Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intervention

  • Percutaneou coronary intervention
  • Percutaneou intervention
  • active intervention
  • activity intervention
  • additional intervention
  • aggressive intervention
  • aggressive surgical intervention
  • aid intervention
  • airway intervention
  • alcohol intervention
  • alternative intervention
  • appropriate intervention
  • artery intervention
  • bank intervention
  • based intervention
  • behavior intervention
  • behavioral intervention
  • behavioural intervention
  • brief alcohol intervention
  • brief intervention
  • brief motivational intervention
  • cardiovascular intervention
  • care intervention
  • carotid intervention
  • catheter intervention
  • central bank intervention
  • cessation intervention
  • change intervention
  • clinical intervention
  • cognitive behavioural intervention
  • cognitive intervention
  • cognitive-behavioral intervention
  • combined intervention
  • common intervention
  • communication intervention
  • community intervention
  • complex intervention
  • conclusion intervention
  • conservation intervention
  • control intervention
  • coronary artery intervention
  • coronary intervention
  • cost-effective intervention
  • counseling intervention
  • counselling intervention
  • court intervention
  • crisis intervention
  • current intervention
  • definitive surgical intervention
  • development intervention
  • diabetes intervention
  • dietary intervention
  • dietetic intervention
  • different intervention
  • direct intervention
  • disease intervention
  • drug intervention
  • early intervention
  • early psychosis intervention
  • early surgical intervention
  • early therapeutic intervention
  • education intervention
  • educational intervention
  • effective intervention
  • effective nursing intervention
  • effective preventive intervention
  • effective therapeutic intervention
  • elective percutaneou coronary intervention
  • emergency surgical intervention
  • endoscopic intervention
  • endovascular intervention
  • environmental intervention
  • evaluating intervention
  • exchange intervention
  • exchange market intervention
  • exercise intervention
  • existing intervention
  • experimental intervention
  • external intervention
  • factor intervention
  • family intervention
  • fenofibrate intervention
  • first intervention
  • foreign exchange intervention
  • formal intervention
  • future intervention
  • genetic intervention
  • government intervention
  • governmental intervention
  • graft intervention
  • group intervention
  • health care intervention
  • health intervention
  • health promotion intervention
  • hiv prevention intervention
  • hrd intervention
  • human intervention
  • humanitarian intervention
  • immediate intervention
  • important intervention
  • improvement intervention
  • individual intervention
  • innovative intervention
  • intensive intervention
  • international intervention
  • key intervention
  • legislative intervention
  • life-saving intervention
  • lifestyle intervention
  • long-term intervention
  • loss intervention
  • management intervention
  • many intervention
  • market intervention
  • medical intervention
  • mental health intervention
  • military intervention
  • minimal intervention
  • month intervention
  • motivational intervention
  • multicomponent intervention
  • multidisciplinary intervention
  • multifaceted intervention
  • multifactorial intervention
  • multiple intervention
  • new intervention
  • new therapeutic intervention
  • non-pharmacological intervention
  • nonpharmacologic intervention
  • nonpharmacological intervention
  • novel intervention
  • novel therapeutic intervention
  • nurse intervention
  • nursing intervention
  • nutrition intervention
  • nutritional intervention
  • obstetric intervention
  • occupational therapy intervention
  • one intervention
  • only intervention
  • operative intervention
  • other intervention
  • pa intervention
  • parenting intervention
  • particular intervention
  • percutaneou coronary intervention
  • percutaneou intervention
  • pharmaceutical intervention
  • pharmacist intervention
  • pharmacologic intervention
  • pharmacological intervention
  • physical activity intervention
  • physical intervention
  • physical therapy intervention
  • pilot intervention
  • placebo intervention
  • planned intervention
  • planning intervention
  • policy intervention
  • political intervention
  • possible intervention
  • post intervention
  • potential intervention
  • potential therapeutic intervention
  • practice intervention
  • practice nurse intervention
  • preventative intervention
  • prevention intervention
  • preventive intervention
  • primary Percutaneou coronary intervention
  • primary intervention
  • primary percutaneou coronary intervention
  • professional intervention
  • promising intervention
  • promotion intervention
  • protection intervention
  • protective intervention
  • psychiatric intervention
  • psycho-educational intervention
  • psychoeducational intervention
  • psychological intervention
  • psychosis intervention
  • psychosocial intervention
  • psychotherapeutic intervention
  • public health intervention
  • public intervention
  • quality improvement intervention
  • radiological intervention
  • reading intervention
  • recommended intervention
  • reduction intervention
  • regulatory intervention
  • rehabilitation intervention
  • rehabilitative intervention
  • relate intervention
  • repeat intervention
  • required intervention
  • requiring intervention
  • restorative intervention
  • risk factor intervention
  • risk reduction intervention
  • safety intervention
  • secondary intervention
  • self-management intervention
  • several intervention
  • short-term intervention
  • similar intervention
  • simple intervention
  • single intervention
  • smoking cessation intervention
  • social intervention
  • specific intervention
  • state intervention
  • structured intervention
  • study intervention
  • subsequent intervention
  • successful intervention
  • support intervention
  • supportive intervention
  • surgical intervention
  • svg intervention
  • system intervention
  • tailored intervention
  • target intervention
  • targeted intervention
  • targeting intervention
  • teacher intervention
  • teaching intervention
  • therapeutic intervention
  • therapy intervention
  • tobacco cessation intervention
  • training intervention
  • transcatheter intervention
  • treatment intervention
  • undergoing Percutaneou coronary intervention
  • undergoing percutaneou coronary intervention
  • universal intervention
  • useful intervention
  • user intervention
  • various intervention
  • vein graft intervention
  • video-feedback intervention
  • violence intervention
  • weight loss intervention
  • weight management intervention

