategy and for systematic monitoring of dredged materials and related materials in the coming years. [source]

    A Possible Role for Gap Junctions in Generation of Very Fast EEG Oscillations Preceding the Onset of, and Perhaps Initiating, Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2001
    Roger D. Traub
    Summary: ,Purpose: We propose an experimentally and clinically testable hypothesis, concerning the origin of very fast (>,70 Hz) EEG oscillations that sometimes precede the onset of focal seizures. These oscillations are important, as they may play a causal role in the initiation of seizures. Methods: Subdural EEG recordings were obtained from children with focal cortical dysplasias and intractable seizures. Intra- and extracellular recordings were performed in rat hippocampal slices, with induction of population activity, as follows: (a) bath-applied tetramethylamine (an intracellular alkalinizing agent, that opens gap junctions); (b) bath-applied carbachol, a cholinergic agonist; and (c) focal pressure ejection of hypertonic K+ solution. Detailed network simulations were performed, the better to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying oscillations. A major feature of the simulations was inclusion of axon,axon gap junctions between principal neurons, as supported by recent experimental data. Results: Very fast oscillations were found in children before seizure onset, but also superimposed on bursts during the seizure, and on interictal bursts. In slice experiments, very fast oscillations had previously been seen on interictal-like bursts; we now show such oscillations before, between, and after epileptiform bursts. Very fast oscillations were also seen superimposed on gamma (30,70 Hz) oscillations induced by carbachol or hypertonic K+, and in the latter case, very fast oscillations became continuous when chemical synapses were blocked. Simulations replicate these data, when axonal gap junctions are included. Conclusions: Electrical coupling between principal neurons, perhaps via axonal gap junctions, could underlie very fast population oscillations, in seizure-prone brain, but possibly also in normal brain. The anticonvulsant potential of gap-junction blockers such as carbenoxolone, now in clinical use for treatment of ulcer disease, should be considered. [source]

    Intra- and Intersexual Selection for Multiple Traits in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2005
    Adeline Loyau
    Animal communication involves a multitude of signals ranging from morphological to behavioural traits. In spite of the diversity of traits used in animal signalling, most studies of sexual selection have focused on single male traits. Moreover, the two forces of sexual selection (male,male competition and female preference) may target different traits and favour the diversification of male signalling. Still, little is known on the combined effects of intra- and intersexual selection on the evolution of multiple signals. The peacock is often cited as one of the best examples of the strength of sexual selection in producing exaggerated traits. Here, we investigated traits under intra- and intersexual selection in a population of free-ranging common peafowl. Peacocks with longer trains and tarsi were more likely to establish a display territory in a central position within the lek and had a higher number of intrusions and agonistic interactions. These traits appeared therefore to be under intrasexual selection. Female selection was assessed as the number of copulations. Mating success was positively correlated with behavioural traits (display activity) and with train ornamentation (number and density of ocelli) suggesting that females use multiple cues during mate selection. Therefore, intra- and intersexual selection seem to operate on different sets of traits. Overall, our results stress the role of multiple receivers on the evolution of multiple signals. [source]

    Intra- and Inter-seasonal Variation in the Socio-Spatial Behavior of Adult Male Collared Lizards, Crotaphytus collaris (Reptilia, Crotaphytidae)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Troy A. Baird
    When individuals maintain strong inter-seasonal philopatry to the same territories, males may be able to re-establish territory occupancy without intense intra-sexual aggression, and instead spend more time courting females early in the reproductive season. Furthermore, when some males have prior experience defending the same territories, it may be necessary for young males to exhibit higher levels of aggression because they are establishing a territory for the first time. We tested these hypotheses by examining within-season (1992 and 1997) temporal variation in the social behavior of adult male collared lizards of known age and prior territorial experience in a population where inter-season philopatry to territories is high. Contrary to expectations, the frequency of aggression exhibited by males with and without prior territorial experience did not differ. The frequency of intra-sexual aggression was higher in 1992 than in 1997, perhaps because male competitors were more abundant in 1992. Although there was an interactive effect of year, male display and patrol were low at the beginning of the reproductive season in Apr. and May, reached peaks during midseason in June, and then decreased as reproduction ended in July. The size of territories showed a similar pattern, with males defending larger areas in June. Our data support the philopatry hypothesis in that the establishment of territories occurred without high levels of aggression early in the season, perhaps because territory boundaries have been well defined by high rates of patrol and advertisement during the middle of the previous season. Inter-sexual interactions were most frequent in June rather than at the beginning of the reproductive season. Adult females are producing their second clutches and yearling females are producing their first clutches in June. The high rate of inter-sexual encounters in June supports the hypothesis that males allocate more time to courtship when females are receptive because there are more reproductively active females at this time. The temporal pattern of activities in adult Crotaphytus collaris appears to function as a compromise between competing intra- and inter-sexual social demands on males, allowing males to maximize mating opportunities as well as maintain future access to productive territories. [source]