  • Terms modified by Intervention

  • intervention activity
  • intervention alone
  • intervention analysis
  • intervention approach
  • intervention arm
  • intervention available
  • intervention being
  • intervention centre
  • intervention classification
  • intervention cohort
  • intervention component
  • intervention condition
  • intervention consisting
  • intervention content
  • intervention data
  • intervention delivery
  • intervention design
  • intervention development
  • intervention effect
  • intervention effectiveness
  • intervention effects
  • intervention efficacy
  • intervention effort
  • intervention fidelity
  • intervention for children
  • intervention group
  • intervention group patient
  • intervention group subject
  • intervention groups
  • intervention hospital
  • intervention material
  • intervention measure
  • intervention methods
  • intervention model
  • intervention need
  • intervention outcome
  • intervention package
  • intervention participant
  • intervention patient
  • intervention period
  • intervention phase
  • intervention plan
  • intervention practice
  • intervention procedure
  • intervention process
  • intervention program
  • intervention programme
  • intervention project
  • intervention protocol
  • intervention rate
  • intervention relevant
  • intervention research
  • intervention school
  • intervention services
  • intervention session
  • intervention strategy
  • intervention studies
  • intervention study
  • intervention subject
  • intervention target
  • intervention techniques
  • intervention time
  • intervention trial
  • intervention trials
  • intervention used
  • intervention work

  • Selected Abstracts

    Genetic differences in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to diet-induced obesity do not alter liver fibrosis in mice

    Wing-Kin Syn
    Abstract Objective: To determine how genetic factors might influence the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Design/Intervention: Beginning in adolescence, male C57BL6 (BL6) and 129/SVJ mice were fed control (n=15/group) or high-fat (HF) diets (n=30/group) for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Assessed were body weight, insulin resistance, hepatic production of free radicals, expression of cytokines and fibrosis-related genes and severity of hepatic steatosis, injury and fibrosis. Results: High-fat diets induced comparable obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in the two strains. Compared with BL6 mice, 129/SVJ mice had impaired induction of antioxidant genes, generated three- to four-fold more free radicals and exhibited two-fold greater induction of profibrogenic cytokines (interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor-,1) and fibrosis-related genes (fibronectin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) (all P<0.05 for 129 vs BL6). Surprisingly, however, induction of collagen I ,1 mRNA and accumulation of Sirius red-stained fibrils and hepatic hydroxyproline were similar in BL6 and 129/SVJ mice, and although patchy sinusoidal fibrosis emerged in both strains, neither developed bridging fibrosis. Conclusions: Although BL6 and 129/SVJ mice with diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and steatosis differed with respect to several factors that are thought to influence human NAFLD progression, they developed comparable liver fibrosis. Moreover, none of the risk factors for NAFLD-related cirrhosis in humans, including obesity, insulin resistance, chronic inflammatory and oxidant stress, steatohepatitis or activation of fibrogenic genes, proved to be sufficient to cause cirrhosis in these mice, even when exposure to one or more of these insults was very prolonged. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    We use the National Crime Victimization Survey to examine whether domestic violence is less likely to be repeated if it is reported to the police and if the offender is arrested. Our longitudinal analyses suggest that reporting has a fairly strong deterrent effect, whereas the effect of arrest is small and statistically insignificant. We find no support for the hypothesis that offenders retaliate when victims (rather than third parties) call the police or when victims sign complaints. We also find no evidence that the effects of reporting or arrest depend on the seriousness of the offense, a history of violence by the offender or sociodemographic characteristics. Our results suggest that the best policies for deterrence will be those that encourage victims and third parties to report violence by intimate partners to the police. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2010
    Robert A. Davis
    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2008
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Combined with Exercise Improves Muscle Strength and Physical Function in Frail Older Women

    Anne M. Kenny MD
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) combined with exercise on bone mass, strength, and physical function in older, frail women. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A major medical institution. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine women (mean age 76.6 ± 6.0) with low sulfated DHEA (DHEAS) levels, low bone mass, and frailty. INTERVENTION: Participants received 50 mg/d DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium and cholecalciferol. Women participated in 90-minute twice-weekly exercise regimens. MEASUREMENTS: Hormone levels, bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, body composition, upper and lower extremity strength, physical performance. RESULTS: Eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months. There were no significant changes in BMD or bone turnover markers. DHEA supplementation resulted in gains in lower extremity strength (from 459 ± 121 N to 484 ± 147 N; P=.01). There was also improvement in Short Physical Performance Battery score, a composite score that focuses on lower extremity function, in those taking DHEA (from 10.1 ± 1.8 to 10.7 ± 1.9; P=.02). There were significant changes in all hormone levels, including DHEAS, estradiol, estrone, and testosterone, and a decline in sex hormone-binding globulin levels in those taking DHEA. CONCLUSION: DHEA supplementation improved lower extremity strength and function in older, frail women involved in a gentle exercise program of chair aerobics or yoga. No changes were found in BMD either due to small sample size, short duration of study or no effect. The physical function findings are promising and require further evaluation as frail women are at high risk for falls and fracture. [source]

    Heterogeneity in Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Response to Cholecalciferol in Elderly Women with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Vitamin D Deficiency