    Intra- and inter-allelic ordering of T cell receptor , chain gene assembly

    Bernard Khor
    Abstract Allelic exclusion at the TCR, locus mandates that gene assembly be regulated in a manner that permits feedback inhibition of further complete TCR, rearrangements upon pre-TCR expression. Here we show that assembly of TCR, chain genes from V,, D, and J, gene segments is intra-allelically ordered, proceeding primarily through DJ,, and not VD,, intermediates. This ensures that V, to DJ, rearrangement, which can be feedback inhibited, is the final step in the assembly process. A newly assembled VDJ, rearrangement must be tested to determine if it is in-frame before V, to DJ, rearrangement is permitted on the alternate allele. This inter-allelic ordering may occur through a general inefficiency of V, to DJ, rearrangement and/or through static differences in accessibility of the two TCR, alleles. However, we find that within the regulatory context of allelic exclusion, V, to DJ, rearrangement proceeds to completion on both alleles. Furthermore, all possible VDJ, rearrangements are not completed on one allele before V, to DJ, rearrangement is initiated on the alternate allele. Together, these data support a dynamic model of inter-allelic accessibility that permits the ordered and efficient assembly of complete variable region genes on both TCR, alleles during T cell development. [source]

    Entrapment of a Hexamer of Nitrobenzene Molecules between the Layers of (4,4)-Coordination Networks Containing Intra-,-Sheet Hydrogen Bonds

    Madhushree Sarkar
    Abstract Two exo -bidentate pyridyl ligands containing diamides as spacers were shown to form non-interpenetrated 2D-coordination networks of (4,4)-geometry upon treatment with Cu(NO3)2 and NaSCN. The crystal structures reveal that both structures contain intralayer ,-sheet hydrogen bonds. In one of these structures nitrobenzene occupies 60,% of the crystal volume included between the coordination networks. The nitrobenzene molecules form a layer which has the hexameric C,H···O hydrogen bonded aggregate as a basic building block. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Discharge patterns of neurons in the medial pontobulbar reticular formation during fictive mastication in the rabbit

    K.-G. Westberg
    Abstract In this study, we describe functional characteristics of neurons forming networks generating oral ingestive motor behaviours. Neurons in medial reticular nuclei on the right side of the brainstem between the trigeminal and hypoglossal motor nuclei were recorded in anaesthetized and paralysed rabbits during two types of masticatory-like motor patterns induced by electrical stimulation of the left (contralateral) or right (ipsilateral) cortical masticatory areas. Sixty-seven neurons in nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (nPontc), nucleus reticularis parvocellularis (nParv), and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Rgc) were studied. These were classified as phasic or tonic depending on their firing pattern during the fictive jaw movement cycle. Phasic neurons located in the dorsal part of nPontc were active during the jaw opening phase, whilst those in dorsal nParv tended to fire during the closing phase. In most neurons, burst duration and firing frequency changed between the two motor patterns, but there was little change in phase of firing. Tonic units were mainly recorded in the ventral half of nPontc, and at the junction between Rgc and caudal nParv. Cortical inputs with short latency from the contralateral masticatory area were more frequent in phasic (82%) than tonic (44%) neurons, whilst inputs from the ipsilateral cortex were equal in the two subgroups (57% and 56%). Phasic neurons had significantly shorter mean contralateral than ipsilateral cortical latencies, whilst there was no difference among tonic neurons. Intra- and perioral primary afferent inputs activated both types of neurons at oligo-synaptic latencies. Our results show that subpopulations of neurons in medial reticular nuclei extending from the caudal part of the trigeminal motor nucleus to the rostral third of the hypoglossal motor nucleus are active during the fictive masticatory motor behaviour. Unlike masticatory neurons in the lateral tegmentum, the medial subpopulations are spatially organized according to discharge pattern. [source]