    Andrea Giusti MD
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) of two dosing regimens of cholecalciferol in women with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPTH) and hypovitaminosis D and to investigate variables affecting 25(OH)D response to cholecalciferol. DESIGN: Randomized-controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. SETTING: Two osteoporosis centers in northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty community-dwelling women aged 65 and older with sHPTH and hypovitaminosis D, creatinine clearance greater than 65 mL/min and without diseases or drugs known to influence bone and vitamin D metabolism. INTERVENTION: Cholecalciferol 300,000 IU every 3 months, once at baseline and once at 3 months (intermittent D3 group) or cholecalciferol 1,000 IU/day (daily D3 group). MEASUREMENTS: Serum PTH, 25(OH)D, calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, ,-C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, phosphate, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. RESULTS: The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. All participants had vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D<20 ng/mL)], and 36 subjects (60%) had severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL), with no difference between the groups (severe deficiency: intermittent D3 group, n=18; daily D3 group, n=18). After 3 and 6 months, both groups had a significant increase in 25(OH)D and a reduction in PTH. Mean absolute increase±standard deviation of 25(OH)D at 6 months was higher in the intermittent D3 group (22.7±11.8 ng/mL) than in the daily D3 group (13.7±6.7 ng/mL, P<.001), with a higher proportion of participants in the intermittent D3 group reaching desirable serum concentration of 25(OH)D , 30 ng/mL (55% in the intermittent D3 group vs 20% in the daily D3 group, P<.001). Mean percentage decrease of PTH in the two groups was comparable, and at 6 months, a similar proportion of participants reached normal PTH values. 25(OH)D response to cholecalciferol showed a wide variability. In a logistic regression analysis, body mass index and type of treatment appeared to be significantly associated with normalization of 25(OH)D values. CONCLUSION: Cholecalciferol 300,000 IU every 3 months was more effective than 1,000 IU daily in correcting vitamin D deficiency, although the two groups achieved similar effects on PTH at 6 months. Only 55% of the higher-dose intermittent group reached desirable concentrations of 25(OH)D, suggesting that yet-higher doses will be required for adequate vitamin D repletion. [source]

    Activating Seniors to Improve Chronic Disease Care: Results from a Pilot Intervention Study

    Dominick L. Frosch PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. DESIGN: Two-group quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Two Los Angeles community senior centers. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixteen senior participants. INTERVENTION: Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic conditions common in seniors. Moderated discussions reinforcing active patient participation in chronic disease management followed screenings. Screenings were scheduled over the course of 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: One center was assigned by coin toss to an encouragement condition in which participants received a $50 gift card if they attended at least three group screenings. Participants in the nonencouraged center received no incentive for attendance. Validated study measures for patient activation, physical activity, and health-related quality of life were completed at baseline and 12 weeks and 6 months after enrollment. RESULTS: Participants attending the encouraged senior center were more likely to attend three or more group screenings (77.8% vs 47.2%, P=.001). At 6-month follow-up, participants from either center who attended three or more group screenings (n=74, 64%) reported significantly greater activation (P<.001), more minutes walking (P<.001) and engaging in vigorous physical activity (P=.006), and better health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) mental component summary, P<.001; SF-12 physical component summary, P=.002). CONCLUSION: Delivering this pilot intervention in community senior centers is a potentially promising approach to activating seniors that warrants further investigation for improving chronic disease outcomes. [source]

    Effect of a Disease-Specific Planning Intervention on Surrogate Understanding of Patient Goals for Future Medical Treatment

    Karin T. Kirchhoff PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a disease-specific planning process can improve surrogate understanding of goals of patients with life-limiting illnesses for future medical treatments. DESIGN: A multisite randomized controlled trial conducted between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2007. SETTING: Six outpatient clinics of large community or university health systems in three Wisconsin cities. PARTICIPANTS: Competent, English-speaking adults aged 18 and older with chronic congestive heart failure or chronic renal disease and their surrogate decision-makers. INTERVENTION: Trained health professionals conducted a structured, patient-centered interview intended to promote informed decision-making and to result in the completion of a document clarifying the goals of the patient with regard to four disease-specific health outcome situations and the degree of decision-making latitude granted to the surrogate. MEASUREMENTS: Surrogate understanding of patient goals for care with regard to four expected, disease-specific outcomes situations and of the degree of surrogate latitude in decision-making. RESULTS: Three hundred thirteen patient,surrogate pairs completed the study. As measured according to kappa scores and in all four situations and in the degree of latitude, intervention group surrogates demonstrated a significantly higher degree of understanding of patient goals than control group surrogates. Intervention group kappa scores ranged from 0.61 to 0.78, whereas control group kappa scores ranged from 0.07 to 0.28. CONCLUSION: Surrogates in the intervention group had a significantly better understanding of patient goals and preferences than surrogates in the control group. This finding is the first step toward ensuring that patient goals for care are known and honored. [source]

    Randomized Trial of a Delirium Abatement Program for Postacute Skilled Nursing Facilities

    0000], [See editorial comments by Dr. Steven A. Levenson on pp 0000
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a delirium abatement program (DAP) can shorten duration of delirium in new admissions to postacute care (PAC). DESIGN: Cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Eight skilled nursing facilities specializing in PAC within a single metropolitan region. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fifty-seven participants with delirium at PAC admission. INTERVENTION: The DAP consisted of four steps: assessment for delirium within 5 days of PAC admission, assessment and correction of common reversible causes of delirium, prevention of complications of delirium, and restoration of function. MEASUREMENTS: Trained researchers screened eligible patients. Those with delirium defined according to the Confusion Assessment Method were eligible for participation using proxy consent. Regardless of location, researchers blind to intervention status re-assessed participants for delirium 2 weeks and 1 month after enrollment. RESULTS: Nurses at DAP sites detected delirium in 41% of participants, versus 12% in usual care sites (P<.001), and completed DAP documentation in most participants in whom delirium was detected, but the DAP intervention had no effect on delirium persistence based on two measurements at 2 weeks (DAP 68% vs usual care 66%) and 1 month (DAP 60% vs usual care 51%) (adjusted P,.20). Adjusting for baseline differences between DAP and usual care participants and restricting analysis to DAP participants in whom delirium was detected did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Detection of delirium improved at the DAP sites, but the DAP had no effect on the persistence of delirium. This effectiveness trial demonstrated that a nurse-led DAP intervention was not effective in typical PAC facilities. [source]

    Efficacy and Safety of a Once-Yearly Intravenous Zoledronic Acid 5 mg for Fracture Prevention in Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Aged 75 and Older

    Steven Boonen MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of once-yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) 5 mg in reducing risk of clinical vertebral, nonvertebral, and any clinical fractures in elderly osteoporotic postmenopausal women. DESIGN: A post hoc subgroup analysis of pooled data from the Health Outcome and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid One Yearly (HORIZON) Pivotal Fracture Trial and the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial. SETTING: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women (aged ,75) with documented osteoporosis (T -score ,,2.5 at femoral neck or ,1 prevalent vertebral or hip fracture) or a recent hip fracture. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of ZOL 5 mg (n=1,961) or placebo (n=1,926) at baseline and 12 and 24 months. MEASUREMENTS: Primary endpoints were incidence of clinical vertebral and nonvertebral and any clinical fracture after treatment. RESULTS: At 3 years, incidence of any clinical, clinical vertebral, and nonvertebral fracture were significantly lower in the ZOL group than in the placebo group (10.8% vs 16.6%, 1.1% vs 3.7%, and 9.9% vs 13.7%, respectively) (hazard ratio (HR)=0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.54,0.78, P<.001; HR=0.34, 95% CI=0.21,0.55, P<.001; and HR=0.73, 95% CI=0.60,0.90, P=.002, respectively). The incidence of hip fracture was lower with ZOL but did not reach statistical significance. The incidence rate of postdose adverse events were higher with ZOL, although the rate of serious adverse events and deaths was comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Once-yearly intravenous ZOL 5 mg was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of new clinical fractures (vertebral and nonvertebral) in elderly postmenopausal women with osteroporosis. [source]

    Endurance Exercise Training in Older Patients with Heart Failure: Results from a Randomized, Controlled, Single-Blind Trial

    Peter H. Brubaker PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that exercise training (ET) improves exercise capacity and other clinical outcomes in older persons with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HfrEF). DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-nine patients aged 60 and older with HFrEF recruited from hospital records and referring physicians were randomly assigned to a 16-week supervised ET program (n=30) or an attention-control, nonexercise, usual care control group (n=29). INTERVENTION: Sixteen-week supervised ET program of endurance exercise (walking and stationary cycling) three times per week for 30 to 40 minutes at moderate intensity regulated according to heart rate and perceived exertion. MEASUREMENTS: Individuals blinded to group assignment assessed four domains pivotal to HFrEF pathophysiology: exercise performance, left ventricular (LV) function, neuroendocrine activation, and health-related quality of life (QOL). RESULTS: At follow-up, the ET group had significantly greater exercise time and workload than the control group, but there were no significant differences between the groups for the primary outcomes: peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), 6-minute walk distance, QOL, LV volumes, EF, or diastolic filling. Other than serum aldosterone, there were no significant differences after ET in other neuroendocrine measurements. Despite a lack of a group "training" effect, a subset (26%) of individuals increased VO2 peak by 10% or more and improved other clinical variables as well. CONCLUSION: In older patients with HFrEF, ET failed to produce consistent benefits in any of the four pivotal domains of HF that were examined, although the heterogeneous response of older patients with HFrEF to ET requires further investigation to better determine which patients with HFrEF will respond favorably to ET. [source]

    The Effect of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Activities of Daily Living: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Residential Care Facilities

    Håkan Littbrand PT
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program reduces dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) in older people living in residential care facilities, focusing on people with dementia. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Nine residential care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-one older people dependent in ADLs and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater. One hundred (52.4%) of the participants had dementia. INTERVENTION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity consisting of 29 sessions over 3 months. MEASUREMENTS: The Barthel ADL Index; follow-up at 3 months (directly after the intervention) and 6 months with intention-to-treat analyses. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding overall ADL performance. Analyses for each item revealed that a smaller proportion of participants in the exercise group had deteriorated in indoor mobility at 3 months (exercise 3.5% vs control 16.0%, P=.01) and 6 months (7.7% vs 19.8%, P=.03). For people with dementia, there was a significant difference in overall ADL performance in favor of the exercise group at 3 months (mean difference 1.1, P=.03) but not at 6 months. CONCLUSION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program seems to reduce ADL decline related to indoor mobility for older people living in residential care facilities. The program does not appear to have an overall effect on ADLs. In people with dementia, the exercise program may prevent decline in overall ADL performance, but continuous training may be needed to maintain that effect. [source]

    Cost Analysis of the Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders Care Management Intervention