    Imaging of Mandibular Trauma: ROC Analysis

    Dipl., Madhu K. Nair BDS
    Objectives: To compare the diagnostic efficacies of panoramic radiographs, mandibular trauma series, and digitized radiographs for detection of fractures of the mandible. Methods: Fractures were induced using blunt trauma in 25 cadaver mandibles. Panoramic radiographs, digitized radiographs, and mandibular series comprising an anteroposterior view, two lateral oblique, and a reverse Towne's were used. Six observers recorded their diagnoses using a five-point confidence rating scale. The data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Significant differences based on imaging modalities were found (p < 0.0015) in the area under the curves (Az): panoramic radiograph, 0.8762; mandibular series, 0.7521; panoramic plus anteroposterior radiographs combination, 0.8886; and digitized mandibular series, 0.7723. No observer-based differences were noted. Condylar and coronoid fractures were difficult to detect than those in other areas of the mandible (p < 0.033). Intra- and inter-observer agreements were high (,w= 0.81 and 0.76, respectively). Conclusions: Panoramic radiographs are adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. Addition of an anteroposterior view augments diagnostic accuracy. [source]

    Facile Construction of Spirocyclopropanated Bi-, Tri- and Tetracyclic Skeletons by Novel Cascades Involving Intra- and Intermolecular Heck Reactions of 2-Bromo-1,6-enynes and Bicyclopropylidene

    Michael Schelper
    Abstract Acyclic 2-bromo-1,6-enynes 5 -R, 9 -R and 11 -R with bulky substituents at the acetylenic terminus were co-cyclized with the highly strained bicyclopropylidene (12) under palladium catalysis at 80 °C to give the cross-conjugated tetraenes 13 -R, 18 -R and 19 -R in moderate-to-good yields (34,71%). Only the co-cyclization of 5 -Ph gave rise to an additional product, which was identified as the 11-membered ring 20. At elevated temperatures (120,140 °C) the initially formed tetraenes underwent 6,-electrocyclization to give spiro[cyclopropane-1,4,-bicylo[4.3.0]-1(6),2-dienes] 21 -R, 22 -R and 23 -R. This novel class of spirocyclopropanated oligocycles is also accessible by a one-pot protocol. The highest yields for both the tetraenes and bicyclo[4.3.0]nonadiene and its heteroanalogues were obtained with bulky substituents at the alkyne terminus of the precursors. Heteroatom-containing precursors 9 -R and 11 -R gave lower yields than their all-carbon analogues 5 -R. The acyclic 2-bromo-1,8-dien-6-ynes 28a,b,c upon palladium-catalyzed co-cyclization with bicyclopropylidene (12) at 110 °C gave spirocyclopropanated tricycles 31a,b and 32, respectively, in moderate yields (14, 31 and 32%). These products were formed by two consecutive 6,-electrocyclizations. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

    Long-term reliability and observer comparisons in the radiographic diagnosis of periapical disease

    O. Molven
    Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term diagnostic consistency of two examiners, an endodontist and a radiologist, and to make comparisons with findings recorded by an observer with more recent scientific and clinical experience in endodontics. Methodology Three groups, each consisting of 20 full mouth series of intraoral radiographs, with 79, 93 and 85 endodontically-treated roots, respectively, were successively evaluated for periapical disease. Evaluations were at first performed separately by the three observers. Disagreement and difficult, borderline cases were subjected to joint evaluation. Intra- and interexaminer comparisons were made. For two of the observers the observations were compared with findings recorded several years before for the same cases in the same radiographs. Results The intra- and interobserver long-term reliability of the two original examiners resulted in 83% overall agreement, the kappa values were 0.54, 0.57 and 0.53. Comparisons between all three observers disclosed 82%, 85% and 86% agreement and kappa values 0.55, 0.58 and 0.60. The joint evaluations and decisions did not indicate a dominating influence from any of the observers. Conclusions The long-term reliability of the two original observers was judged as being satisfactory. All three observers judged the overall disease status of the material in the same way. The joint discussions of selected cases might reduce observer variation to an acceptable level, avoid a number of false recordings and increase the reliability and validity of the findings. [source]