    Steven R. Counsell MD
    OBJECTIVES: To provide, from the healthcare delivery system perspective, a cost analysis of the Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders (GRACE) intervention, which is effective in improving quality of care and outcomes. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with physicians as the unit of randomization. SETTING: Community-based primary care health centers. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred fifty-one low-income seniors aged 65 and older; 474 participated in the intervention and 477 in usual care. INTERVENTION: Home-based care management for 2 years by a nurse practitioner and social worker who collaborated with the primary care physician and a geriatrics interdisciplinary team and were guided by 12 care protocols for common geriatric conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Chronic and preventive care costs, acute care costs, and total costs in the full sample (n=951) and predefined high-risk (n=226) and low-risk (n=725) groups. RESULTS: Mean 2-year total costs for intervention patients were not significantly different from those for usual care patients in the full sample ($14,348 vs $11,834; P=.20) and high-risk group ($17,713 vs $18,776; P=.38). In the high-risk group, increases in chronic and preventive care costs were offset by reductions in acute care costs, and the intervention was cost saving during the postintervention, or third, year ($5,088 vs $6,575; P<.001). Mean 2-year total costs were higher in the low-risk group ($13,307 vs $9,654; P=.01). CONCLUSION: In patients at high risk of hospitalization, the GRACE intervention is cost neutral from the healthcare delivery system perspective. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to guide decisions about implementation in low-risk patients. [source]

    Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Quality of Life in a General Population of Older Dutch Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Ondine Van De Rest MSc
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred two individuals aged 65 and older without depression or dementia. INTERVENTION: 1,800 mg/d EPA-DHA (n=96), 400 mg/d EPA-DHA (n=100), or placebo capsules (n=106) for 26 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: QOL was assessed using the short version of the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF covers four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and satisfaction with environment. The total score range is 26 to 130, with higher scores indicating a more favorable condition. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 70, and 55% were male. Plasma concentrations of EPA-DHA increased 238% in the high-dose and 51% in the low-dose EPA-DHA group, reflecting excellent adherence. Median baseline total WHOQOL scores ranged from 107 to 110 in the three groups and were not significantly different from each other. After 26 weeks, the mean difference from placebo was ,1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI)=,3.40,0.57) for the high-dose and 0.02 (95% CI=,1.95,1.99) for the low-dose fish oil group. Treatment with 1,800 mg or 400 mg EPA-DHA did not affect total QOL or any of the separate domains after 13 or 26 weeks of intervention. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with high or low doses of fish oil for 26 weeks did not influence the QOL of healthy older individuals. [source]

    A Cluster-Randomized Trial of an Educational Intervention to Reduce the Use of Physical Restraints with Psychogeriatric Nursing Home Residents

    Anna R. Huizing PhD RN
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of an educational intervention on the use of physical restraints with psychogeriatric nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized trial. SETTING: Fifteen psychogeriatric nursing home wards in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 432 psychogeriatric nursing home residents from 15 psychogeriatric nursing home wards in seven nursing homes were selected for participation; 404 consented, and 371 of these were available at baseline. Two hundred forty-one from 14 wards had complete data and were included in the data analyses. INTERVENTION: The nursing home wards were assigned at random to educational intervention or control status. The educational intervention consisted of an educational program for nursing staff combined with consultation with a nurse specialist (registered nurse (RN) level). MEASUREMENTS: Data were collected at baseline and 1, 4, and 8 months postintervention. At each measurement, the use of physical restraints was measured using observations of blinded, trained observers on four separate occasions over a 24-hour period. Other resident characteristics, such as cognitive status, were determined using the Minimum Data Set. RESULTS: Logistic and linear regression analyses showed no treatment effect on restraint status, restraint intensity, or multiple restraint use in any of the three postintervention measurements. Furthermore, only small changes occurred in the types of restraints used with residents in the experimental group. CONCLUSION: An educational program for nursing staff combined with consultation with a nurse specialist (RN level) had no effect on the use of physical restraints with psychogeriatric nursing home residents. In addition to restraint education and consultation, new measures to reduce the use of physical restraints with psychogeriatric nursing home residents should be developed. [source]

    Detection of Mild Hyposalivation in Elderly People Based on the Chewing Time of Specifically Designed Disc Tests: Diagnostic Accuracy

    DrOdont, Isabelle Madinier DDS
    OBJECTIVES: To compare sialometry with chewing time (including swallowing) of specifically designed disc tests. DESIGN: Index test versus reference standard (sialometry; 60 patients); reliability study (10 patients). SETTING: Outpatient dental clinic and geriatric ward, Nice University Hospital, France. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty adults and 30 older patients (mean ages 47 and 84). INTERVENTION: Index test assessment in patients with and without hyposalivation. MEASUREMENTS: Data from medical files, interviews and oral examination were collected. Sialometry (stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR) mL/min) and disc chewing times (seconds) were measured. RESULTS: Sialometry was too long and was inappropriate for five of the 30 older persons. Chewing times were negatively correlated to sialometry results (Spearman correlation coefficient (R)=0.77, P<.001). The threshold to diagnose hyposalivation (SSFR <1 mL/min) was 40 seconds (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.921, 100% sensitivity, 72% specificity). Twenty-seven subjects with a SSFR less than 1.5 mL/min had a chewing time longer than 40 seconds, suggesting that mild hyposalivation and eating difficulties were related (AUC=0.941, 93% sensitivity, 88% specificity). Mean chewing time was greater with xerostomia (51.9 vs 30.7 seconds, P<.001) but not with dental pain (39.5 vs 39.9, P=.96). Masticatory percentage (e.g., pairs of antagonistic teeth) had no effect on chewing time (SSFR <1 mL/min, AUC=0.921; SSFR <1.5 mL/min, AUC=0.950). Reliability was better for the disc test than for sialometry (intraclass correlation 0.85 vs 0.70). CONCLUSION: This disc test was conceived to detect mild hyposalivation in geriatric patients with impaired dental health. Early detection of hyposalivation could help to suppress or avoid xerostomia-inducing drugs and to prevent oral infections and dental caries. [source]

    Vision-Enhancing Interventions in Nursing Home Residents and Their Short-Term Effect on Physical and Cognitive Function

    Amanda F. Elliott PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of vision-enhancing interventions (cataract surgery or refractive error correction) on physical function and cognitive status in nursing home residents. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Seventeen nursing homes in Birmingham, Alabama. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 187 English-speaking adults aged 55 and older. INTERVENTION: Participants took part in one of two vision-enhancing interventions: cataract surgery or refractive error correction. Each group was compared against a control group (persons eligible for but who declined cataract surgery or who received delayed correction of refractive error). MEASUREMENTS: Physical function (ability to perform activities of daily living and mobility) was assessed using a series of self-report and certified nursing assistant ratings at baseline and at 2 months for the refractive error correction group and at 4 months for the cataract surgery group. The Mini Mental State Examination was also administered. RESULTS: No significant differences existed within or between groups from baseline to follow-up on any of the measures of physical function. Mental status scores significantly declined from baseline to follow-up for the immediate (P=.05) and delayed (P<.02) refractive error correction groups and for the cataract surgery control group (P=.05). CONCLUSION: Vision-enhancing interventions did not lead to short-term improvements in physical functioning or cognitive status in this sample of elderly nursing home residents. [source]

    A Novel Interdisciplinary Analgesic Program Reduces Pain and Improves Function in Older Adults After Orthopedic Surgery

    R. Sean Morrison MD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of a multicomponent intervention on pain and function after orthopedic surgery. DESIGN: Controlled prospective propensity score,matched clinical trial. SETTING: New York City acute rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred forty-nine patients admitted to rehabilitation after hip fracture repair (n=51) or hip (n=64) or knee (n=134) arthroplasty. INTERVENTION: Pain assessment at rest and with physical therapy (PT) by staff using numeric rating scales (1 to 5). Physician protocols for standing analgesia and preemptive analgesia before PT were implemented on the intervention unit. Control unit patients received usual care. MEASUREMENTS: Pain, analgesic prescribing, gait speed, transfer time, and percentage of PT sessions completed during admission. Pain and difficulty walking at 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks after discharge. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses intervention patients were significantly more likely than controls to report no or mild pain at rest (66% vs 49%, P=.004) and with PT (52% vs 38%, P=.02) on average for the first 7 days of rehabilitation, had faster 8-foot-walk times on Days 4 (9.3 seconds vs 13.2 seconds, P=.02) and 7 (6.9 vs 9.2 seconds, P=.02), received more analgesia (23.6 vs 15.6 mg of morphine sulfate equivalents per day, P<.001), were more likely to receive standing orders for analgesia (98% vs 48%, P<.001), and had significantly shorter lengths of stay (10.1 vs 11.3 days, P=.005). At 6 months, intervention patients were less likely than controls to report moderate to severe pain with walking (4% vs 15%, P=.02) and that pain did not interfere with walking (7% vs 18%, P=.004) and were less likely to be taking analgesics (35% vs 51%, P=.03). CONCLUSION: The intervention improved postoperative pain, reduced chronic pain, and improved function. [source]

    Changes in Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Power but Not Physical Function Are Related to Testosterone Dose in Healthy Older Men

    Thomas W. Storer PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of graded doses of testosterone on physical function and muscle performance in healthy, older men. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: General clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling healthy men aged 60 to 75 (N=44). INTERVENTION: Monthly treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist plus 25, 50, 125, or 300 mg/wk of intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate for 20 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leg press strength was measured by one repetition maximum, leg power by Nottingham Leg Rig, and muscle fatigability by repetitions to failure in the leg press exercise. Stair climbing, 6-meter and 400-meter walking speed, and a timed-up-and-go (TUG) test were used to assess physical function. RESULTS: Significant testosterone dose- and concentration-dependent increases were observed in SMM (P<.001) and maximal strength (P=.001) but not muscle fatigability. Leg power also increased dose-dependently (P=.048). In contrast, changes in self-selected normal and fast walking speed over 6 or 400 meters, stair climbing power, and time for the TUG were not significantly related to testosterone dose, testosterone concentrations, or changes in muscle strength or power, or SMM. CONCLUSION: Testosterone administration was associated with dose-dependent increases in SMM, leg strength, and power but did not improve muscle fatigability or physical function. The observation that physical function scores did not improve linearly with strength suggests that these high-functioning older men were already in the asymptotic region of the curve describing the relationship between physical function and strength. [source]

    Effectiveness of a Falls-and-Fracture Nurse Coordinator to Reduce Falls: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of At-Risk Older Adults