    Diameter of the human internal acoustic meatus and sex determination

    N. Lynnerup
    Abstract We report the results of testing the diameter of the internal opening of the acoustic canal in the petrous part of the temporal bone for sex determination of skeletal remains. The method involves measuring the diameter using a suite of ordinary drills. The method is very simple and has the great advantage of utilising one of the sturdiest bone elements of the human skeleton. The method may be especially useful for the analyses of very fragmented skeletal remains or cremated bones, where the petrous bone may still be readily recognisable. The method was tested using a forensic sample of 113 left petrous bones with known sex. Intra- and inter-observer testing was also performed. We found a statistically significant difference in diameter between males and females (means: males: 3.7,mm; females: 3.4,mm; P,<,0.009). However, the low predictive value (70%) for correct sexing using two sectioning points (,<,3.0,mm,=,female; >3.5,mm,=,male) was disappointing. No additional accuracy was gained by employing both left and right petrous bones (a bilateral sample of 60 petrous bones was also tested), although left and right side diameter is highly correlated (R,=,0.778; P,=,0.0001). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonding in formohydroxamic acid,

    Damanjit Kaur
    Abstract The presence of hydrogen bonding interactions in several tautomeric forms of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) and 1:1 association among the tautomeric forms and water-coordinated tautomeric forms of FHA is explored theoretically. Out of the seven equilibrium structures, four tautomeric forms have been selected for aggregation with single water molecule and dimer formation. Fifteen aggregates of FHA with H2O have been optimized at MP2/AUG-cc-PVDZ level and analyzed for intramolecular and intermolecular H-bond interactions. Twenty-seven dimers of the four tautomeric forms have been obtained at MP2/6-31+G* level. The stabilization energies associated with dimerization and adduct formation with water are the result of H-bond interactions and range from very weak to medium. The atomic charges and NBO analysis indicate that the electrostatic and the charge transfer are the important components favoring H-bond formation. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2008 [source]

    Intra- and intermuscular variation in human quadriceps femoris architecture assessed in vivo

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 3 2006
    Anthony J. Blazevich
    Abstract Despite the functional importance of the human quadriceps femoris in movements such as running, jumping, lifting and climbing, and the known effects of muscle architecture on muscle function, no research has fully described the complex architecture of this muscle group. We used ultrasound imaging techniques to measure muscle thickness, fascicle angle and fascicle length at multiple regions of the four quadriceps muscles in vivo in 31 recreationally active, but non-strength-trained adult men and women. Our analyses revealed a reasonable similarity in the superficial quadriceps muscles, which is suggestive of functional similarity (at least during the uni-joint knee extension task) given that they act via a common tendon. The deep vastus intermedius (VI) is architecturally dissimilar and therefore probably serves a different function(s). Architecture varies significantly along the length of the superficial muscles, which has implications for the accuracy of models that assume a constant intramuscular architecture. It might also have consequences for the efficiency of intra- and intermuscular force transmission. Our results provide some evidence that subjects with a given architecture of one superficial muscle, relative to the rest of the subject sample, also have a similar architecture in other superficial muscles. However, this is not necessarily true for vastus lateralis (VL), and was not the case for VI. Therefore, the relative architecture of one muscle cannot confidently be used to estimate the relative architecture of another. To confirm this, we calculated a value of whole quadriceps architecture by four different methods. Regardless of the method used, we found that the absolute or relative architecture of one muscle could not be used as an indicator of whole quadriceps architecture, although vastus medialis, possibly in concert with VL and the anterior portion of VI, could be used to provide a useful snapshot. Importantly, our estimates of whole quadriceps architecture show a gender difference in whole quadriceps muscle thickness, and that muscle thickness is positively correlated with fascicle angle whereas fascicle length is negatively, although weakly, correlated with fascicle angle. These results are supportive of the validity of estimates of whole quadriceps architecture. These data are interpreted with respect to their implications for neural control strategies, region-specific adaptations in muscle size in response to training, and gender-dependent differences in the response to exercise training. [source]