    (See editorial comments by Dr. Mary Tinetti on pp 156, 1565)
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a community-based falls-and-fracture nurse coordinator and multifactorial intervention in reducing falls in older people. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Screening for previous falls in family practice followed by community-based intervention. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twelve community-living people aged 75 and older who had fallen in the previous year. INTERVENTION: Home-based nurse assessment of falls-and-fracture risk factors and home hazards, referral to appropriate community interventions, and strength and balance exercise program. Control group received usual care and social visits. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was rate of falls over 12 months. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength and balance, falls efficacy, activities of daily living, self-reported physical activity level, and quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Questionnaire). RESULTS: Of the 3,434 older adults screened for falls, 312 (9%) from 19 family practices were enrolled and randomized. The average age was 81±5, and 69% (215/312) were women. The incidence rate ratio for falls for the intervention group compared with the control group was 0.96 (95% confidence interval=0.70,1.34). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This nurse-led intervention was not effective in reducing falls in older people who had fallen previously. Implementation and adherence to the fall-prevention measures was dependent on referral to other health professionals working in their usual clinical practice. This may have limited the effectiveness of the interventions. [source]

    Prevention of Unintentional Weight Loss in Nursing Home Residents: A Controlled Trial of Feeding Assistance

    Sandra F. Simmons PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a feeding assistance intervention on food and fluid intake and body weight. DESIGN: Crossover controlled trial. SETTING: Four skilled nursing homes (NHs). PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-six long-stay NH residents at risk for unintentional weight loss. INTERVENTION: Research staff provided feeding assistance twice per day during or between meals, 5 days per week for 24 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Research staff independently weighed residents at baseline and monthly during a 24-week intervention and 24-week control period. Residents' food and fluid intake and the amount of staff time spent providing assistance to eat was assessed for 2 days at baseline and 3 and 6 months during each 24-week period. RESULTS: The intervention group showed a significant increase in estimated total daily caloric intake and maintained or gained weight, whereas the control group showed no change in estimated total daily caloric intake and lost weight over 24 weeks. The average amount of staff time required to provide the interventions was 42 minutes per person per meal and 13 minutes per person per between-meal snack, versus usual care, during which residents received, on average, 5 minutes of assistance per person per meal and less than 1 minute per person per snack. CONCLUSION: Two feeding assistance interventions are efficacious in promoting food and fluid intake and weight gain in residents at risk for weight loss. Both interventions require more staff time than usual NH care. The delivery of snacks between meals requires less time than mealtime assistance and thus may be more practical to implement in daily NH care practice. [source]

    Raising Adult Vaccination Rates over 4 Years Among Racially Diverse Patients at Inner-City Health Centers

    Mary Patricia Nowalk PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To increase adult immunizations at inner-city health centers serving primarily minority patients. DESIGN: A before,after trial with a concurrent control. SETTING: Five inner-city health centers. PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients at the health centers eligible for influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. INTERVENTION: Four intervention sites chose from a menu of culturally appropriate interventions based on the unique features of their respective health centers. MEASUREMENTS: Immunization and demographic data from medical records of a random sample of 568 patients aged 50 and older who had been patients at their health centers since 2000. RESULTS: The preintervention influenza vaccination rate of 27.1% increased to 48.9% (P<.001) in intervention sites in Year 4, whereas the concurrent control rate remained low (19.7%). The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) rate in subjects aged 65 and older increased from 48.3% to 81.3% (P<.001) in intervention sites in Year 4. Increase in PPV in the concurrent control was not significant. In logistic regression analysis, the likelihood of influenza vaccination was significantly associated with the intervention (odds ratio (OR)=2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.77,2.41) and with age of 65 and older (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.62,2.48) but not with race. Likelihood of receiving the pneumococcal vaccination was also associated with older age and, to a lesser degree, with intervention. CONCLUSION: Culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions selected by intervention sites resulted in increased adult vaccinations in disadvantaged, racially diverse, inner-city populations over 2 to 4 years. [source]

    Comparison of Effect of Aerobic Cycle Training and Progressive Resistance Training on Walking Ability After Stroke: A Randomized Sham Exercise,Controlled Study

    Mi-Joung Lee PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether changes in strength or cardiorespiratory fitness after exercise training improve walking ability in individuals who have had a stroke. DESIGN: A sham exercise-controlled, randomized two-by-two factorial design, in which the two factors investigated were cycle training (AEROBIC) and resistance training (STRENGTH). SETTING: University exercise laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two individuals with a history of stroke (aged 63±9; time since stroke, 57±54 months). INTERVENTION: Participants undertook 30 exercise sessions over 10 to 12 weeks. Depending on group allocation, individuals underwent aerobic cycling plus sham progressive resistance training (PRT) (n=13), sham cycling plus PRT (n=13), aerobic cycling plus PRT (n=14), or sham cycling plus sham PRT (n=12). MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcomes were 6-minute walk distance, habitual and fast gait velocities, and stair climbing power. Secondary outcomes included measures of cardiorespiratory fitness; muscle strength, power, and endurance; and psychosocial attributes. RESULTS: Neither AEROBIC nor STRENGTH improved walking distance or gait velocity significantly more than sham exercise, although STRENGTH significantly improved participants' stair climbing power by 17% (P=.009), as well as their muscle strength, power, and endurance; cycling peak power output; and self-efficacy. Conversely, AEROBIC improved indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness only. Cycling plus PRT produced larger effects than either single modality for mobility and impairment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Single-modality exercises targeted at existing impairments do not optimally address the functional deficits of walking but do ameliorate the underlying impairments. The underlying cardiovascular and musculoskeletal impairments are significantly modifiable years after stroke with targeted robust exercise. [source]

    Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Cognitive Effect, Safety, and Tolerability of Oral Extended-Release Oxybutynin in Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Urge Urinary Incontinence

    Thomas E. Lackner PharmD
    OBJECTIVES: Determine the cognitive effect, safety, and tolerability of oral extended-release oxybutynin in cognitively impaired older nursing home residents with urge urinary incontinence. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Twelve skilled nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty women aged 65 and older with urge incontinence and cognitive impairment. INTERVENTION: Four-week treatment with once-daily oral extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Withdrawal rates and delirium or change in cognition from baseline at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after starting treatment using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Severe Impairment Battery (SIB). The Brief Agitation Rating Scale, adverse events, falls incidence, and serum anticholinergic activity change with treatment were also assessed. RESULTS: Participants' mean age ±standard deviation was 88.6±6.2, and MMSE baseline score was 14.5±4.3. Ninety-six percent of subjects receiving oxybutynin (n=26) and 92% receiving placebo (n=24) completed treatment (P=.50). The differences in mean change in CAM score from baseline to all time points were equivalent between the oxybutynin and placebo groups. Delirium did not occur in either group. One participant receiving oxybutynin was withdrawn because of urinary retention, which resolved without treatment. Mild adverse events occurred in 38.5% of participants receiving oxybutynin and 37.5% receiving placebo (P=.94). CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment using oral extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg once daily was safe and well tolerated, with no delirium, in older female nursing home participants with mild to severe dementia. Future research should investigate different dosages and long-term treatment. [source]

    Effectiveness of Falls Clinics: An Evaluation of Outcomes and Client Adherence to Recommended Interventions

    Keith D. Hill PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes associated with falls clinic programs. DESIGN: Longitudinal. SETTING: Thirteen outpatient falls clinics in Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fifty-four people referred for clinic assessment (mean age±standard deviation 77.9±8.8; 73% female). INTERVENTION: After assessment, multifactorial interventions were organized to address identified risk factors. MEASUREMENTS: A Minimum Data Set was developed and used across all clinics to derive common data on falls, falls injuries, and secondary measures associated with falls risk, including balance, falls efficacy, gait, leg strength, function, and activity. All measures were repeated 6 months later. RESULTS: Clients had a high risk of falls, with 78% having had falls in the preceding 6 months (63% multiple fallers, 10% experiencing fractures from the falls). An average of 7.6±2.8 falls risk factors were identified per client. The clinic team organized an average of 5.7±2.3 new or additional interventions per client. Sixty-one percent of eligible clients returned for the 6-month assessment. At this time, there was more than a 50% reduction in falls, multiple falls, and fall injuries (P,.004) and small but significant improvements evident on secondary measures of balance, leg strength, gait speed, and confidence outcomes (P<.006). Average adherence to recommendations was 74.3%. Factors associated with higher adherence included being male, younger than 65, living with others, and having a caregiver (P<.05). CONCLUSION: This large multicenter study identified high falls risk of older people referred to falls clinics, the multifactorial nature of their presenting problems and provides preliminary evidence of positive outcomes after falls clinic management. [source]

    Effects of a Home Visiting Program for Older People with Poor Health Status: A Randomized, Clinical Trial in the Netherlands

    (See editorial comments by Drs. Andreas Stuck, Robert Kane, pp 56
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a home visiting program on health-related measures in a population of older people with poor health status. DESIGN: Randomized, clinical trial. SETTING: Community-dwelling citizens in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred thirty people aged 70 to 84 randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=160) or a control group (n=170). INTERVENTION: Eight home visits, lasting 1 hour or more, with telephone follow-up, over an 18-month period, conducted by experienced home nurses under supervision of a public health nurse; key elements of the (systematic) visits were assessment of health problems and risks, advice, and referral to professional and community services. MEASUREMENTS: Self-rated health, functional status, quality of life, and changes in self-reported problems. RESULTS: No differences were found between the intervention and control group in these and other outcome measures at the end of the intervention period (18 months). CONCLUSION: The home visiting program did not appear to have any effect on the health status of older people with poor health and are probably not beneficial for such persons. [source]

    Flu: Effect of Vaccine in Elderly Care Home Residents: A Randomized Trial

    Fiona Gaughran MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether assessing seroprotection after influenza vaccine and administering booster vaccination where not achieved reduces hospitalization and death. To estimate the overall seroprotection rate of influenza vaccine. DESIGN: A two-arm, partially blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group, controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-six care homes in three South London boroughs in fall 2004. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seventy-seven elderly permanent care home residents meeting eligibility criteria. INTERVENTION: Postvaccination blood samples were randomized to booster evaluation or no booster evaluation (control). If evaluation revealed inadequate seroprotection, a booster vaccine was administered. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was hospitalization to end April 2005; secondary outcomes were death, antibiotic use, and seroprotection. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the controls and 41% of the booster evaluation group responded to routine vaccination. Booster vaccination where indicated increased seroprotection rates in the booster evaluation group to 66%. Treatment groups did not differ in any outcome measures in the intention-to-treat analysis (hospitalization odds ratio=1.02, 95% confidence interval=0.55,1.87). There was a tendency towards greater differences between groups in the per-protocol analysis than in the intention-to-treat analysis, particularly regarding seroprotection rates. The same effect was observed in the a priori exploratory analysis of residents not seroprotected after routine vaccination alone. CONCLUSION: In a year without circulating influenza, there is no clinical benefit of administering a booster vaccine if routine trivalent vaccination fails to result in seroprotection. Hemagglutination titers rose in two strains postbooster vaccination but fell against the novel strain, Wyoming. The benefit of such a booster strategy when influenza is prevalent thus remains unc ertain. [source]