    Comparison of immunoradiometric assays for determination of thyroglobulin: a validation study

    L.A. Tortajada-Genaro
    Abstract In this study we compared and validated commercial immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) to determine thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in serum. From a set of 440 samples, 68 were selected to calculate the validation parameters and the clinical performance of the assays. The commercial kits evaluated were the Tg-CTK (DiaSorin), IRMAZenco Tg (ZenTech), and SELco-Tg (Medipan). We found that 21% of the collected samples were in the critical range of concentration. Detection limits were calculated as being below 3,µg/L. Intra- and inter-reproducibility were lower than 3.1% and 9.2%, respectively. Dilution and recovery studies provided quantitative determinations. Correlation regression coefficients from the results of the methods were obtained. The determined concentrations were compared with the clinical evidence of disease. Variation in the 125-iodine-labeled antibody concentration and control charts showed the robustness of the methods. Analysis time and the simplicity of the methods were also evaluated. Reliable Tg determination is important for monitoring patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), controlling other thyroid diseases, and assessing the quality of imaging techniques. A strategy for verification and comparison based on analytical parameters and clinical performance is proposed. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 21:147,153, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Intra- and extra-oral halitosis: finding of a new form of extra-oral blood-borne halitosis caused by dimethyl sulphide

    Albert Tangerman
    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to unravel the origen and cause of intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. Material and Methods: We studied 58 patients complaining of halitosis, using gas chromatography of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in mouth and nose breath, organoleptic scoring of mouth and nose breath, Halimeter® readings of mouth air and tongue-coating inspection. Subjects had no precence or history of periodontitis. Result: Of 58 patients, 47 patients had halitosis of oral origin, six had halitosis of extra-oral origin and five had no halitosis (halitophobia). A strong correlation was found between the degree of intra-oral halitosis as measured by organoleptic scoring of mouth breath and the concentration of the VSCs hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) in mouth breath. Taking into account the much larger odour index of CH3SH, it was concluded that CH3SH is the main contributor to intra-oral halitosis. In all six cases of extra-oral halitosis, halitosis was caused by the presence of elevated levels of dimethyl sulphide (CH3SCH3) in mouth and nose breath. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the VSC, CH3SH and to a lesser extent H2S are the main contributors to intra-oral halitosis and that CH3SCH3 is the main contributor to extra-oral or blood-borne halitosis, due to a hitherto unknown metabolic disorder. [source]

    Reproducibility of 3-dimensional sonographic measurements of fetal and placental volume at gestational ages of 11,18 weeks

    Koen Deurloo MD
    Abstract Purpose. Determine the reproducibility of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) measurements of fetal and placental volumes. Methods. We included 34 pregnant women between gestational weeks (GW) 11,18. Two operators independently acquired fetal and placental volumes using 3DUS. Each volume was acquired twice and stored on disk for off-line analysis. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was expressed in the intra- and interclass correlation coefficient (intra-CC and inter-CC). In addition, the 3DUS volumes acquired by the first operator were calculated by the second and vice-versa to evaluate the effect of volume acquisition and caliper placement. A value >0.75 was considered a good agreement. Results. Fetal and placental volume measurements were successful in 97% of all cases. Between GW 11,14 and 14,18 the median fetal volume was 20.8 (5.0,35.1) and 51.7 (37.9,132.8) ml, the median placental volume was 71.3 (40.9,111.9) and 120.7 (94.2, 273.7) ml. Bland-Altman plots were used for statistical analysis. The intraobserver reproducibility was good for fetus (intra-CC: 0.99; 0.99) and placenta (intra-CC: 0.99; 0.98). Also, interobserver reproducibility was good for fetus (inter-CC 0.98) and placenta (inter-CC 0.98). In addition, regardless of the operator who acquired the volumes, the inter-CC remained good for both fetus (inter-CC: 0.99; 0.99) and placenta (inter-CC: 0.97; 0.99). Conclusion. The reproducibility of fetal and placental volume measurements by 3DUS between GW 11,18 is good. In addition, individually chosen caliper placement and volume acquisition has no effect on the calculation of either volumes. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2007 [source]

    Intra- and intermolecular interactions between cyclic-AMP receptor protein and DNA: Ab initio fragment molecular orbital study

    Kaori Fukuzawa
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Accuracy and reproducibility of manual and semiautomated quantification of MS lesions by MRI

    Edward A. Ashton PhD
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility, and speed of two semiautomated methods for quantifying total white matter lesion burden in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with respect to manual tracing and to other methods presented in recent literature. Materials and Methods Two methods involving the use of MRI for semiautomated quantification of total lesion burden in MS patients were examined. The first method, geometrically constrained region growth (GEORG), requires user specification of lesion location. The second technique, directed multispectral segmentation (DMSS), requires only the location of a single exemplar lesion. Test data sets included both clinical MS data and MS brain phantoms. Results The mean processing times were 60 minutes for manual tracing, 10 minutes for region growth, and 3 minutes for directed segmentation. Intra- and interoperator coefficients of variation (CVs) were 5.1% and 16.5% for manual tracing, 1.4% and 2.3% for region growth, and 1.5% and 5.2% for directed segmentation. The average deviations from manual tracing were 9% for region growth and 5.7% for directed segmentation. Conclusion Both semiautomated methods were shown to have a significant advantage over manual tracing in terms of speed and precision. The accuracy of both methods was acceptable, given the high variability of the manual results. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003;17:300,308. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/positive ion tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of cimetropium in human plasma by liquid,liquid extraction

    Heon-Woo Lee
    Abstract We have developed and validated a simple detection system with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for determining cimetropium levels in human plasma using scopolamine butyl bromide as an internal standard (I.S.). The acquisition was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, by monitoring the transitions: m/z 357.9 > 103.1 for cimetropium and m/z 359.9 > 103.1 for butyl-scopolamine. The method involves a simple single-step liquid,liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The analyte was chromatographed on an YMC C18 reversed-phase chromatographic column by isocratic elution with 10 mM ammonium formate buffer,methanol (19 : 81, v/v; adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid). The results were linear over the studied range (0.2,100 ng ml,1), with r2 = 1.0000, and the total analysis time for each run was 2 min. Intra- and interassay precisions were 0.70,8.54% and 1.08,4.85%, respectively, and intra- and interassay accuracies were 97.56,108.23% and 97.48,103.91%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.2 ng ml,1. At this concentration, mean intra- and interassay precisions were 8.54% and 4.85%, respectively, and mean intra- and interassay accuracies were 97.56% and 98.91%, respectively. The mean recovery ranged from 62.71 ± 4.06 to 64.23 ± 2.32%. Cimetropium was found to be stable in plasma samples under typical storage and processing conditions. The devised assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of cimetropium bromide administered as a single oral dose (150 mg) to healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A validated method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, trans -3,-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine in human plasma using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry

    Insook Kim
    Abstract A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine, cotinine, trans -3,-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine in human plasma was developed and validated. Analytes and deuterated internal standards were extracted from human plasma using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric detection with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 and 2.5 ng/ml, respectively, for all analytes. Linearity ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/ml of human plasma using a weighting factor of 1/x; correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were > 0.99. Intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were < 15.0%. Recoveries were 108.2,110.8% nicotine, 95.8,108.7% cotinine, 90.5,99.5% trans -3,-hydroxycotinine, and 99.5,109.5% norcotinine. The method was also partially validated in bovine serum, owing to the difficulty of obtaining nicotine-free human plasma for the preparation of calibrators and quality control (QC) samples. This method proved to be robust and accurate for the quantification of nicotine, cotinine, trans -3,-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine in human plasma collected in clinical studies of acute nicotine effects on brain activity and on the development of neonates of maternal smokers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Measurement of caffeine and five of the major metabolites in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Allan Weimann
    Abstract Analysis of caffeine and its metabolites is of interest with respect to caffeine exposure, for kinetic and metabolism studies and for opportunistic in vivo estimation of drug metabolizing enzyme activity in humans and animals. For the latter, analysis is usually done by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. However, this method is close to the detection limit for certain of the metabolites and requires very long chromatography, 30,60 min. We have developed a fast method for the quantification of caffeine and its metabolites 1-methylxanthine, 1-methyluric acid, 1,7-dimethyluric acid, 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil (AAMU) and 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU) by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in urine that requires only its dilution with buffer and centrifugation before injection into the HPLC/MS/MS system. The chromatography lasts 7 min and is followed by 4.5 min for re-equilibration of the HPLC column, giving a total analysis time of 11.5 min. The method provides a great sensitivity improvement with detection limits for all analytes ,25 nM in real samples. Also, the analysis provides much improvement in capacity to ,125 samples per 24 h. Intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation of a single analysis are <6.5% for all the analytes. The inter-day coefficient of variation of duplicate analyses is <4.8% for all analytes. The method is automated, including automated integration, and it is fast, robust and suitable for large-scale investigations in humans and animals. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality Reflected in a Coherent Idiosyncratic Interplay of Intra- and Interpersonal Self-Regulatory Processes

    Carolyn C. Morf
    ABSTRACT This article discusses a framework that conceptualizes personality in terms of a unique pattern of interacting intra- and interpersonal self-regulatory mechanisms employed in the service of constructing and maintaining a desired self. These personal goals motivate the individuals' self-construction efforts and give direction, organization, and coherence to the self-regulatory dynamics,both within the person and in the social world in which they play out. The framework is illustrated through research on construct validation of the narcissistic personality type and extended by brief applications to dependency and rejection sensitivity to show how it may help us understand the complex signatures that are the expressions of a personality type. It offers a guide for where to look for and how to organize the unique features and idiosyncratic dynamics of different self-construction types and to make sense of their otherwise often seemingly paradoxical expressions. In so doing, the framework speaks to basic goals of personality psychology by providing an approach for capturing trait-like individual differences while simultaneously shedding light on the psychological mechanism that underlies them. [source]


    B. Santelices
    Classical ecological theory predicts that whenever growing individuals share a common and limiting resource, such as substratum in mid-intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, preemptive competition will occur determining species abundance and distribution patterns. However, conspecificity of several ecologically dominant Rhodophyta may coalesce when grown in laboratory cultures. The extent at which intraspecific coalescence occurs in the field and whether the process may also happens during interspecific encounters remain to be determined. If intra- and interspecific coalescence effectively occurs, then coexistence through coalescence rises as an alternative to competition among red-algal dominated intertidal and shallow subtidal communities. Populations of Mazzaella laminarioides and Nothogenia fastigiata living in mid-intertidal, semi-exposed rocky habitats in Central Chile are being used to test the above ideas. Intra- and interspecific encounters occur in the field throughout the year. Coalescence does occur among conspecific partners but it has not been detected in interspecific encounters. Rather, a thick interface of compressed cells, necrotic tissues and cyanobacterial nodules is formed between the two contacting partners. In addition, observations of laboratory cultures indicate that spore germination, germling survival and differentiation of erect axes in bispecific cultures may be reduced when compared to single-species controls. Interspecific differences in growth and differentiation rates appear as the mechanisms explaining a lack of coalescence and negative effects during interspecific contacts. On the other hand, the existence of conspecific coalescence in the field suggests this process should be considered as a real alternative to intraspecific competition among coalescing Rhodophyta. [source]

    Intra- versus intermolecular hydrogen bonding equilibrium in 2-hydroxy- N,N -diethylbenzamide,

    P. Majewska
    Abstract Complex studies of the intramolecular versus intermolecular hydrogen bond equilibrium and internal rotation of the N,N -diethylamine group in 2-hydroxy- N,N -diethylbenzamide were conducted. The intramolecular versus intermolecular process in 2-hydroxy- N,N -diethylbenzamide was studied by UV,Vis, NMR, IR and Vapour Pressure Osmometric (VPO) methods as a function of temperature and concentration in non-polar, basic and protic solvents. The unequal positions of the ethyl groups were analysed and the energy barrier to the re-orientation was defined by the NMR method. This paper presents a study into a complicated nature of competitive interaction 2-hydroxy- N,N -diethylbenzamide with the environment by means of the aforesaid methods. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Seedling growth and morphology of three oak species along field resource gradients and seed mass variation: a seedling age-dependent response

    Ignacio M. Pérez-Ramos
    Abstract Question: What is the relative importance of seed mass and abiotic factors in species-specific seedling growth and morphology during the first and the second growing season? How do oak species respond along gradients of these factors? Location: Mediterranean oak forest in southern Spain. Methods: We analysed seedling growth components and morphology of three co-occurring Quercus species (two deciduous and one evergreen). Oak seeds with a wide variety of sizes were sown along broad gradients of abiotic conditions. Intra- and inter-specific differences were evaluated by calibrating maximum likelihood estimators of seedling growth during the first two years of life. Results: We found multiple resources and conditions affecting seedling morphology and biomass allocation. However, the integrative variables of seedling growth , total aboveground biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) , were affected by two main factors: seed mass and light conditions. The relative contribution of these two factors depended strongly on seedling age. Seed mass explained most of the growth and morphological variables during the first year, while light conditions were the best predictor in the second growing season. In contrast, soil factors did not play an important role in seedling growth. We found some evidence of regeneration niche partitioning between oak species along the light gradient, a reflection of their distribution patterns as adults at the study site. Conclusions: We conclude that inter-specific differences in seedling growth, arising from seed size variability and microsite heterogeneity, could be of paramount importance in oak species niche segregation, driving stand dynamics and composition along environmental gradients. [source]

    A time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for porcine C-reactive protein quantification in whole blood

    S. Martinez-Subiela
    Abstract A time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR,IFMA) for C-reactive protein (CRP) determination in whole blood of pigs was developed and validated. CRP was isolated from porcine acute-phase serum by affinity chromatography on agarose, coupled with phosphorylethanolamine and polyclonal antibodies to porcine CRP were purified from antiserum raised in sheep immunized with porcine CRP. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range 3.13,7.19% and 7.06,15.66%, respectively, showing good precision. The assay measured the CRP values in a proportional and linear manner (r = 0.99); additionally, CRP concentrations measured in whole blood by the present TR,IFMA and in serum by an established immunoturbidimetric assay were highly correlated (R2 = 0.97). The limit of detection of the method was 0.0028 mg/L. Significantly lower CRP concentrations were observed after 7 days of sample storage at 4°C. The injection of turpentine oil caused a significant increase in CRP concentrations and significantly higher CRP concentrations were observed in pigs with pathological processes compared to healthy animals. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Age and gender dependence of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites determined by SLOOP 31P MR spectroscopy

    Herbert Köstler
    Abstract The aim of this study was to apply 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using spatial localization with optimal point spread function (SLOOP) to investigate possible age and gender dependencies of the energy metabolite concentrations in the human heart. Thirty healthy volunteers (18 males and 12 females, 21,67 years old, mean = 40.7 years) were examined with the use of 31P-MRS on a 1.5 T scanner. Intra- and interobserver variability measures (determined in eight of the volunteers) were both 3.8% for phosphocreatine (PCr), and 4.7% and 8.3%, respectively, for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). High-energy phosphate (HEP) concentrations in mmol/kg wet weight were 9.7 ± 2.4 (age < 40 years, N = 16) and 7.7 ± 2.5 (age , 40 years, N = 14) for PCr, and 5.1 ± 1.0 (age < 40 years) and 4.1 ± 0.8 (age , 40 years) for ATP, respectively. Separated by gender, PCr concentrations of 9.2 ± 2.4 (men, N = 18) and 8.0 ± 2.8 (women, N = 12) and ATP concentrations of 4.9 ± 1.0 (men) and 4.2 ± 0.9 (women) were measured. A significant decrease of PCr and ATP was found for volunteers older than 40 years (P < 0.05), but the differences in metabolic concentrations between both sexes were not significant. In conclusion, age has a minor but still significant impact on cardiac energy metabolism, and no significant gender differences were detected. Magn Reson Med, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]